A Dach2-Hdac9-Myog-Gdf5 signaling system regulates regeneration of neuromuscular synapses
ABSTRACT: Muscle denervation due to injury, disease or aging results in impaired motor function. Restoring neuromuscular communication requires axonal regrowth and regeneration of neuromuscular synapses. Muscle activity inhibits neuromuscular synapse regeneration. The mechanism by which muscle activity regulates regeneration of synapses is poorly understood. Dach2 and Hdac9 are activity-regulated transcriptional co-repressors that are highly expressed in innervated muscle and suppressed following muscle denervation. Here, we report that Dach2 and Hdac9 inhibit regeneration of neuromuscular synapses. Importantly, we identified Myog and Gdf5 as muscle-specific Dach2/Hdac9-regulated genes that stimulate neuromuscular regeneration in denervated muscle. Interestingly, Gdf5 also stimulates presynaptic differentiation and inhibits branching of regenerating neurons. Finally, we found that Dach2 and Hdac9 suppress miR206 expression, a microRNA involved in enhancing neuromuscular regeneration. RNAseq on innervated and 3 day denervated adult soleus muscle from wildtype mice is compared with that from 3 day denervated soleus muscle from Dach2/Hdac9 deleted mice to identify Dach2/Hdac9-regulated genes.
Project description:Adult skeletal muscle accepts ectopic innervation by foreign motor axons only after section of its own nerve, suggesting that the formation of new neuromuscular junctions is promoted by muscle denervation. With the aim to identify new proteins involved in neuromuscular junction formation we performed an mRNA differential display on innervated versus denervated adult rat muscles. We identified transcripts encoding embigin, a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) class of cell adhesion molecules to be strongly regulated by the state of innervation. In innervated muscle it is preferentially localized to neuromuscular junctions. Forced overexpression in innervated muscle of a full-length embigin transgene, but not of an embigin fragment lacking the intracellular domain, promotes nerve terminal sprouting and the formation of additional acetylcholine receptor clusters at synaptic sites without affecting terminal Schwann cell number or morphology, and it delays the retraction of terminal sprouts following re-innervation of denervated endplates. Conversely, knockdown of embigin by RNA interference in wild-type muscle accelerates terminal sprout retraction, both by itself and synergistically with deletion of neural cell adhesion molecule. These findings indicate that embigin enhances neural cell adhesion molecule-dependent neuromuscular adhesion and thereby modulates neuromuscular junction formation and plasticity.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are highly concentrated at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mammalian skeletal muscle. Here we test the hypothesis that local upregulation of mRNA contributes to this accumulation. We designed radiolabeled antisense RNA probes, specific for the "adult" Na(V)1.4 and "fetal" Na(V)1.5 isoforms of VGSC in mammalian skeletal muscle, and used them in in situ hybridization studies of rat soleus muscles. Na(V)1.4 mRNA is present throughout normal adult muscles but is highly concentrated at the NMJ, in which the amount per myonucleus is more than eightfold greater than away from the NMJ. Na(V)1.5 mRNA is undetectable in innervated muscles but is dramatically upregulated by denervation. In muscles denervated for 1 week, both Na(V)1.4 and Na(V)1.5 mRNAs are present throughout the muscle, and both are concentrated at the NMJ. No Na(V)1.5 mRNA was detectable in denervated muscles stimulated electrically for 1 week in vivo. Neither denervation nor stimulation had any significant effect on the level or distribution of Na(V)1.4 mRNA. We conclude that factors, probably derived from the nerve, lead to the increased concentration of VGSC mRNAs at the NMJ. In addition, the expression of Na(V)1.5 mRNA is downregulated by muscle activity, both at the NMJ and away from it.
Project description:The myogenic regulatory factor MRF4 is expressed at high levels in myofibers of adult skeletal muscle, but its function is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of MRF4 in adult muscle causes hypertrophy and prevents denervation-induced atrophy. This effect is accompanied by increased protein synthesis and the widespread activation of genes involved in muscle contraction, excitation-contraction coupling and energy metabolism, many of which are known targets of MEF2 transcription factors. Genes regulated by MEF2 represent the top-ranking gene set enriched after Mrf4 RNAi, and a MEF2 reporter is inhibited by co-transfected MRF4 and activated by Mrf4 RNAi. The role of MEF2 in mediating the effect of MRF4 knockdown is supported by the finding that Mrf4 RNAi-dependent increase in fiber size is prevented by dominant negative MEF2, while constitutively active MEF2 is able to induce myofiber hypertrophy. The nuclear localization of the MEF2 co-repressor HDAC4 is impaired by Mrf4 knockdown, suggesting that MRF4 acts by stabilizing a repressor complex that controls MEF2 activity. The demonstration that fiber size in adult skeletal muscle is controlled by the MRF4-MEF2 axis opens new perspectives in the search for therapeutic targets to prevent muscle wasting, in particular sarcopenia and cachexia. Adult innervated and denervated rat soleus muscles were transfected with shRNA to Mrf4 (M1) or to LacZ as a control. Muscles were dissected and examined after 7 days. For each group/condition we selected three different muscles (biological replicas).
