RNAi off-target analysis in Trp53-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts transduced with miRNA-based shRNAs targeting Trp53.
ABSTRACT: We analyzed miRNA-based shRNA off-target effects by transducing Trp53-/- MEFs at single- and high-copy with six well-characterized, potent and weak Trp53 shRNAs. To advance RNAi therapy for KRAS-mutant cancer, we developed a functionally validated library of siRNAs against RAS pathway genes that minimize off-target effects and enable combination gene silencing at low dose. We developed an in vivo model for real-time tracking of nanoparticle-based siRNA delivery and offer proof-of-principle that siRNA-mediated inhibition of a single gene (KRAS) or combinations of genes (A/B/C-RAF or KRAS+PIK3C-A/B) can impair the growth of KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer xenografts. Trp53-/- MEFs were transduced with LMP expressing Trp53 shRNAs at single copy (11-21% infection efficiency) and high copy (>98% infection efficiency), selected on puromycin and grown in absence of the selection agent before harvest. Uninfected Trp53-/- MEFs and Trp53-/- MEFs infected with an empty vector control served as “no shRNA” reference.
Project description:We wished to investigate the role of E-cadherin loss in our mouse parietal cell/pre-parietal cell E-cadherin knock-out, p53 knock-out, oncogenic Kras induced model of gastric cancer. As such, we isolated RNA from stomach tissue from our E-cadherin knock-out model (Atp4b-Cre;Cdh1(fl/fl);Kras(LSL-G12D/+);Trp53(fl/fl);Rosa26(LSL-YFP/LSL-YFP)) and our E-cadherin heterozygous model (Atp4b-Cre;Cdh1(fl/+);Kras(LSL-G12D/+);Trp53(fl/fl);Rosa26(LSL-YFP/LSL-YFP)). We then performed a microarray on this stomach tissue from four independent mice of each genotype. Differentially expressed genes were identified and gene set overlap analysis was used to identify pathways enriched in one model over the other.
Project description:Loss of Pten in the KrasG12D;Amhr2-Cre mutant mice leads to the transformation of ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells and rapid development of low-grade, invasive serous adenocarcinomas. Tumors occur with 100% penetrance and express elevated expression of wild type tumor repressor protein 53 (TRP53). To test the functions of TRP53 in the Pten;Kras (Trp53+) mice, we disrupted the Trp53 gene yielding Pten;Kras(Trp53-) mice. By comparing morphology and gene expression profiles in the Trp53+ and Trp53- OSE cells, we document that wild-type TRP53 acts as a major promoter of OSE cell survival and differentiation: cells lacking Trp53 are transformed yet are less adherent, migratory and invasive and exhibit a gene expression profile more like normal OSE cells. These results provide a new paradigm: wild type TRP53 does not preferentially induce apoptotic or senescent related genes in the Pten;Kras(Trp53+) cancer cells but rather increases genes regulating DNA repair, cell cycle progression and proliferation and decreases putative tumor suppressor genes. However, if TRP53 activity is forced higher by exposure to nutlin-3a (an MDM2 antagonist), TRP53 suppresses DNA repair genes and induces the expression of genes that control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Thus, in the Pten;Kras(Trp53+) mutant mouse OSE cells and likely in human TP53+ low grade ovarian cancer cells, wild type TRP53 controls global molecular changes that are dependent on its activation status. These results suggest that activation of TP53 may provide a promising new therapy for managing type I ovarian cancer and other cancers in humans where wild-type TP53 is expressed. A direct comparison of ovarian surface epithelia cells from three different genotype mice
Project description:Densely ionizing radiation is a major component of the space radiation environment and has potentially greater carcinogenic effect compared to sparsely ionizing radiation that is prevalent in the terrestrial environment. It is unknown to what extent the irradiated microenvironment contributes to the differential carcinogenic potential of densely ionizing radiation. To address this gap, 10-week old BALB/c mice were irradiated with 100 cGy sparsely ionizing g-radiation or 10, 30, or 80 cGy of densely ionizing, 350 MeV/amu Si particles and transplanted 3 days later with syngeneic Trp53 null mammary fragments. Tumor appearance was monitored for 600 days. Tumors arising in Si-particle irradiated mice had a shorter median time to appearance, grew faster and were more likely to metastasize. Most tumors arising in