Identification of neurexophilin 3 as a novel maturation factor for induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neuron progenitors
ABSTRACT: To develop more potent cell transplantation therapy for neurodegenerative disorder such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), the condition of the host brain environment should be considered to improve the outcome of grafted neurons. However, we never know which condition of host brain environment is suitable and supportive for the donor cells. In addition, what endogenous factor(s) do contribute to improve the engraftment of donor cells in host brain? Therefore, the identification of such effective factor(s) strongly contribute to improve the overcome of cell transplantation therapy. Here, we constructed the experimental approach to identify the effective soluble factor(s) for cell-grafting by comparison between various parkinsonian mouse brain condition and transplantation outcome using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neuron progenitors. According to our experimental approach, we have identified secreted peptide, neurexophilin 3 (NXPH3) that enhance the survival of grafted-iPSC-derived DA neurons. Grafted-iPSC-derived DA neurons were increased by local supplement of NXPH3 protein. In addition, the expression level of NXPH3 in putamen of PD patients was significantly decreased than that of normal controls by using postmortem samples. These findings would be expected to contribute the new experimental strategy to indentify the endogenous effective factors for cell-grafting as in vivo application of stem cell technology. Mice were divided into three groups as follows: (i) 1 week after acute administration (four times by every 2 h) of free base MPTP HCl (20 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg in total, intraperitoneally). (ii) 8 weeks after chronic administration (once a day for 20 consecutive days) of free base MPTP HCl (4 mg/kg per day, 80 mg/kg in total). (iii) 1 week after injection (four times by every 2 h) of saline (control).
Project description:Implications for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease Parkinson’s disease and its characteristic symptoms are thought to arise from the progressive degeneration of specific midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In humans, DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and their projections to the striatum show selective vulnerability, while neighboring DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are relatively spared from degeneration. This pattern of cell loss is mimicked in humans, primates, and certain rodents by the neurotoxin MPTP. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that there are factors in the VTA that are potentially neuroprotective against MPTP and that these factors change over time. We have found a differential transcriptional response within the cells of the SN and VTA to sustained exposure to a low dose of MPTP. Specifically, the VTA has increased expression of 148 genes as an early response to MPTP and 113 genes as a late response to MPTP toxicity. This response encompasses many areas of cellular function, including protein regulation (Phf6) and ion/metal regulation (PANK2, Car4). Notably, these responses were largely absent from the cells of the SN. Our data show a clear dynamic response in maintaining the homeostasis and viability of the neurons in the VTA that is lacking in the SN after neurotoxin challenge. We used microarrays to analyze the differential response of the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) to a chronic low dose of the neurotoxin MPTP. Transgenic hTH-GFP mice were treated with MPTP (4mg/kg) for either 2 or 10 days. Control mice were given an equal volume of saline for 10 days. Dopamine neurons from the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental areas of control and MPTP treated animals were laser captured. The RNA was isolated and processed for microarray hybridization. Each group had three biological replicates, for a total of 18 samples. Three each in the following: Control SN, Control VTA, 2 day MPTP SN, 2 day MPTP VTA, 10 day MPTP SN, 10 day MPTP VTA. Samples were log2 transformed and RMA normalized using Agilent Genespring 10.0 GX.