Project description:The effects of denervation on muscle weight, rates of protein synthesis and breakdown, and RNA concentraitons were studied in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle. Althrough the soleus underwent a true atrophy after section of the sciatic nerve, the extensor digitorum longus continued to grow, albeit at a lower rate than innervated controls. At 24h after nerve section protein breakdown was increased in both muscle types when compared with internal controls, and remained so throughout the 10 days studied. The possibility that this increased catabolism might arise from conformational changes of proteins after denervation was not substantiated, as myofibrillar or soluble proteins of denervated and control tissues were equally susceptible to degradation in vitro by three proteinases. Tyrosine uptake into the denervated extensor digitorum longus was decreased throughout the 10 days studied, whereas two phases of increased transport of the amino acid were found in the soleus. Significant decreases in rates of protein synthesis were found 1 and 2 days after denervation and results are presented that suggest that these changes may result from a decrease in ribosomal involvement in the translation process. These initial decreases were not maintained and the rate of protein synthesis was in fact increased when compared with controls, at 7 and 10 days. The increased synthetic rates of the 7-day denervated tissues were reflected as proportional increases in both myofibrillar and soluble proteins. It is suggested that the increase in synthesis at this time may result from an increase in both the abailability and active involvement of ribosomes, and that these anabolic trends may be caused by spontaneous fibrillation and/or the amount of passive stretching of the denervated muscles.
Project description:To compare the microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile in the innervated soleus muscle and L4-L6 DRG neuronsafter sciatic nerve entrapment with a non-constrictive silastic tube, subsequent surgical decompression, and denervation injury. The experimental soleus muscles and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) from each experimental group (sham control, denervation, entrapment, and decompression) were analyzed with an Agilent® rat miRNA array to detect dysregulated miRNAs Three-condition experiment, DRGs and soleus muscles of the rats receiving sciatic nerve denervation 6 months, sciatic nerve entrapment 6 months, and sciatic nerve entrapment 6 months then decompression for 3 months v.s. soleus muscle (sham control), Biological replicates: 1 control replicates, 3 experiment replicates
Project description:Muscle denervation resulting from injury, disease or aging results in impaired motor function. Restoring neuromuscular communication requires axonal regrowth and endplate reinnervation. Muscle activity inhibits the reinnervation of denervated muscle. The mechanism by which muscle activity regulates muscle reinnervation is poorly understood. Dach2 and Hdac9 are activity-regulated transcriptional co-repressors that are highly expressed in innervated muscle and suppressed following muscle denervation. Dach2 and Hdac9 control the expression of endplate-associated genes such as those encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here we tested the idea that Dach2 and Hdac9 mediate the effects of muscle activity on muscle reinnervation. Dach2 and Hdac9 were found to act in a collaborative fashion to inhibit reinnervation of denervated mouse skeletal muscle and appear to act, at least in part, by inhibiting denervation-dependent induction of Myog and Gdf5 gene expression. Although Dach2 and Hdac9 inhibit Myog and Gdf5 mRNA expression, Myog does not regulate Gdf5 transcription. Thus, Myog and Gdf5 appear to stimulate muscle reinnervation through parallel pathways. These studies suggest that manipulating the Dach2-Hdac9 signaling system, and Gdf5 in particular, might be a good approach for enhancing motor function in instances where neuromuscular communication has been disrupted.
Project description:Disruption of neuromuscular junctions and denervation of some muscle fibers occurs in ageing skeletal muscle and contribute to loss of muscle mass and function. Aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of redox homeostasis potentially occurs through increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). No specific link between increased mitochondrial ROS generation and denervation has been defined in muscle ageing. To address this, we have examined the effect of experimental denervation of all fibers, or only a proportion of the fibers, in the mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle on muscle mitochondrial peroxide generation. Transection of the peroneal nerve of mice caused loss of pre-synaptic axons within 1-3 days with no significant morphological changes in post-synaptic structures up to 10 days post-surgery when decreased TA mass and fiber size were apparent. Mitochondria in the denervated muscle showed increased peroxide generation by 3 days post-transection. Use of electron transport chain (ETC) substrates and inhibitors of specific pathways indicated that the ETC was unlikely to contribute to increased ROS generation, but monoamine oxidase B, NADPH oxidase and phospholipase enzymes were implicated. Transection of one of the 3 branches of the peroneal nerve caused denervation of some TA muscle fibers while others retained innervation, but increased mitochondrial peroxide generation occurred in both denervated and innervated fibers. Thus the presence of recently denervated fibers leads to increased ROS generation by mitochondria in neighboring innervated fibers providing a novel explanation for the increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage seen with aging in skeletal muscles.