sham-irradiated mice were ER-positive, pseudo-glandular and contained both basal keratin 14 and luminal keratin 8/18 cells (designated K14/18), while most tumors arising in irradiated hosts were K8/18 positive (designated K18) and ER negative. Comparison of K18 vs K14/18 tumor expression profiles showed that genes increased in K18 tumors were associated with ERBB2 and KRAS while decreased genes overlapped with those down regulated in metastasis and by loss of E-cadherin. Consistent with this, K18 tumors grew faster than K14/18 tumors and more mice with K18 tumors developed lung metastases compared to mice with K14/18 tumors. However, K18 tumors arising in Si-particle irradiated mice grew even faster and were more metastatic compared to control mice. A K18 Si-irradiated host profile was enriched in genes involved in mammary stem cells, stroma, and Notch signaling. Thus systemic responses to densely ionizing radiation enriches for a ER-negative, K18-positive tumor, whose biology is more aggressive compared to similar tumors arising in non-irradiated hosts. Key Words: ionizing radiation; breast cancer; heavy ion radiation;initiation; promotion 3 different dose of Si were used. Total RNA was extracted from mammary tumors derived from transplantations of non-irradiated p53null mammary fragments into irradiated hosts. We analyzed a total of 45 Trp53-null tumors: 18 from sham-irradiated hosts, 9 from 10 cGy Si-irradiated hosts, 10 from 30 cGy Si-irradiated hosts, and 8 from irradiated hosts.
Project description:Medulloblastomas (MBs) are cerebellar tumors that can be classified into molecularly distinct subgroups that differ in pathology and prognosis. The mechanisms that underlie subgroup specification are largely unknown. While human SHH MBs express MYCN, Group3 (G3) MBs are associated with c-MYC (MYC) overexpression and often show metastasis that confers a poor prognosis. Although MYC proteins are thought to be functionally exchangeable, ectopic expression of Myc or N-myc in Trp53-/-;Cdkn2c-/- cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) induces G3 and SHH MBs, respectively, demonstrating that each Myc protein has distinct biological properties. We now show that Myc and N-myc differ in their affinity to Miz1 and that Myc, but not N-myc, effectively recruits Miz1 to its target sites on chromatin. The interaction of Myc with Miz1 is required for the genesis of G3 MB. Myc suppresses ciliogenesis and “reprograms” the transcriptome of SHH-dependent GNPs to stem-like cells by repressing genes highly expressed in SHH MB via Miz1. Consistently, target genes of Myc/Miz1 are repressed in human G3 MBs but not in other MB subgroups. Collectively, the data show that the interaction of Myc with Miz1 is a defining hallmark of G3 MB development. In this study, we show that Myc and N-myc differ in their affinity for Miz1, and Myc/Miz1 interaction is required for Group3 medulloblastoma (MB). The gene expression profiles of these tumors were compared to our previously published Group3 MB model as well as SHH model of MB (Kawachi et al., 2012, Cancer Cell). Cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) [dka220-222] from postnatal (P) 6 Math1-GFP;Trp53-/-;Cdkn2c-/-. For SHH medulloblastomas, [dka204-206] and [blm015-017 or dka050-dka051], spontaneous medulloblastomas from Cdkn2c-/-;Trp53Fl/Fl;Nestin-Cre (Kawachi et al., 2012, Cancer Cell) and Ptch1+/-;Cdkn2c-/- (Uziel et al., 2005, Genes Dev) were used, respectively. Myc- [dka201-203] and MycV394D (termed MycVD thereafter)- [bvo017-bvo023] tumors were from Trp53-/-;Cdkn2c-/- cerebella of P6-P7 pups. Myc/ΔPOZ tumors [bvo002-bvo006] were obtained from Trp5Fl/Fl;Miz1ΔPOZ/POZ;Nestin-Cre cerebella of P6-P7 pups.
Project description:A series of mouse models designed to mimic pediatric medulloblastoma types in humans were tested by microarray and compared to published human medulloblastoma data Myc-type tumors [dka201-203] were generated by orthotopic injection of Myc-infected cerebellar cells from Cdkn2c-/-, Trp53-/-, Atoh1-GFP mice into the cerebral cortex of immunocompromised nude mice. For Shh-type medulloblastomas [dka204-206], spontaneous medulloblastomas from [Cdkn2c-/-; Trp53Fl/Fl; Nestin-Cre] (Uziel et al.,2005 Genes Dev) were used. FACS-sorted GFP-positive [dka220-222] and GFP-negative [dka211, 212 and 219] populations were obtained from postnatal day 6 Cdkn2c-/-, Trp53-/-, Atoh1-GFP cerebella. Myc-type secondary tumors [dka223-225] were generated by orthotopic transplantation of cultured sphere cells from Myc-type primary tumors.
