Project description:There is evidence indicating the involvement of DNA methylation memory in maintaining gene expression patterns associated with insulin resistance. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it has been proved that insulin resistance is correlated to low heat shock protein (HSP) expression. We reveal that intranuclear insulin can reduce HSP DNA methylation level to up-regulate HSP protein expression and result in long term cure of hyperglycemia. Insulin resistance HepG2 cell were selected in our experiments.Two conditions were compared with three replicates each. These are:(1) Insulin resistance HepG2(R-HepG2) and (2) Biomineralized insulin treated HepG2 (BI).
Project description:There is evidence indicating the involvement of DNA methylation memory in maintaining gene expression patterns associated with insulin resistance. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it has been proved that insulin resistance is correlated to low heat shock protein (HSP) expression. We reveal that intranuclear insulin can reduce HSP DNA methylation level to up-regulate HSP protein expression and result in long term cure of hyperglycemia. Insulin resistance HepG2 cell were selected in our experiments.Three conditions were compared with three replicates each. These are:(1) Insulin resistance HepG2(R-HepG2) (2) Insulin treated HepG2(Insulin); (3) Biomineralized insulin treated HepG2 (BI).
Project description:Biological effects of overexpression of miR-146b microRNAs in the A549 human lung cancer cell-line was studied. A549 cells were engineered to express the precursor RNA (pre-miR-146b) that generates the miR-146b microRNAs. Control cells were engineered using the same gene expression plasmid (pLemiR, Open Biosystems®) but without the pre-miR-146b insert. The Trans-Lentiviral GIPZ™ packaging system (Open Biosystems®) was used to generate stable transfectant populations of the engineered cells. Gene expression was compared between A549 stable transfectants of empty pLemiR plasmid (A549/vec cells) or of the pLemiR plasmid containing an insert for overexpressing human pre-miR-146b (A549/146b cells). Two different cell cultures were used for each cell-line (for biological replicates).
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in world wide. During tumorigenesis, tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes are commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in their promoter regions. Zebularine [1-(β-ᴅ-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one] acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation and exhibits chemical stability and minimal cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explore the effect and possible mechanism of action of zebularine on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Here, we demonstrated that zebularine exhibited antitumor activity on HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Zebularine treatment down-regulated CDK2 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (RB), and up-regulated p21WAF/CIP1 and p53. We also found that zebularine treatment up-regulated phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK. These results suggest that p44/42 MAPK pathway play a role in zebularine induced cell cycle arrest by regulating activity of p21WAF/CIP1 and Rb. Furthermore, we found that zebularine induced apoptosis. Although proapoptotic protein Bax levels were not affected, antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 level was down-regulated with zebularine treatment. The data in the present study suggest that the action of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is involved in inducing apoptosis with zebularine. These results provide a novel mechanism of zebularine-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Three each independent batches of zebuluarine-treated and control HepG2 cells were subjected to illumina Human methylation 450K Beadchip analysis.
Project description:Background: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is a new causative agent of chronic hepatitis in solid organ transplant recipients in Europe. Factors associated with the occurrence and persistence of chronic HEV infection remain largely unknown but chronic evolution seems to be the consequence of host’s immunological factors rather than of viral factors. Method: In a prospective case-control study, we have determined in whole blood of chronically HEV-infected kidney-transplant recipients the host response using microarray technology. Results: Chronically HEV-infected kidney-transplant recipients exhibited a specific transcriptional program, in which interferon effectors were prominent. The intensity of expression of each signature’s gene was significantly lower in patients who were subsequently cleared of HEV than in patients who were not. Furthermore, in patients who were cleared of HEV, a higher expression of these genes was associated with a longer delay until HEV clearance. Conclusions: The specific transcriptional program determined in chronically HEV-infected kidney-transplant recipients suggests an activation of type I interferon response. Intensity of interferon-stimulated genes expression could be useful to forecast the outcome of infection. High expression of interferon-stimulated genes could signify a dysregulation in the interferon response that might favour the persistence of the HEV infection. Trial’s registration number: NCT01090232; Registry’s URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01090232?term=kidney+transplant+recipients&cntry1=EU%3AFR&rank=2 Total RNA was extracted from whole-blood sample or monocytes of kidney-transplant patients with or without chronic hepatitis E (CHE) infection. Control patients were matched up with CHE patients for age, sex, time since kidney transplant and immunosuppressive treatment.
Project description:There is evidence indicating the involvement of DNA methylation memory in maintaining gene expression patterns associated with insulin resistance. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it has been proved that insulin resistance is correlated to low heat shock protein (HSP) expression. We reveal that intranuclear insulin can reduce HSP DNA methylation level to up-regulate HSP protein expression and result in long term cure of hyperglycemia. Overall design: Insulin resistance HepG2 cell were selected in our experiments.Two conditions were compared with three replicates each. These are:(1) Insulin resistance HepG2(R-HepG2) and (2) Biomineralized insulin treated HepG2 (BI).
Project description:The differentiation and subsequent development of plant tissues or organs are tightly regulated at multiple levels, including the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Transcriptomes define many of the tissue-specific gene expression patterns in maize, and some key genes and their regulatory networks have been established at the transcriptional level. In this study, the sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry technique was employed as a quantitative proteome assay of four representative maize tissues, and a set of high confidence proteins were identified. Integrated analysis of the proteome and transcriptome revealed that protein abundance was positively correlated with mRNA level with weak to moderate correlation coefficients, but the abundance of key proteins for function or architecture in a given tissue was closely tempo-spatially regulated at the transcription level. A subset of differentially expressed proteins, specifically tissue-specific proteins, were identified, e.g., reproductive structure and flower development-related proteins in tassel and ear, lipid and fatty acid biosynthetic process-related proteins in immature embryo, and inorganic substance and oxidation reduction responsive proteins in root, potentially revealing the physiology, morphology and function of each tissue. Furthermore, we found many new proteins in specific tissues that were highly correlated with their mRNA levels, in addition to known key factors. These proteome data provide new perspective for understanding many aspects of maize developmental biology.
Project description:The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is often commercially used as a source of non-alcoholic beverages and is an economically important woody crop (Chen et al., 2007). As living standards have improved, the requirement for high-quality life has increased in modern society. ‘Anji Baicha’ (alias ‘Baiye 1’ or ‘White Leaf 1’) is an excellent tea cultivar with albino phenotype and it is popular in producing high-quality green tea. The traits of ‘Anji Baicha’ are as follows. Young ‘Anji Baicha’ shoots are yellow-green when the early spring temperature is below 20°C. As the leaves fully expand, the leaves become white. The leaves gradually return to green when the environmental temperature increases (Cheng et al., 1999; Li et al., 2002, 2011). Previous reports have suggested a positive correlation between amino acid concentration and albinism as well as a negative correlation between tea polyphenols and albinism (Li et al., 1996; Du et al., 2006; Xiong et al., 2013). Therefore, the quality of ‘Anji Baicha’ is much higher when new shoots become albino due to their rich amino acid content and modest tea polyphenol content. Plants adjust their metabolism in response to environmental stimuli to eventually bring about changes in protein activities and levels, and this adaptive process includes posttranslational protein modifications (PTMs) (Prabakaran et al., 2012). PTMs have been reported to regulate various processes, including DNA interaction, protein-protein interactions, enzyme activation and protein stability. Among the hundreds of different PTMs, lysine acetylation is an abundant, reversible and highly regulated PTM (Zhang et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2011).
Project description:How organ-specific metastatic traits accumulate in primary tumors remains unknown. We identified a role of the primary tumor stroma in selecting breast cancer cells that are primed for metastasis in the bone. A fibroblast-rich stroma in breast tumors creates a microenvironment that is similar to that of bone metastases in its abundance of the cytokines CXCL12 and IGF1. Heterogeneous breast cancer cell populations growing in such mesenchymal environment evolve towards a preponderance of clones that thrive on CXCL12 and IGF1. Fibroblast-driven selection of bone metastatic clones in mammary tumors is suppressed by CXCL12 and IGF1 receptor inhibition. Thus, a fibroblast-rich stroma in breast tumors can pre-select bone metastatic seeds, promoting the evolution of metastatic traits and the interplay between a primary tumor and its distant metastases. Affymetrix U133 Plus2 arrays were hybridized according to the manufacturer's procedure using RNA extracted from 47 primary breast tumors. Specific gene sets were evaluated in this cohort.
Project description:Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is a major enzyme responsible for insulin degradation in the liver. The modulation of insulin degrading enzyme activity is hypothesized to be a link between T2DM and liver cancer. Results provide insight into role of IDE in proliferation and other cell functions. HepG2 cells were transfected with 96nM siRNA for IDE or AllStars Negative Control siRNA (Qiagen) using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen). 16 h after transfection, cells were treated with 10 nM insulin (Sigma Aldrich) or vehicle for 24 h in serum starvation condition. Total RNA was extracted. For each of the 4 conditions, 3 biological replicates were included.