Project description:IL-23 negatively regulates St2 and Gata3 expression in intestinal CD4+ T cells Colitis was induced by co-transfer of WT and Il23r-/- naïve CD4 T cells into Rag1-/- recipients. Upon development of clinical signs of inflammation WT and Il23r-/- CD4+ T cells were sort-purified from the colon lamina propria on the basis of congenic markers. Total RNA was extracted immediately after the sort without further manipulation.
Project description:The colonic lamina propria contains a distinct population of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) that modulate responses to commensal microbes. Analysis of gene expression revealed that the transcriptome of colonic Tregs is distinct from splenic and other tissue Tregs. Rorγ and Helios in colonic Tregs mark distinct populations: Rorγ+Helios- or Rorγ-Helios+ Tregs. We uncovered an unanticipated role for Rorγ, a transcription factor generally considered to be antagonistic to Foxp3. Rorγ in colonic Tregs accounts for a small but specific part of the colon-specific Treg signature. (1) Total colonic and splenic Foxp3+ Treg comparison: Lymphocytes were isolated from colonic lamina propria and spleens of Foxp3-ires-GFP mice, where GFP reports Foxp3 expression. TCRb+CD4+GFP+ cells were double sorted into Trizol. (2) Colonic Rorγ+ and Rorγ- Treg comparison: Foxp3-ires-Thy1.1 reporter mice were crossed to Rorc-GFP reporter mice to generate mice that report both Foxp3 and Rorγ expression. Rorγ+Foxp3+ Tregs (TCRb+CD4+Thy1.1+GFP+) and Rorγ-Foxp3+ Tregs (TCRb+CD4+Thy1.1+GFP-) from colonic lamina propria were double sorted into Trizol.To reduce variability and increase cell number, cells from multiple mice were pooled for sorting and at least three replicates were generated for all groups. RNA from 1.5-3.0 x104 cells was amplified, labeled and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays.
Project description:To further development of our gene expression approach to CD300a deficiency on dendritic cells (DCs) in colonic lamina propria, we have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes with the potential to distinguish CD300a deficiency on DCs in colonic lamina propria from those of WT mice. Colonic lamina propria DCs were obtained by cell sorter from WT and CD300a deficient mice raised under SPF and GF condition. Expression of Ifnb1 was significantly higher in CD300a deficient DCs, quantified in the same RNA samples by real-time PCR. Gene expression in WT and CD300a colonic lamina propria DCs raised under SPF and GF conditions were measured. Colonic lamina propria cells were obtained from 5 mice in each conditions. Takara-Bio
Project description:The physiological process of defecation is directly controlled by colorectal motility. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is expressed in small intestine enterochromaffin cells and is involved in gastrointestinal motility via serotonin release. In the colorectum, however, enterochromaffin cell localization is largely distinct from that in the small intestine. Here, we investigated the role of lower gastrointestinal tract TRPA1 in modulating colorectal motility. We found that in colonic tissue, TRPA1 is predominantly expressed in mesenchymal cells of the lamina propria, which are clearly distinct from those in the small intestine. These cells coexpressed COX1 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. Intracolonic administration of TRPA1 agonists induced colonic contraction, which was suppressed by a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 1 antagonist. TRPA1 activation induced calcium influx and PGE2 release from cultured human fibroblastic cells. In dextran sulfate sodium-treated animals, both TRPA1 and its endogenous agonist were dramatically increased in the colonic lamina propria, accompanied by abnormal colorectal contractions. Abnormal colorectal contractions were significantly prevented by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of TRPA1. In conclusion, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal TRPA1 activation results in PGE2 release and consequently promotes colorectal contraction, representing what we believe is a novel physiological and inflammatory bowel disease-associated mechanism of gastrointestinal motility.
Project description:The colonic lamina propria contains a distinct population of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) that modulate responses to commensal microbes. Analysis of gene expression revealed that the transcriptome of colonic Tregs is distinct from splenic and other tissue Tregs. Rorγ and Helios in colonic Tregs mark distinct populations: Rorγ+Helios- or Rorγ-Helios+ Tregs. We uncovered an unanticipated role for Rorγ, a transcription factor generally considered to be antagonistic to Foxp3. Rorγ in colonic Tregs accounts for a small but specific part of the colon-specific Treg signature. Nrp1- Tregs were sorted from Foxp3-cre.Rorcfl/fl mice, which have a Treg-selective deletion of Rorc, or paired WT littermates. For low-input RNAseq, 1,000 TCRb+CD4+YFP(Foxp3)+Nrp1- cells were double-sorted into Trizol, RNA extracted and reverse-transcribed using ArrayScript (Ambion). To reduce variability at least three replicates were generated.
Project description:CX(3)CR1(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in intestinal lamina propria play a key role in mucosal immunity. However, the origin and the developmental pathways that regulate their differentiation in the lamina propria remain unclear. We showed that monocytes gave rise exclusively to CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) lamina propria DCs under the control of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and Fms-like thyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) ligands. In contrast, common DC progenitors (CDP) and pre-DCs, which give rise to lymphoid organ DCs but not to monocytes, differentiated exclusively into CD103(+)CX(3)CR1(-) lamina propria DCs under the control of Flt3 and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) ligands. CD103(+)CX(3)CR1(-) DCs but not CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) DCs in the lamina propria constitutively expressed CCR7 and were the first DCs to transport pathogenic Salmonella from the intestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system.
Project description:Although IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine reportedly involved in various autoimmune inflammatory disorders, its role remains unclear in murine models of colitis. Acute colitis was induced by 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 5 days. A novel sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist W-061, a prototype of ONO-4641, was orally administered daily, and histopathological analysis was performed on the colon. The number of lymphocytes and their cytokine production were also evaluated in spleen, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patch and lamina propria of the colon. Daily administration of W-061 resulted in improvement of DSS-induced colitis, and significantly reduced the number of CD4+ T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Numbers of both Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by W-061 treatment. W-061, however, had no influence on the number of Treg cells in lamina propria. Thus, Th17 and Th1 cells in lamina propria were thought to be the key subsets in the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis. In conclusion, W-061 may be a novel therapeutic strategy to ameliorate acute aggravation of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cytokines secreted by intestinal T lymphocytes probably play a critical role in regulation of the gut associated immune responses. AIMS: To quantify interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) secreting cells (SC) among human intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria (LPL) lymphocytes from the duodenum and right colon in non-pathological situations and in the absence of in vitro stimulation. PATIENTS: Duodenal and right colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with no inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. METHODS: Intraepithelial and lamina propria cell suspensions were assayed for numbers of cells spontaneously secreting IFN-gamma and IL-4 by a two site reverse enzyme linked immunospot technique (ELISPOT). RESULTS: The relatively high proportion of duodenal lymphocytes spontaneously secreting IFN-gamma (IEL 3.6%; LPL 1.9%) and IL-4 (IEL 1.3%; LPL 0.7%) contrasted with the very low numbers of spontaneously IFN-gamma SC and the absence of spontaneously IL-4 SC among peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In the basal state, both IFN-gamma and IL-4 were mainly produced by CD4+ cells. Within the colon, only 0.2% of IEL and LPL secreted IFN-gamma in the basal state, and 0.1% secreted IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with peripheral lymphocytes substantial proportions of intestinal epithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes spontaneously secrete IFN-gamma and/or IL-4. These cytokines are probably involved in the normal homoeostasis of the human intestinal mucosa. Disturbances in their secretion could play a role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases.
Project description:Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease.