Identification of apple miRNAs and their potentialrole in Fire Blight resistance
ABSTRACT: miRNAs are key players in multiple biological processes, therefore analysis and characterization of these small regulatory RNAs is a critical step towards better understanding of animal and plant biology. In apple (Malus domestica) two hundred microRNAs are known, which most probably represents only a fraction of miRNAome diversity. As a result, more effort is required to better annotate miRNAs and their functions in this economically important species. We performed deep sequencing of twelve small RNA libraries obtained for fire blight resistant and fire blight sensitive trees. In the sequencing results we identified 116 novel microRNAs and confirmed a majority of previously reported apple miRNAs. We then experimentally verified selected candidates with RT-PCR and stem-loop qPCR and performed differential expression analysis. Finally, we identified and characterized putative targets of all known apple miRNAs. In this study we considerably expand the apple miRNAome by identifying and characterizing dozens of novel microRNAs. Moreover, our data suggests that apple microRNAs might be considered as regulators and markers of fire blight resistance. Actively-growing shoot tip tissue samples were collected from twelve apple trees, which includes three biological replicates of each following scion-rootstock combinations: B.9, G.30, M.111 and M.27.
Project description:Fire blight (FB) is a bacterial disease affecting plants from Rosaceae family, including apple and pear. FB develops after the infection of Erwinia amylovora, gram-negative enterobacterium, and results in burnt-like damages and wilting, which can affect all organs of the plant. Although the mechanisms underlying disease response in apples are not elucidated yet, it has been well described that FB resistance depends on the rootstock type. The main objective of this work was to identify miRNAs involved in response to bacterial infection in order to better explain apple defense mechanisms against fire blight disease. We performed deep sequencing of eighteen small RNA libraries obtained from inoculated and non-inoculated Gala apple leaves. 233 novel plant mature miRNAs were identified together with their targets and potential role in response to bacterial infection. We identify three apple miRNAs responding to inoculation (mdm-miR168a,b, mdm-miR194C and mdm-miR1392C) as well as miRNAs reacting to bacterial infection in a rootstock-specific manner (miR395 family). Our results provide insights into the mechanisms of fire blight resistance in apple. Overall design: Actively-growing leaf tissue samples were collected from eighteen apple trees, which includes three biological replicates of inoculated and non-inoculated Gala scions grown on G.30 or M.27 rootstock.
Project description:This RNA-seq experiment captures expression data from challenged and mock-inoculated apple flowers (Malus domestica Golden Delicious) to assess the susceptible response of the primary infection court (48h) of apple by the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora (CFBP 1430).
Project description:To identify blast pathogen elicited miRNAs, four sRNA libraries were constructed: 8749036, A library, susceptible rice cultivar Zhonger-Ruanzhan; 12157795, B library, mock-treated blast resistant line H4; 9937360, C library, blast-treated susceptible rice cultivar Zhonger-Ruanzhan; and 11138187 clean reads, D library, blast-treated blast resistant line H4. The Short Oligonucleotide Analysis Package (SOAP; Beijing Genomics Institute) matched 85.46% (A, 7476714), 79.35% (B, 9647324), 77.70% (C, 7721715) and 76.10% (D, 8476386) sRNA reads to the genome. After removing other RNA categories matched to NCBI Genbank, Rfam database, known rice miRNA precursor, repeat associated RNA and siRNA, the remaining reads: 1681359(A); 3829741(B); 3182403(C); and 3970132(D), were used for further novel miRNA prediction. Since some miRNAs were tissue-specific, time-specific or stress-induced, only 291, 210, 164 and 220 registered miRNAs were identified in libraries A, B, C and D respectively. Thirty-one (A, 9385 reads), 399(B, 41024 read), 351(C, 36622 reads) and 333(D, 38064 reads) unique sRNAs were projected to be candidate miRNAs. Examination of mock-treated rice cultivar, mock-treated blast resistant rice line H4, blast-treated susceptible rice cultivar, and blast-treated blast resistant rice line H4.
