ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that miRNAs in the bone maroow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC)-derived exosomes contributed to the phenotype change of breast cancer cells through exosome transfer. We analyzed the miRNA expression signature in BM-MSC-derived exosomes. We compared the miRNA expression levels in exosomes between BM-MSCs and adult fibroblasts (as a control). In this study, miRNA expression including in bone-marrow mesenchymal cell (BM-MSC)-derived exosomes was examined, and compared with that of exosomes derived from adult fibroblast cells or the BM-MSC cells. In addition, miRNA expression of BM-MSC exosomes was also compared with that of breast cancer cells with or without cancer stem cell marker.
Project description:Comprehensive gene expression analysis in BM-resident stromal cells was performed for an overview of BM environmental change caused by total body irradiation (TBI). Total RNA samples collected from BM-resident stromal cells with or without TBI were subjected to high sensitivity DNA microarray assays Three-condition experiment: Unirradiated, 1 day after TBI and 3 days after TBI. Bone marrow stromal cells were obtained from C57BL/6 mice (n = 6) either non-irradiated or after 9.5 Gy irradiation at indicated times.
Project description:We established xenografts and organoids derived from human cholangiocarcinoma. To investigate the signature of cancer stem cells, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in cholangiocarcinoma xenografts and organoids (passage 7). Microarray analyses were conducted in cholangiocarcioma xenografts and organoids (passage 7).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Radiotherapy to cancer patients is inevitably accompanied by normal tissue injury, and the bone is one of the most commonly damaged tissues. Damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) induced by radiation is thought to be a major cause of radiation-induced bone loss. Exosomes exhibit great therapeutic potential in the treatment of osteoporosis, but whether exosomes are involved in radiation-induced bone loss has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of exosomes derived from BM-MSCs in restoring recipient BM-MSC function and alleviating radiation-induced bone loss. METHODS:BM-MSC-derived exosomes were intravenously injected to rats immediately after irradiation. After 28?days, the left tibiae were harvested for micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis. The effects of exosomes on antioxidant capacity, DNA damage repair, proliferation, and cell senescence of recipient BM-MSCs were determined. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation assays were used to detect the effects of exosomes on the differentiation potential of recipient BM-MSCs, and related genes were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. ?-Catenin expression was detected at histological and cytological levels. RESULTS:BM-MSC-derived exosomes can attenuate radiation-induced bone loss in a rat model that is similar to mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Exosome-treated BM-MSCs exhibit reduced oxidative stress, accelerated DNA damage repair, and reduced proliferation inhibition and cell senescence-associate protein expression compared with BM-MSCs that exclusively received irradiation. Following irradiation, exosomes promote ?-catenin expression in BM-MSCs and restore the balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that BM-MSC-derived exosomes take effects by restoring the function of recipient BM-MSCs. Therefore, exosomes may represent a promising cell-free therapeutic approach for the treatment of radiation-induced bone loss.
Project description:BM mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) support multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth, but little is known about the putative mechanisms by which the BM microenvironment plays an oncogenic role in this disease. Cell-cell communication is mediated by exosomes. In this study, we showed that MM BM-MSCs release exosomes that are transferred to MM cells, thereby resulting in modulation of tumor growth in vivo. Exosomal microRNA (miR) content differed between MM and normal BM-MSCs, with a lower content of the tumor suppressor miR-15a. In addition, MM BM-MSC-derived exosomes had higher levels of oncogenic proteins, cytokines, and adhesion molecules compared with exosomes from the cells of origin. Importantly, whereas MM BM-MSC-derived exosomes promoted MM tumor growth, normal BM-MSC exosomes inhibited the growth of MM cells. In summary, these in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that exosome transfer from BM-MSCs to clonal plasma cells represents a previously undescribed and unique mechanism that highlights the contribution of BM-MSCs to MM disease progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are progenitor cells shown to migrate to the tumour and participate in the tumour microenvironment. BM-MSCs play important roles in tumour processes through the release of cytokines or exosomes; however, how BM-MSCs influence the stemness of CSCs in colon cancer cells remains poorly understood. METHODS:We isolated exosomes from BM-MSCs and used these exosomes to treat colon cancer cells (HCT-116, HT-29 and SW-480). We compared stemness traits of colon CSCs by cell surface marker (CD133 and Lgr5) and functional assays, such as chemoresistance, colony formation, cell adhesion, invasion and tumour-formation assay. We performed a microRNA array to investigate the differences in exosomal microRNA expression between colon cancer cells, BM-MSCs and co-cultured cells and performed functional and molecular analysis of the gene targets. RESULTS:In this study, we found that BM-MSC-derived exosomes contained distinct microRNAs, including miR-142-3p, which in turn increased the population of CSCs in colon cancer cells. Depriving miR-142-3p from BM-MSC-derived exosomes clearly decreased the population of colon CSCs. Mechanistically, Numb was found to be the target gene of miR-142-3p, and miR-142-3p promoted the Notch signalling pathway by downregulating Numb. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that BM-MSC-derived exosomes promote colon cancer stem cell-like traits via miR-142-3p.