Project description:The functional state of denervated muscle is a critical factor in the ability to restore movement after injury- or disease-related paralysis. Here we used peripheral optogenetic stimulation and transcriptome profiling in the mouse whisker system to investigate the time course of changes in neuromuscular function following complete unilateral facial nerve transection. While most skeletal muscles rapidly lose functionality after lower motor neuron denervation, optogenetic muscle stimulation of the paralyzed whisker pad revealed sustained increases in the sensitivity, velocity, and amplitude of whisker movements, and reduced fatigability, starting 48 h after denervation. RNA-seq analysis showed distinct regulation of multiple gene families in denervated whisker pad muscles compared with the atrophy-prone soleus, including prominent changes in ion channels and contractile fibers. Together, our results define the unique functional and transcriptomic landscape of denervated facial muscles and have general implications for restoring movement after neuromuscular injury or disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Optogenetic activation of muscle can be used to noninvasively induce movements and probe muscle function. We used this technique in mice to investigate changes in whisker movements following facial nerve transection. We found unexpectedly enhanced functional properties of whisker pad muscle following denervation, accompanied by unique transcriptomic changes. Our findings highlight the utility of the mouse whisker pad for investigating the restoration of movement after paralysis.
Project description:The effects of heat stress on the morphological properties and intracellular signaling of innervated and denervated soleus muscles were investigated. Heat stress was applied to rats by immersing their hindlimbs in a warm water bath (42°C, 30 min/day, every other day following unilateral denervation) under anesthesia. During 14 days of experimental period, heat stress for a total of seven times promoted growth-related hypertrophy in sham-operated muscles and attenuated atrophy in denervated muscles. In denervated muscles, the transcription of ubiquitin ligase, atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1), and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), genes was upregulated and ubiquitination of proteins was also increased. Intermittent heat stress inhibited the upregulation of Atrogin-1, but not MuRF-1 transcription. And the denervation-caused reduction in phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt), 70-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), which are negative regulators of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 transcription, was mitigated. In sham-operated muscles, repeated application of heat stress did not affect Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 transcription, but increased the level of phosphorylated Akt and HSP70, but not PGC-1α Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6, which is known to stimulate protein synthesis, was increased immediately after a single heat stress particularly in the sham-operated muscles. The effect of a heat stress was suppressed in denervated muscles. These results indicated that the beneficial effects of heat stress on the morphological properties of muscles were brought regardless of innervation. However, the responses of intracellular signaling to heat stress were distinct between the innervated and denervated muscles.
Project description:Muscle wasting occurs in a variety of clinical situations, including denervation. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for muscle wasting. In this study, we used a tibial nerve denervation model to test acupuncture plus low-frequency electric stimulation (Acu-LFES) as a therapeutic strategy for muscle atrophy. Acupuncture needles were connected to an SDZ-II electronic acupuncture device delivering pulses at 20 Hz and 1 mA; the treatment was 15 min daily for 2 wk. Acu-LFES prevented soleus and plantaris muscle weight loss and increased muscle cross-sectional area in denervated mice. The abundances of Pax7, MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic myosin heavy chain were significantly increased by Acu-LFES in both normal and denervated muscle. The number of central nuclei was increased in Acu-LFES-treated muscle fibers. Phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated by denervation leading to a decline in muscle mass; however, Acu-LFES prevented the denervation-induced decline largely by upregulation of the IGF-1 signaling pathway. Acu-LFES reduced the abundance of muscle catabolic proteins forkhead O transcription factor and myostatin, contributing to the attenuated muscle atrophy. Acu-LFES stimulated the expression of macrophage markers (F4/80, IL-1b, and arginase-1) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IFNγ, and TNFα) in normal and denervated muscle. Acu-LFES also stimulated production of the muscle-specific microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. We conclude that Acu-LFES is effective in counteracting denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and increasing muscle regeneration. Upregulation of IGF-1, downregulation of myostatin, and alteration of microRNAs contribute to the attenuation of muscle atrophy in denervated mice.