Project description:Genetic male sterility (GMS) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor. However, the molecular mechanism of the GMS is still unclear. While numerous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNA) regulate flower and anther development, whether different small RNA regulations exist in GMS and its wild type is unclear. To investigate the global expression and complexity of small RNAs during cotton anther development, three small RNA libraries were constructed from the anthers of three development stages each from fertile wild type (WT) and its GMS mutant cotton. Examination of different miRNA profiles in 2 lines.
Project description:It has previously been assumed that the generally high stability of microRNAs (miRNAs) reflects their tight association with Argonaute (Ago) proteins, essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). However, recent data have suggested that the majority of mature miRNAs are not, in fact, Ago associated. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous human miRNAs vary widely, by >100-fold, in their level of RISC association and show that the level of Ago binding is a better indicator of inhibitory potential than is the total level of miRNA expression. While miRNAs of closely similar sequence showed comparable levels of RISC association in the same cell line, these varied between different cell types. Moreover, the level of RISC association could be modulated by overexpression of complementary target mRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the level of RISC association of a given endogenous miRNA is regulated by the available RNA targetome and predicts miRNA function. This series includes microRNA sequencing data for human cell lines 293, C8166, A549, SH-SY5Y, and an EBV-transformed LCL line. For each cell line, total small RNA isolated by TRIzol was sequenced for comparison to RISC-associated microRNAs as determined by sequencing small RNAs from an Argonaute immunoprecipitation.
Project description:RATIONALE: Heart failure is a deadly and devastating disease that places immense costs on an aging society. To develop therapies aimed at rescuing the failing heart, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiomyocyte structure and function. OBJECTIVE: microRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, and we sought to define the global contributions made by microRNAs toward maintaining cardiomyocyte integrity. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we performed deep sequencing analysis to catalog the miRNA population in the adult heart. Second, we genetically deleted, in cardiac myocytes, an essential component of the machinery that is required to generate miRNAs. Deep sequencing of miRNAs from the heart revealed the enrichment of a small number of microRNAs with one, miR-1, accounting for 40% of all microRNAs. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of dgcr8, a gene required for microRNA biogenesis, revealed a fully penetrant phenotype that begins with left ventricular malfunction progressing to a dilated cardiomyopathy and premature lethality. CONCLUSIONS: These observations reveal a critical role for microRNAs in maintaining cardiac function in mature cardiomyocytes and raise the possibility that only a handful of microRNAs may ultimately be responsible for the dramatic cardiac phenotype seen in the absence of dgcr8. We report the miRNA composition of 6-8 week old murine heart. We performed deep sequencing analysis to catalog the miRNA population in the adult heart. 2 sample were sequenced.
Project description:In plants, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of endogenous small RNAs that play essential regulatory roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been performed in model plants such as rice, Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. However, the number of miRNAs discovered in maize is relatively low and little is known about miRNAs involved in the four stages during maize ear development. Here, we use deep-sequencing, miRNA microarray assays and computational methods to identify, proﬁle, and describe conserved and non-conserved miRNAs at four developmental stages. A total of 27 conserved miRNA families were identiﬁed in all four stages, In addition to known miRNAs, we also found 23 new maize-specific miRNAs together with their star strands. We have also shown that almost all of them originated from single genes. We have found that many known and new miRNAs showed temporally expression. Finally, a total of 251 transcripts (140 genes) targeted by 102 small RNAs including 98 miRNAs and 4 ta-siRNAs were identified by genomic-scale high-throughput sequencing of miRNA cleaved mRNAs.This study led to the confirmation of the authenticity of 27 conserved miRNA families and the discovery of 23 novel miRNAs in maize. In addition, we have identified 130 targets of known and new miRNAs and ta-siRNA using recently developed tools for the global identification of miRNA targets. Identification and characterization of this important class of regulatory genes in maize may improve our understanding of molecular mechanism controlling flower development. The seeds of maize inbred line B73 were first sterilized and germinated in an incubator, then grown in a controlled environment with 28°C/21°C (day/night) under a 16-h day/8-h night photoperiod with a relative humidity of 70%. Ear development can be divided into four stages: the growth point elongation phase, spikelet differentiation phase, the floret primordium differentiation phase and floret organ differentiation phase. Plant materials (ears) were collected as described previously. In brief, ears were manually collected at the four developmental stages according to the plant features (number of visible leaves, leaf age index, and number of unfolded and folded leaves) combined with microscopic observation.