Project description:Bone marrow (BM) niches provide an optimal substrate for multiple myeloma (MM) cell lodgement and growth. Nevertheless, little is known about the putative mechanisms by which the BM microenvironment can lead to initiation or progression of oncogenesis in this disease. We have demonstrated that BM mesenchymal stromal cell-derived exosomes transfer their miRNA and protein content to clonal plasma cells, thus acting as synaptic vesicles responsible for molding the microenvironment surrounding multiple myeloma (MM) cells, leading to MM growth, dissemination and, therefore, disease progression. We used microarray to detail the changes in microRNA expression in MM-BM mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived exosomes, compared to normal- and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance- BM-MSC-derived exosomes. Exosomes have been isolated from cell culture supernatant of BM-MSCs (MM=7; MGUS=2; Normal=4), and subsequently evaluated at ultrastructural level by using electron microscopy and immunogolf labeling. RNA was extracted; and miRNA profiling has been assessed by using TaqMan human miRNA profiling. Mean miRNA expression value has been used for miRNA RT-qPCR data normalization, as described (Mestdagh et al., 2009).
Project description:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) has been applied as the most valuable source of autologous cell transplantation for various diseases including diabetic complications. However, hyperglycemia may cause abnormalities in intrinsic BM-MSC which might lose sufficient therapeutic effects in diabetic patients. We demonstrated the functional abnormalities in BM-MSC derived from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes models in vitro, which resulted in loss of therapeutic effects in vivo in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Then, we developed a novel method to improve abnormalities in BM-MSC using human umbilical cord extracts, namely Wharton's jelly extract supernatant (WJs). WJs is a cocktail of growth factors, extracellular matrixes and exosomes, which ameliorates proliferative capacity, motility, mitochondrial degeneration, endoplasmic reticular functions and exosome secretions in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes-derived BM-MSC (DM-MSC). Exosomes contained in WJs were a key factor for this activation, which exerted similar effects to complete WJs. DM-MSC activated by WJs ameliorated renal injury in both type 1 and type 2 DN. In this study, we developed a novel activating method using WJs to significantly increase the therapeutic effect of BM-MSC, which may allow effective autologous cell transplantation.
Project description:The change of mRNA expression in murine immortalized podocyte were analyzed after miR-26a silencing. These results provide a basical information of molecular pathology in podocyte biology. Mouse podocytes immortalized by temperature sensitive SV40 were used. Podocyte cultures grown at 33 °C were trypsinized and then cultured with RPMI-1640 without antibiotics in 24-well plates at 60–70% confluence for 2 days. On day 3, an anti-miR negative control (40 pmol) or the miR-26a miRNA inhibitor (40 pmol) was transfected to podocytes. The cells were analyzed after culturing for 24 hour.
Project description:miRNA expression profiling between GIST and leiomyoma specimens taken by Tunneling Bloc Biopsy Nine GIST patients and seven gastric leiomyoma patients underwent endoscopic biopsy called Tunnel Block Biopsy. MiRNAs were extracted from the tissues, then.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) can be differentiated into lung epithelial-like cells (MSC-EC) in vitro. The response of BM-MSC and MSC-EC to stimuli may vary because of their character and differentiation. We aimed to investigate the factors that may influence in vitro differentiation of BM-MSC to MSC-EC. We determined the response of BM-MSC, MSC-EC, bronchial epithelial cells, and alveolar epithelial cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation. We also investigated the changes in micro(mi)RNA-146a, miRNA-155, and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) expression after stimulation. Our results demonstrate that the addition of transforming growth factor-β(1) and extracellular matrix collagen are required to facilitate such differentiation. After 3 weeks of culture, the morphological appearance and expression of airway epithelial markers, cytokeratin and Clara cell secretory protein, in MSC-EC were characteristics of lung epithelial cells. In response to TNF-α stimulation, the maximal interleukin (IL)-8 production by BM-MSC at the 24-h time point was 4.8 times greater compared with MSC-EC. TNF-α induced a significant increase in the expression of miRNA-146a in BM-MSC as compared with MSC-EC. miRNA-155 expression remained unchanged after stimulation. TNFR1 mRNA also significantly increased in BM-MSC after TNF-α stimulation. This was not observed in MSC-EC. Transfection with miRNA-146a mimics resulted in a significant increase of miRNA-146a expression and IL-8 production in both types of cells. In contrast, miRNA-146a inhibitors reduced miRNA-146a expression and IL-8 production. Overexpression of miRNA-146a, which positively regulates TNF-α-induced IL-8 release, may enhance the inflammatory response in both BM-MSC and MSC-EC. The expression of miRNA-146a and the response to stimuli may be modulated through mature differentiation of BM-MSC.