Mouse brain tissue after methanol and normal saline treatment
ABSTRACT: We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis 4 mouse were treated with methanol for 2 h and 4 with normal saline for 2 h, than we collected brain tissue samples and extracted total RNA by Trizol according to manufacturer's protocol
Project description:We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.
Project description:Recently, we demonstrated that leaf wounding results in the synthesis of pectin methylesterase (PME), which causes the plant to release methanol into the air. Methanol emitted by a wounded plant increases the accumulation of methanol-inducible gene mRNA and enhances antibacterial resistance as well as cell-to-cell communication, which facilitates virus spreading in neighboring plants. We concluded that methanol is a signaling molecule involved in within-plant and plant-to-plant communication. Methanol is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-mediated conversion of methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, recent data showed that methanol is a natural compound in normal, healthy humans. These data call into question whether human methanol is a metabolic waste product or whether methanol has specific function in humans. Here, to reveal human methanol-responsive genes (MRGs), we used suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries of HeLa cells lacking ADH and exposed to methanol. This design allowed us to exclude genes involved in formaldehyde and formic acid detoxification from our analysis. We identified MRGs and revealed a correlation between increases in methanol content in the plasma and changes in human leukocyte MRG mRNA levels after fresh salad consumption by volunteers. Subsequently, we showed that the methanol generated by the pectin/PME complex in the gastrointestinal tract of mice induces the up- and downregulation of brain MRG mRNA. We used an adapted Y-maze to measure the locomotor behavior of the mice while breathing wounded plant vapors in two-choice assays. We showed that mice prefer the odor of methanol to other plant volatiles and that methanol changed MRG mRNA accumulation in the mouse brain.We hypothesize that the methanol emitted by wounded plants may have a role in plant-animal signaling. The known positive effect of plant food intake on human health suggests a role for physiological methanol in human gene regulation.
Project description:Methylobacterium species colonize plant surfaces and utilize methanol emitted from plants. Methylobacterium aquaticum strain 22A was isolated from a hydroponic culture of a moss, Racomitrium japonicum, and is a potent plant growth promoter. The complete genome sequencing of the strain confirmed the presence of genes related to plant growth promotion and methylotrophy.
Project description:Until recently, plant-emitted methanol was considered a biochemical by-product, but studies in the last decade have revealed its role as a signal molecule in plant-plant and plant-animal communication. Moreover, methanol participates in metabolic biochemical processes during growth and development. The purpose of this review is to determine the impact of methanol on the growth and immunity of plants. Plants generate methanol in the reaction of the demethylation of macromolecules including DNA and proteins, but the main source of plant-derived methanol is cell wall pectins, which are demethylesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Methanol emissions increase in response to mechanical wounding or other stresses due to damage of the cell wall, which is the main source of methanol production. Gaseous methanol from the wounded plant induces defense reactions in intact leaves of the same and neighboring plants, activating so-called methanol-inducible genes (MIGs) that regulate plant resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. Since PMEs are the key enzymes in methanol production, their expression increases in response to wounding, but after elimination of the stress factor effects, the plant cell should return to the original state. The amount of functional PMEs in the cell is strictly regulated at both the gene and protein levels. There is negative feedback between one of the MIGs, aldose epimerase-like protein, and PME gene transcription; moreover, the enzymatic activity of PMEs is modulated and controlled by PME inhibitors (PMEIs), which are also induced in response to pathogenic attack.
Project description:Many plants release airborne volatile compounds in response to wounding due to pathogenic assault. These compounds serve as plant defenses and are involved in plant signaling. Here, we study the effects of pectin methylesterase (PME)-generated methanol release from wounded plants ("emitters") on the defensive reactions of neighboring "receiver" plants. Plant leaf wounding resulted in the synthesis of PME and a spike in methanol released into the air. Gaseous methanol or vapors from wounded PME-transgenic plants induced resistance to the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in the leaves of non-wounded neighboring "receiver" plants. In experiments with different volatile organic compounds, gaseous methanol was the only airborne factor that could induce antibacterial resistance in neighboring plants. In an effort to understand the mechanisms by which methanol stimulates the antibacterial resistance of "receiver" plants, we constructed forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries from Nicotiana benthamiana plants exposed to methanol. We identified multiple methanol-inducible genes (MIGs), most of which are involved in defense or cell-to-cell trafficking. We then isolated the most affected genes for further analysis: ?-1,3-glucanase (BG), a previously unidentified gene (MIG-21), and non-cell-autonomous pathway protein (NCAPP). Experiments with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and a vector encoding two tandem copies of green fluorescent protein as a tracer of cell-to-cell movement showed the increased gating capacity of plasmodesmata in the presence of BG, MIG-21, and NCAPP. The increased gating capacity is accompanied by enhanced TMV reproduction in the "receivers". Overall, our data indicate that methanol emitted by a wounded plant acts as a signal that enhances antibacterial resistance and facilitates viral spread in neighboring plants.