Project description:We previously reported widespread differential expression of long non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in response to virus infection. Here, we expanded the study through small RNA transcriptome sequencing analysis of the host response to both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and influenza virus infections across four founder mouse strains of the Collaborative Cross, a recombinant inbred mouse resource for mapping complex traits. We observed differential expression of over 200 small RNAs of diverse classes during infection. A majority of identified microRNAs (miRNAs) showed divergent changes in expression across mouse strains with respect to SARS-CoV and influenza virus infections and responded differently to a highly pathogenic reconstructed 1918 virus compared to a minimally pathogenic seasonal influenza virus isolate. Novel insights into miRNA expression changes, including the association with pathogenic outcomes and large differences between in vivo and in vitro experimental systems, were further elucidated by a survey of selected miRNAs across diverse virus infections. The small RNAs identified also included many non-miRNA small RNAs, such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), in addition to nonannotated small RNAs. An integrative sequencing analysis of both small RNAs and long transcripts from the same samples showed that the results revealing differential expression of miRNAs during infection were largely due to transcriptional regulation and that the predicted miRNA-mRNA network could modulate global host responses to virus infection in a combinatorial fashion. These findings represent the first integrated sequencing analysis of the response of host small RNAs to virus infection and show that small RNAs are an integrated component of complex networks involved in regulating the host response to infection. IMPORTANCE: Most studies examining the host transcriptional response to infection focus only on protein-coding genes. However, mammalian genomes transcribe many short and long non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). With the advent of deepsequencing technologies, systematic transcriptome analysis of the host response, including analysis of ncRNAs of different sizes, is now possible. Using this approach, we recently discovered widespread differential expression of host long (>200 nucleotide[nt]) ncRNAs in response to virus infection. Here, the samples described in the previous report were again used, but we sequenced another fraction of the transcriptome to study very short (about 20 to 30 nt) ncRNAs. We demonstrated that virus infection also altered expression of many short ncRNAs of diverse classes. Putting the results of the two studies together, we show that small RNAs may also play an important role in regulating the host response to virus infection. The small RNA transcriptome deep sequencing analysis was performed on lung samples from our previously published study (Unique signatures of long noncoding RNA expression in response to virus infection and altered innate immune signaling , X Peng, MBio. 2010 Oct 26;1(5). pii: e00206-10.). We infected four of the eight founder mouse strains used in generating the Collaborative Cross, a recombinant inbred mouse resource for mapping complex traits (41). These strains included 129S1/SvImJ (129/S1), WSB/EiJ (WSB), PWK/PhJ (PWK), and CAST/EiJ (CAST) mice. Ten-week-old mice were intranasally infected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone or with 1X10^5 PFU of mouse adapted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV; rMA15), or 500 PFU of influenza A virus strain A/Pr/8/34 (H1N1; PR8). To match the previous whole-transcriptome analysis, we performed small RNA transcriptome sequencing analysis on the same eight samples from mice with SARS-CoV infections, including one SARS-CoV rMA15-infected mouse and one matched mock-infected mouse from each of the four strains at 2 days postinfection (dpi). In addition, we sequenced the small RNA transcriptome for 12 samples obtained from influenza virus infected mice, including two PR8-infected mice and one matched mockinfected mouse from each of the four strains at 2 dpi.