Expression data from a variant monocyte population following dendritc cell depletion
ABSTRACT: Ly6C+ ‘classical’ monocytes respond rapidly to inflammation, either directly as effector cells or by differentiating into inflammatory macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). In the absence of DC, elevated levels of serum Flt3L and G-CSF induce a monocytosis although the properties of this expanded population have not been addressed. Here, we show that depletion of DC using the CD11c-DTR model results in rapid and CCR2-independent expansion of a variant population of splenic MHC Class II+ CD64+ Ly6C+ monocytes that are distinct from both circulating blood Ly6C+ monocytes and their tissue counterparts, but resemble Ly6C+ cells mobilized by exogenous G-CSF and Flt3L. The CD64+ Ly6C+ monocyte population is characterized by up-regulation of TLR signalling apparatus and an increased capacity to produce TNF-a following stimulation. Therefore, perturbation within the mononuclear phagocytic system in the absence of inflammation induces an alternative differentiation pathway that drives expansion of monocytes poised for innate immune activation. Monocytes populations were purified from CD11c-DTR mice which were injected with PBS or diphtheria toxin 48 hours previously. Common monocyte progenitors (cMoP) were isolated from untreated C57BL/6 mice. 48 hours after injection of PBS or DT, monocytes were purified from the spleen after collagenase digestion and flow sorted directly into Qiagen RLT buffer. cMoP were purified directly from the bone marrow without digestion enzymes.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) play a vital role in innate and adaptive immunities. Inducible depletion of CD11c(+) DCs engineered to express a high-affinity diphtheria toxin receptor has been a powerful tool to dissect DC function in vivo. However, despite reports showing that loss of DCs induces transient monocytosis, the monocyte population that emerges and the potential impact of monocytes on studies of DC function have not been investigated. We found that depletion of CD11c(+) cells from CD11c.DTR mice induced the expansion of a variant CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocyte population in the spleen and blood that was distinct from conventional monocytes. Expansion of CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocytes was independent of mobilization from the BM via CCR2 but required the cytokine, G-CSF. Indeed, this population was also expanded upon exposure to exogenous G-CSF in the absence of DC depletion. CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocytes were characterized by upregulation of innate signaling apparatus despite the absence of inflammation, and an increased capacity to produce TNF-? following LPS stimulation. Thus, depletion of CD11c(+) cells induces expansion of a unique CD64(+) Ly6C(+) monocyte population poised to synthesize TNF-?. This finding will require consideration in experiments using depletion strategies to test the role of CD11c(+) DCs in immunity.
Project description:Spleen is known to contain multiple dendritic and myeloid cell subsets, distinguishable on the basis of phenotype, function and anatomical location. As a result of recent intensive flow cytometric analyses, splenic dendritic cell (DC) subsets are now better characterized than other myeloid subsets. In order to identify and fully characterize a novel splenic subset termed "L-DC" in relation to other myeloid cells, it was necessary to investigate myeloid subsets in more detail. In terms of cell surface phenotype, L-DC were initially characterized as a CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(-)Ly6G(-) subset in murine spleen. Their expression of CD43, lack of MHCII, and a low level of CD11c was shown to best differentiate L-DC by phenotype from conventional DC subsets. A complete analysis of all subsets in spleen led to the classification of CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(lo)Ly6G(-) cells as monocytes expressing CX3CR1, CD43 and CD115. Siglec-F expression was used to identify a specific eosinophil population, distinguishable from both Ly6C(lo) and Ly6C(hi) monocytes, and other DC subsets. L-DC were characterized as a clear subset of CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(-)Ly6G(-) cells, which are CD43(+), Siglec-F(-) and CD115(-). Changes in the prevalence of L-DC compared to other subsets in spleens of mutant mice confirmed the phenotypic distinction between L-DC, cDC and monocyte subsets. L-DC development in vivo was shown to occur independently of the BATF3 transcription factor that regulates cDC development, and also independently of the FLT3L and GM-CSF growth factors which drive cDC and monocyte development, so distinguishing L-DC from these commonly defined cell types.
Project description:Neutrophils are the most abundant cell type in the immune system and play an important role in the innate immune response. Using a diverse range of mouse models with either defective dendritic cell (DC) development or conditional DC depletion, we provide in vivo evidence indicating that conventional DCs play an important role in the regulation of neutrophil homeostasis. Flk2, Flt3L, and Batf3 knockout mice, which have defects in DC development, have increased numbers of liver neutrophils in the steady state. Conversely, neutrophil frequency is reduced in DC-specific PTEN knockout mice, which have an expansion of CD8(+) and CD103(+) DCs. In chimeric CD11c-DTR mice, conventional DC depletion results in a systemic increase of neutrophils in peripheral organs in the absence of histological inflammation or an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. This effect is also present in splenectomized chimeric CD11c-DTR mice and is absent in chimeric mice with 50% normal bone marrow. In chimeric CD11c-DTR mice, diphtheria toxin treatment results in enhanced neutrophil trafficking from the bone marrow into circulation and increased neutrophil recruitment. Moreover, there is an increased expression of chemokines/cytokines involved in neutrophil homeostasis and reduced neutrophil apoptosis. These data underscore the role of the DC pool in regulating the neutrophil compartment in nonlymphoid organs.