Project description:The mouse R178E (EE) mutation of the Trp53 is a p53 mutant protein with native conformation that lacks the ability to form tetramers and thus constitutes a mutant form of p53 that lacks DNA binding cooperativity. Here we want to assess DNA binding ability of the EE mutant in MEFs under untreated conditions and following p53 stabilization with the Mdm2 inhibitor nutlin-3a and compare it to p53 KO and WT mice.
Project description:We examined the transformation susceptibility of different cerebellar stem/progenitors by developing several new Group3 medulloblastoma murine models using orthotopic transplantation and in utero electroporation (EP)-based in vivo gene transfer with Cre/LoxP-mediated conditional Myc gene activation and loss of Trp53 function. We used microarrays to compared the transcriptome of these novel Group3 medulloblastoma mouse models to existing mouse models of medulloblastoma subgroups and used cross-species analysis to compare these models to human medulloblastoma subgroups This study aimed to investigate the cell of origin of Group3 MB using our orthotopical MYC model followed by a novel electroporation approach. Orthotopic cell-lineage specific MYC tumors were generated by enforced Myc expression in P6 GNPs isolated from P0-1 tamoxifen treated [Atoh1-CreER;Trp53fl/-] and [Prom1-CreER;Trp53fl/-] mice followed by cortical implants in immunocompromised mice. These tumors are referred to as Atoh1ER-MYC [dka072-075], Prom1-CreER [dka077-081]. The first Group3 MB models in which tumors developed in situ were generated by electroporation of plasmids containing Myc and dominant negative Trp53 flanked by loxP sites into the fourth ventricle of E13.5 Blbp-Cre [dka081, 087, 089, 090, 091 and blm121], Gad2-IRES-Cre [blm128-130 and blm134] and Ptf1a-Cre [blm135-137] mouse embryos. The gene expression profile of these tumors were compared to our previously published Group3 MB model as well as SHH and WNT models of medulloblastoma. For SHH subgroup medulloblastoma, [dka001-005, 009, 033 and 034] and [dka050-057], spontaneous medulloblastomas from [Cdkn2c-/-; Trp53Fl/Fl; Nestin-Cre] and [Cdkn2c-/-; Ptch1+/-] (Uziel et al.,2005 Genes Dev) were used, respectively. For Group3 medulloblastomas, [dka013-16, 049 and 065-067], in which Myc was overexpressed in Cdkn2c-/-, Trp53-/- cerebellar cells and implanted into the cortices of immunocompromised nude mice prior to tumor isolation. For WNT subgroup medulloblastomas [pgr003, 016 and 066], spontaneously developed tumors from CTNNB1+/lox (ex3); BLBP-Cre; Trp53Fl/Fl (Gibson et al., 2010, Nature) were removed for RNA extraction.
Project description:Trp53-null, Trp53-515C/515C (encoding p53R172P), or wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts were treated with 6 Gy gamma-radiation and harvested 6 hours later to compare expression profiles of genes regulated by wild-type p53 and p53R172P. Trp53-null cells were included as a negative control.
Project description:This experiment was done to analyze the p53 status in gastrointestinal tumors in the colon and small intestine in APC mice carrying either a wild type p53 or a mutant p53 (R172H) allele and compare colon and small intestine tumors.
Project description:Because TP53 mutation and CDH1 inactivation are the most common abnormalities found in human type II endometrial carcinomas, the contribution of dysfunctional TRP53 and CDH1 in the tumor microenvironment to induce type II endometrial cancer was characterized using mouse as a model. The results of our analysis revealed that conditional deletion of Cdh1 and Trp53 in the uterus regulated most of the genes categorized by their involvement in inflammatory responses, immune cell trafficking, cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction and cellular growth and proliferation. A direct comparison of mouse uteri (n=3) from control, single ablation of Cdh1 or Trp53, and ablation of both Cdh1 and Trp53 at 2 months of age.