The transcriptomic responses of THP1 human monocyte-like cells expressing SP110b to interferon gamma stimulation
ABSTRACT: SP110b is an interferon (IFN)-induced nuclear protein and may function as a transcriptional co-activator/repressor. IFNγ activates monocytes/macrophages thereby mediating inflammation. However, uncontrolled activation induces monocyte/macrophage cell death, which may cause immunopathology. We have demonstrated that SP110b expression prevented IFNγ-mediated monocyte/macrophage cell death. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which SP110b suppresses IFNγ-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis to identify genetic determinants associated with IFNγ-induced cell death and regulated by SP110b. We sought to identify genetic determinants associated with IFNγ-induced cell death and regulated by SP110b. To that end, THP1 human monocyte-like cells that could be induced by doxycycline (Dox) to over-express SP110b (THP1-SP110b) were generated and 5 experimental groups of THP1-SP110b cells were harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. The 5 groups are as follows: untreated THP1-SP110b cells as control (CON), cells treated with IFNγ for 2 days (IFN_2D), cells treated with Dox plus IFNγ for 2 days (DoxIFN_2D), cells treated with IFNγ for 4 days (IFN_4D), and cells treated with Dox plus IFNγ for 4 days (DoxIFN_4D).
Project description:SP110b is an interferon (IFN)-induced nuclear protein and may function as a transcriptional co-activator/repressor. IFNγ activates monocytes/macrophages thereby mediating inflammation. However, uncontrolled activation induces monocyte/macrophage cell death, which may cause immunopathology. We have demonstrated that SP110b expression prevented IFNγ-mediated monocyte/macrophage cell death. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which SP110b suppresses IFNγ-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis to identify genetic determinants associated with IFNγ-induced cell death and regulated by SP110b. Overall design: We sought to identify genetic determinants associated with IFNγ-induced cell death and regulated by SP110b. To that end, THP1 human monocyte-like cells that could be induced by doxycycline (Dox) to over-express SP110b (THP1-SP110b) were generated and 5 experimental groups of THP1-SP110b cells were harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. The 5 groups are as follows: untreated THP1-SP110b cells as control (CON), cells treated with IFNγ for 2 days (IFN_2D), cells treated with Dox plus IFNγ for 2 days (DoxIFN_2D), cells treated with IFNγ for 4 days (IFN_4D), and cells treated with Dox plus IFNγ for 4 days (DoxIFN_4D).
Project description:Episodic Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreaks, such as the current one in West Africa, emphasize the critical need for novel antivirals against this highly pathogenic virus. Here, we demonstrate that interferon gamma (IFNγ) prevents morbidity and mortality associated with EBOV infection when administered to mice either 24 hours prior to or 2 hours following EBOV infection. Microarray studies with IFNγ-stimulated human macrophages identified novel interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that inhibit EBOV infection upon ectopic expression. IFNγ treatment reduced viral RNA levels in macrophages to a similar degree as cells treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that IFNγ treatment inhibits genome replication. As IFNγ treatment robustly protects mice against EBOV infection, we propose that this FDA-approved drug may serve as a useful prophylactic or therapeutic strategy during EBOV outbreaks, contributing to the currently limited arsenal of filovirus antivirals. Overall design: Total RNA was isolated from monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from healthy individuals differentiated in the presence of 50 ng/mL of M-CSF for 6 days and then treated with or without 20 ng/mL of IFNg for 24 hours.
Project description:Osteoblasts represent an important cell type playing a role in not only bone formation but also regulate hematopoiesis by secreting factor as well as via contact with hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Since Wnt signalling plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation, we were interested in looking at how canonical Wnt signalling activation in osteoblastic cells is likely to affect hematopoietic cell adhesion and regulate their fate. Endogenous Wnt signaling activation in osteoblastic SaOS2 cells was achieved by generating doxycycline (DOX) inducible antisense-APC expressing SaOS2 cells. Gene expression profiling was performed on SaOS2 cells induced with DOX (1μg/ml) for 3 days and further on DOX treated cells allowed to recover for 3 days. The results reveal changes in expression of a number of cell adhesion and extracellular matrix protein genes as well as genes involved in osteoblast differentiation. Doxycycline inducible antisense APC expressing SaOS2 cells were treated with DOX for 3 days and compared with control (untreated) cells. In addition, a set of DOX induced cells was further cultured for 3 days in absence of Dox to allow for the cells to recover and see the change in gene expression compared to Dox treated and control cells. All experiments were done in triplicates (in total 9 samples).
Project description:Purpose: Aim of the study is to identify functional differences between the P1 and P2-HNF4α isoforms. To do this, we generated Tet-On inducible lines that express either the human (P1) HNF4α2 or (P2) HNF4α8 under control of DOX in the HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Methods: HNF4α2 and Parental lines were induced with 0.3 μg/mL DOX, while HNF4α8 line was induced with either 0.1 or 0.3 μg/mL DOX for 24 hours. Samples were generated by deep sequencing, using the Illumina TruSeq RNA. Result: There were common and unique dysregulated genes identified in the HNF4α2 and HNF4α8 lines (+DOX); more upregulated genes than downregulated genes in both the lines. Conclusion: The functional difference between HNF4α2 and HNF4α8 is that the latter tends to upregulate genes involved in proliferation and anti-apoptosis while HNF4α2 upregulates genes involved in growth suppression and cell death. Tet-On inducible HCT116 cell (Parental, HNF4α2, and HNF4α8) lines, treated with (0.0, 0.1, or 0.3 μg/mL) DOX for 24 hours, were 50bp pair-ended sequenced in triplicate using Illumina TruSeq RNA Sample Prep v2 Kit.
Project description:ROR-alpha is a nuclear receptor, activity of which can be modulated by natural or synthetic ligands including cholesterol. Due to its possible involvement in, and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, we aimed to identify ROR-alpha target genes in monocyte and endothelial cell lines, THP1 and HUVEC, respectively. ChIP-on-chip analysis of ROR-alpha demonstrated that ROR-alpha may target more than 3000 genes in monocytic and endothelial cells. Overall design: Comparison of DNA immunoprecipated with anti-ROR-alpha antibody vs DNA immunoprecipated with anti-IgG antibody from CGP52608 treated cells.
Project description:Microvesicles (MV) are small membrane-bound particles comprised of exosomes and various sized extracellular vesicles. These are released by a number of cell types. Microvesicles have a variety of cellular functions from communication to mediating growth and differentiation. Microvesicles contain proteins and nucleic acids. Previously, we showed that plasma microvesicles contain microRNAs (miRNAs). Based on our previous report, the majority of peripheral blood microvesicles are derived from platelets while mononuclear phagocytes, including macrophages, are the second most abundant population. Here, we characterized macrophage-derived microvesicles and whether they influenced the differentiation of naïve monocytes. We also identified the miRNA content of the macrophage-derived microvesicles. We found that RNA molecules contained in the macrophage-derived microvesicles were transported to target cells, including monocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we found that miR-223 was transported to target cells and was functionally active. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that microvesicles bind to and activate target cells. Furthermore, we find that microvesicles induce the differentiation of macrophages. Thus, defining key components of this response may identify novel targets to regulate host defense and inflammation. We used GeneChip microarrays to examine changes in gene expression induced by MV in primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and in THP1 cells, and compare this to cells treated with GM-CSF and PMA, respectively. All experiments were done in triplicates. Primary monocytes were collected from buffy coats (BC). The freshly isolated monocytes from three donors (Mono1-3) were either treated with GM-CSF or subjected to RNA isolation. Following treatment, MVs were isolated from the GM-CSF-treated macrophage cultures. RNA was isolated from the remaining cells for profiling (GM1-3). The isolated MVs were then used to treat new BC monocytes for 24 h (BC-GMCSF-MV24). A fraction of the new BC monocytes was subjected to RNA extraction for profiling (BC1-3). For THP1 cells, they were treated with either DMSO or PMA to produce MVs. The MVs were collected and the remaining cells lyzed for RNA extraction and profiling (DMSO1-3 and PMA1-3). The collected MVs from the DMSO or PMA-treated THP1 cells were incubated with new THP1 for 24 h and designated DMSO-MV24 or PMA-MV24. We had a total of 24 samples.
Project description:Analysis of resveratrol-treated cells at gene expression level. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that resveratrol can improve Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) treatment. Results provide important information of the host response to Mtb infection when given resveratrol, such as resveratrol-mediated modulation of inflammatory pathways induced upon infection. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from Mtb-infected THP1 cells subjected to resveratrol treatment or not, and compared to uninfected THP1 cells over 24 hours.
Project description:Glucocorticoids (GCs) and topoisomerase II inhibitors are used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) due to their ability to induce cell death in lymphoid cells. GC-induced apoptosis is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), whereas topoisomerase II inhibitors cause DNA damage and activate sensors of DNA damage including the tumour suppressor p53. In order to shed light on the role of the microenvironment in cell death and identify determinants of drug sensitivity we performed transcriptomic analysis in ALL cells treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide combined with bone marrow-derived conditioned media (CM).
Project description:Certain anticancer drugs, particularly cyclophosphamide (CTX), were shown to enhance the antitumor efficacy of immunotherapy through different immunomodulatory mechanisms. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of CTX-mediated immunomodulation is needed to improve the efficacy of chemoimmunotherapy. Transcript profiling and flow cytometry were used to explore CTX immune-enhancing activity in patients with hematologic malignancies. A single high-dose treatment quickly (1-2 days) induced an extensive transcriptional modulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, leading to the reduction of cell cycle and biosynthetic/metabolic processes and to the augmentation of transcripts related to DNA damage and cell death (p53 signaling pathway, CDKN1A, CCND3, BAX, BBC3, BID, DDB2, SESN2), of scavenger receptors involved in the recognition of death (MARCO, CD68, CD163L1, SCARB2), of antigen processing/presentation mediators (CIITA, CTSC, CTSL1, CTSZ, GLA, GAA, TPP1, NEU1, SLC11A1, LAMP-2), of T cell activation markers (CD69, OX40) and, noticeably, of a type I interferon (IFN-I) signature (OAS1, CXCL10, BAFF, IFITM2, IFI6, IRF5, IRF7, STAT2, UBE2L6, UNC93B1, ISG20L1, TYK2). Moreover, the plasma levels of IFN-I-induced proinflammatory mediators (CXCL10, CCL2, IL-8, BAFF) were increased by treatment. Accordingly, CTX preconditioning induced both monocyte and lymphocyte activation, leading to the expansion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, of HLA-DR+, IL8RA+, MARCO+ monocytes/dendritic cells and of CD69+, OX40+, IL8RA+ lymphocytes. Altogether, these data define for the first time the immunomodulatory factors induced by CTX in humans and indicate that preconditioning chemotherapy may stimulate immunity as a consequence of danger perception associated to its cytotoxic action on blood cells, through p53 and IFN-I-related mechanisms. Four-condition experiment, Untreated (10 Biological replicates) - Cyclophosphamide-treated 1 day (10 Biological replicates) - Cyclophosphamide-treated 2 days (8 Biological replicates) - Cyclophosphamide-treated 5 days (5 Biological replicates). Each sample labeled with Cy5 and co-hybridized with Cy3-labeled “reference” aRNA. One replicate per array.
Project description:Purpose: In the early phases of T1D development exposure of β-cells to IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα is thought to induce β-cell dysfunction and the expression of chemokines and cytokines. These changes are mediated in part by post-translational histone modifications within cis-regulatory regions. The purpose of this study was to determine if prevention of these epigenetic changes can alter cytokine induced gene expression changes. Methods: Pancreatic islets were isolated from both male and female CD1 mice by collagenase digestion and were picked by hand. Hand-picked islets were cultured for four days with 1.6ng/ml IFNγ, 0.25ng/ml IL-1β and 0.16ng/ml TNFα (cytokine) or were left untreated (nocytokine). For RNA-seq islets were collected and processed for NGS using the Illumina TruSeq library prep kit. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed using 3μg of anti-H3K4me1 (Abcam) with islets from at least 10 adult ICR mice (8-10 weeks old) exposed to 1.6ng/ml IFNγ, 0.25ng/ml Il-1β and 0.16ng/ml TNFα for four days. DNA from 4 separate ChIP experiments was pooled for library construction and sequencing using the Illumina platform. Results: Comparison of gene expression levels between untreated and cytokine-treated islets resulted in the identification of 205 genes that showed an IFNγ, Il-1β, and TNFα-induced chromatin state change (from repressed or inactive to H3K4me1 enriched, i.e. the de novo regions), or increased H3K4me1 enrichment, that were associated with genes with up-regulated expression in response to IFNγ, Il-1β, and TNFα, and 111 genes with reduced H3K4me1 and down-regulated expression in response to IFNγ, Il-1β, and TNFα. Conclusions: Our study confirms that exposure of islets to pro-inflammatory cytokines induces the expression of chemokines and that these changes are the result of a switch from an inactive to an active chromatin state. Further we show that disruption of the trithorax group complex inhibits the upregulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression. Overall design: Isolated islets were cultured with or without IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα for four days and processed for RNA- and ChIP-seq.