Project description:The origin of wound repair macrophages is incompletely defined and was examined here in sterile wounds using the subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponge implantation model in mice. Phenotypic analysis identified F4/80(+)Ly6C(hi)CD64(+)MerTK(-) monocytes and F4/80(+)Ly6C(low)CD64(+)MerTK(+) macrophages in the wound. Circulating monocytes were the precursors of inflammatory Ly6C(hi) wound monocytes. Ly6C(low)MerTK(+) macrophages appeared later, expressed CD206, CD11c, and MHC class II, produced cytokines consistent with repair function, and lacked a gene expression profile compatible with mesenchymal transition or fibroblastic transdifferentiation. Data also demonstrated that Ly6C(hi) wound cells were precursors of Ly6C(low) macrophages, although monocytes did not undergo rapid maturation but rather persisted in the wound as Ly6C(hi)MerTK(-) cells. MerTK-deficient mice were examined to determine whether MerTK-dependent signals from apoptotic cells regulated the maturation of wound macrophages. MerTK-deficient mice had day 14 cell compositions that resembled more immature wounds, with a smaller proportion of F4/80(+) cells and higher frequencies of Ly6G(+) neutrophils and Ly6C(hi) monocytes. The cytokine profile and number of apoptotic cells in day 14 wounds of MerTK-deficient mice was unaffected despite the alterations in cell composition. Overall, these studies identified a differentiation pathway in response to sterile inflammation in which monocytes recruited from the circulation acquire proinflammatory function, persist in the wound, and mature into repair macrophages.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) can be sub-divided into various subsets that play specialized roles in priming of adaptive immune responses. Atherosclerosis is regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and DCs can be found in non-inflamed and diseased arteries. We here performed a systematic analyses of DCs subsets during atherogenesis. Our data indicate that distinct DC subsets can be localized in the vessel wall. In C57BL/6 and low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr (-/-)) mice, CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs could be discriminated into CD103(-) CD11b(+)F4/80(+), CD11b(+)F4/80(-) and CD11b(-)F4/80(-) DCs and CD103(+) CD11b(-)F4/80(-) DCs. Except for CD103(-) CD11b(-) F4/80(-) DCs, these subsets expanded in high fat diet-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice. Signal-regulatory protein (Sirp)-? was detected on aortic macrophages, CD11b(+) DCs, and partially on CD103(-) CD11b(-) F4/80(-) but not on CD103(+) DCs. Notably, in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand-deficient (Flt3l (-/-)) mice, a specific loss of CD103(+) DCs but also CD103(-) CD11b(+) F4/80(-) DCs was evidenced. Aortic CD103(+) and CD11b(+) F4/80(-) CD103(-) DCs may thus belong to conventional rather than monocyte-derived DCs, given their dependence on Flt3L-signalling. CD64, postulated to distinguish macrophages from DCs, could not be detected on DC subsets under physiological conditions, but appeared in a fraction of CD103(-) CD11b(+) F4/80(-) and CD11b(+) F4/80(+) cells in atherosclerotic Ldlr (-/-) mice. The emergence of CD64 expression in atherosclerosis may indicate that CD11b(+) F4/80(-) DCs similar to CD11b(+) F4/80(+) DCs are at least in part derived from immigrated monocytes during atherosclerotic lesion formation. Our data advance our knowledge about the presence of distinct DC subsets and their accumulation characteristics in atherosclerosis, and may help to assist in future studies aiming at specific DC-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic vascular inflammation.
Project description:The spatiotemporal regulation of immune cells in lymph nodes (LNs) is crucial for mounting protective T-cell responses, which are orchestrated by dendritic cells (DCs). However, it is unclear how the DC subsets are altered by the inflammatory milieu of LNs. Here, we show that the inflamed LNs of Listeria-infected mice are characterized by the clustering of neutrophils and monocytes and IFN-? production. Significantly, the early inflammatory responses are coupled with the differentiation of not one, but two types of CD64+CD11c+MHCII+ inflammatory DCs. Through the assessment of chemokine receptor dependency, gene expression profiles, growth factor requirements and DC-specific lineage mapping, we herein unveil a novel inflammatory DC population (we termed 'CD64+ cDCs') that arises from conventional DCs (cDCs), distinguishable from CD64+ monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) in inflamed LNs. We determined that Listeria-induced type I IFN is a critical inflammatory cue for the development of CD64+ cDCs but not CD64+ moDCs. Importantly, CD64+ cDCs displayed a higher potential to activate T cells than CD64+ moDCs, whereas the latter showed more robust expression of inflammatory genes. Although CD64+ and CD64- cDCs were able to cross-present soluble antigens at a high dose to CD8+ T cells, CD64+ cDCs concentrated and cross-presented a minute amount of soluble antigens delivered via CD64 (Fc?RI) as immune complexes. These findings reveal the role of early inflammatory responses in driving the differentiation of two inflammatory DC subsets empowered with distinct competencies.