Project description:Mechanical wounding of plants triggers the release of a blend of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). During and after mowing and harvesting of managed grasslands, significant BVOC emissions have the potential to alter the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere and lead to ozone and aerosol formation with consequences for regional air quality. We show that the amount and composition of BVOCs emitted per unit dry weight of plant material is comparable between laboratory enclosure measurements of artificially severed grassland plant species and in situ ecosystem-scale flux measurements above a temperate mountain grassland during and after periodic mowing and harvesting. The investigated grassland ecosystem emitted annually up to 130 mg carbon m(-2) in response to cutting and drying, the largest part being consistently represented by methanol and a blend of green leaf volatiles (GLV). In addition, we report the plant species-specific emission of furfural, terpenoid-like compounds (e.g., camphor), and sesquiterpenes from cut plant material, which may be used as tracers for the presence of given plant species in the ecosystem.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:There are fundamental differences between electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and conventional cigarette product categories with regards to potential environmental exposures, notably that e-cigarettes do not contain tobacco or generate side-stream emissions. Here we assess the spatial and temporal patterns of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol at a bystander's position, and compare it with conventional cigarette smoke emissions. METHODS:Smokers were asked to use e-cigarettes or smoke conventional cigarettes in a room-simulating chamber. Volunteers used the products at different distances from a heated mannequin, representing a bystander, and under different room ventilation rates. Aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions at the bystander's position were measured. RESULTS:For both product categories, the particle concentrations registered following each puff were in the same order of magnitude. However, for e-cigarettes the particle concentration returned rapidly to background values within seconds; for conventional cigarettes it increased with successive puffs, returning to background levels after 30-45 minutes. Unlike for the e-cigarette devices tested, such temporal variation was dependent on the room ventilation rate. Particle size measurements showed that exhaled e-cigarette particles were smaller than those emitted during smoking conventional cigarettes and evaporated almost immediately after exhalation, thus affecting the removal of particles through evaporation rather than displacement by ventilation. CONCLUSIONS:Significant differences between emissions from the tested e- and conventional cigarettes are reported. Exhaled e-cigarette particles are liquid droplets evaporating rapidly; conventional cigarette smoke particles are far more stable and linger. IMPLICATIONS:• Several factors potentially influencing particle behavior after exhalation of e-cigarette aerosols or emitted during smoking conventional cigarettes were studied.• Differences in particle size between those exhaled following use of e-cigarettes and those emitted during smoking of conventional cigarettes were observed.• E-cigarette particle concentrations decreased rapidly following exhalation due to evaporation.• The removal of particles following smoking conventional cigarettes was much slower and was dependent on the room ventilation rate.
Project description:Methylotrophic yeasts such as Komagataella phaffii (syn. Pichia pastoris, Pp), Hansenula polymorpha (Hp), Candida boidinii (Cb) and Pichia methanolica (Pm) are widely used protein production platforms. Typically, strong, tightly regulated promoters of genes coding for their methanol utilization (MUT) pathways are used to drive heterologous gene expression. Despite highly similar open reading frames in the MUT pathways of the four yeasts, the regulation of the respective promoters varies strongly between species. While most endogenous Pp MUT promoters remain tightly repressed after depletion of a repressing carbon, Hp, Cb and Pm MUT promoters are derepressed to up to 70% of methanol induced levels, enabling methanol free production processes in their respective host background. Here, we have tested a series of orthologous promoters from Hp, Cb and Pm in Pp. Unexpectedly, when induced with methanol, the promoter of the HpMOX gene reached very similar expression levels as the strong methanol, inducible, and most frequently used promoter of the Pp alcohol oxidase 1 gene (PPpAOX1). The HpFMD promoter even surpassed PPpAOX1 up to three-fold, when induced with methanol, and reached under methanol-free/derepressed conditions similar expression as the methanol induced PPpAOX1. These results demonstrate that orthologous promoters from related yeast species can give access to otherwise unobtainable regulatory profiles and may even considerably surpass endogenous promoters in P. pastoris.
Project description:The metabolism of methanol was monitored in whole cells of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha by using [13C]methanol and n.m.r. in vivo. The main products observed under normal conditions were trehalose and glycerol, whereas cells that were starved before exposure to [13C]methanol also accumulated glutamate, glutamine and alanine; formate was also more prominent in spectra from starved cells. Cells exposed to high methanol concentration together with high oxygenation oxidized methanol extensively, leading to formaldehyde accumulation; label was not found in any subsequent metabolic products, indicating possible cell inactivation. [13C]Formate was incorporated into metabolic products in glucose-grown cells exposed to 150 mM-methanol for 3 h, but not in cells starved for 3 h, in which it was oxidized. At 21 degrees C such 3 h-starved cells showed a slower metabolism of [13C]methanol compared with those at 37 degrees C, and also converted methanol into formate rather than into assimilation products. The labelling pattern in trehalose from starved cells at 37 degrees C was consistent with methanol assimilation via the pentose phosphate pathway. Lack of appearance of labelled formaldehyde and formate during metabolism under normal conditions suggests that the linear oxidation pathway is not a major contributor to methanol oxidation; their appearance in extreme conditions suggests instead a more likely role in detoxification.