Project description:The success of adoptive CTL therapy for cancer depends on interactions between tumor-infiltrating CTLs and cancer cells as well as other cells and molecules in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor dendritic cells (DCs) comprise several subsets: CD103+CD11b- DC1 and CD11b+CD64- DC2, which originate from circulating precursors of conventional DCs, and CD11b+CD64+ DC3, which arise from monocytes. It remains controversial which of these subset(s) promotes intratumor CTL proliferation, expansion, and function. To address this issue, we used the Zbtb46-DTR-transgenic mouse model to selectively deplete DC1 and DC2 from tumors and lymphoid tissues. Wild-type and Zbtb46-DTR bone marrow chimeras were inoculated with B16 melanoma cells that express OVA and were treated with OT-1 CTLs. We found that depletion of DCs derived from precursors of conventional DCs in Zbtb46-DTR bone marrow chimeras abolished CTL proliferation and expansion in tumor-draining lymph nodes. By contrast, intratumor CTL accumulation, proliferation, and IFN-? expression were unaffected by their absence. We found that adoptive cell therapy increases the frequency of monocyte-derived tumor DC3, which possess the capacity to cross-present tumor Ags and induce CTL proliferation. Our findings support the specialized roles of different DC subsets in the regulation of antitumor CTL responses.
Project description:The roles of macrophages in type 2-driven inflammation and fibrosis remain unclear. Here, using CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice and three models of interleukin 13 (IL-13)-dependent inflammation, fibrosis, and immunity, we show that CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages are required for the maintenance of type 2 immunity within affected tissues but not secondary lymphoid organs. Direct depletion of macrophages during the maintenance or resolution phases of secondary Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation caused a profound decrease in inflammation, fibrosis, and type 2 gene expression. Additional studies with CD11c-DTR and CD11b/CD11c-DTR double-transgenic mice suggested that macrophages but not dendritic cells were critical. Mechanistically, macrophage depletion impaired effector CD4(+) T helper type 2 (Th2) cell homing and activation within the inflamed lung. Depletion of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages similarly reduced house dust mite-induced allergic lung inflammation and suppressed IL-13-dependent immunity to the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Consequently, therapeutic strategies targeting macrophages offer a novel approach to ameliorate established type 2 inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this article, we exploit the unique avascularity of the cornea to examine a role for local or very early infiltrating DCs in regulating the migration of blood-derived innate immune cells toward HSV-1 lesions. A single systemic diphtheria toxin treatment 2 d before HSV-1 corneal infection transiently depleted CD11c(+) DCs from both the cornea and lymphoid organs of CD11c-DTR bone marrow chimeric mice for up to 24 h postinfection. Transient DC depletion significantly delayed HSV-1 clearance from the cornea through 6 d postinfection. No further compromise of viral clearance was observed when DCs were continuously depleted throughout the first week of infection. DC depletion did not influence extravasation of NK cells, inflammatory monocytes, or neutrophils into the peripheral cornea, but it did significantly reduce migration of NK cells and inflammatory monocytes, but not neutrophils, toward the HSV-1 lesion in the central cornea. Depletion of NK cells resulted in similar loss of viral control to transient DC ablation. Our findings demonstrate that resident corneal DCs and/or those that infiltrate the cornea during the first 24 h after HSV-1 infection contribute to the migration of NK cells and inflammatory monocytes into the central cornea, and are consistent with a role for NK cells and possibly inflammatory monocytes, but not polymorphonuclear neutrophils, in clearing HSV-1 from the infected cornea.
Project description:The developmental progression of conventional DC has been quite well defined, yet the developmental pathway of monocyte-derived, GM-CSF-driven DC is less well understood. We addressed this issue by establishing an isolation strategy that identifies five distinct GM-CSF derived cell types. Expression of Ly6C and CD115 (Csf-1R) was used to identify and isolate four populations. One of the populations could be further separated based on CD11c expression, distinguishing five populations. We further defined these cells based on expression of transcription factors and markers of early and later stages of myeloid development. These discreet developmental stages corresponded well with previously defined populations: Common Myeloid Progenitors (CMP), Granulocyte/Macrophage Progenitors (GMP), Monocytes, as well as Monocyte-derived macrophages (moMac) and Monocyte-derived DC (moDC). Finally, within the moMac population we also identified moDC precursor activity (moDP) that could be distinguished from moMac and moDC based on their level of MHC class II expression and developmental plasticity.