Project description:In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the progressive loss of substantia nigra dopamine cells has been associated with their vulnerability to oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. To identify multiple gene transcription alterations that may potentially underlie early stages of related degenerative processes in brain, we used the subcrhonic MPTP mouse model of PD and microarray analysis at 4 days post-MPTP when neurotoxic activity is maximal. Since PD results in gene changes throughout the brain, we assessed MPTP's effects in multiple regions: frontal cortex, striatum and midbrain. Experiment Overall Design: Mus musculus adults were randomly assigned to either MPTP or saline treatment groups. Brain regions of interest (frontal cortex, striatum and midbrain) were dissected from both groups for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide with growing prevalence. MPTP is a neurotoxin which causes the appearance of Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. The involvement of the cholinergic system in PD has been identified decades ago and anti-cholinergic drugs were upon the first drugs used for symptomatic treatment of PD. Of note, MPTP intoxication is a model of choice for symptomatic neuroprotective therapies since it have been quite predictive. Mice were exposed to the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), with or without the protective acetylcholinesterase (AChE-R) variant. Transgenic AChE-S (the synaptic variant), AChE-R (the shorter, protective variant) and FVB/N control mice were included in this study. Two brain regions were examined: the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and the striatal caudate-putamen (CPu). Each condition (i.e brain region and transgenic variant) was examined on both naive and MPTP-exposed mice. 29 microarrays including hybridizations of control FVB/N PFC, control FVB/N CPu,control S transgenics PFC, control S transgenics CPu, control R transgenics PFC, control R transgenice CPu, MPTP FVB/N PFC, MPTP FVB/N CPu, MPTP S transgenics PFC, MPTP S transgenics CPu, MPTP R transgenics PFC and MPTP R transgenice CPu mRNA.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE24829: Gene expression data from striatal regions of MPTP-intoxicated mouse brain by acupuncture GSE24830: Gene expression data from cervical spinal cord regions of MPTP-intoxicated mouse by acupuncture Refer to individual Series
Project description:We have previously detected cyclin D1-initiated and p53-related (PERP; p53 apoptosis-associated target) cell death in a striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated Parkinsonian mouse model by adaptor-tagged competitive PCR (ATAC-PCR) (Synapse 51, 279-286, 2004). In order to establish the mechanism of dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson’s disease, various Parkinsonian animal models should be studied. Therefore, the time-course alteration of gene expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta was investigated after a single administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in common marmosets. In the MPTP model, gene expression of neither cyclin D1 nor PERP was altered. There were also few common alterations in gene expression between the MPTP and 6-OHDA models. This suggests that the mechanism of cell death may differ between these models, and extensive study in various Parkinsonian models should be performed to elucidate the mechanisms of dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson’s disease. Experiment Overall Design: Materials and methods Experiment Overall Design: 1. Animals Experiment Overall Design: Five 3-year-old male common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) weighing 350–400 g were used. A single marmoset was used as a vehicle-treated control, with the rest being administered MPTP. A microarray experiment and an immunohistochemical study were performed in the same animals. They were colonized in the Center for Life Science Resources in Kagoshima University, Japan. Animals were housed with free access to standard food in an air-conditioned room under a constant 12 h light/dark cycle (lights on at 7:00 a.m.) at a temperature of 25–27°C and 45–55% humidity. All efforts were made to minimize animal suffering, and to reduce the number of animals used. The present experiments were carried out after obtaining permission from the Committee of Animal Experimentation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan. Experiment Overall Design: 2. MPTP administration Experiment Overall Design: A single dose of MPTP was administered intravenously (i.v.) to the animals in order to examine the time-course alteration in gene expression. As in our previous study, the dose of MPTP was 2.5 mg/kg (Nomoto et al., 1997). At this dose, animals exhibit immobility during an entire day, while doses greater than 2.5 mg/kg can induce death. MPTP hydrochloride (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 0.9% saline, and administered under intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia (40 mg/kg). Under deep anesthesia with pentobarbital, the animals were decapitated either at 2 h, 6 h, 1 day or 14 days after MPTP administration. All experiments using MPTP were performed in accordance with safety guidelines (Przedborski et al., 2001). Experiment Overall Design: 3. Laser capture microdissection Experiment Overall Design: The midbrain of each marmoset was dissected on an ice-cold glass plate, and mounted on a specimen block with O.C.T. compound (Tissue-Tek, Sakura Finetechnical, Tokyo, Japan). The midbrains were frozen by covering them with very finely powdered dry ice. Sections (8 μm thickness) were cut on a cryostat (Microm HM500S, Carl Zeiss Japan, Tokyo, Japan), and mounted on ice-cold, membrane-coated glass slides (Carl Zeiss Japan). The membranes on the glass slides were coated with poly-L-lysine (P8920; Sigma). Immediately after mounting, slides were cooled on dry ice and stored at –80°C for less than 3 days. Slides were fixed in ethanol/acetate solution (19:1) at 4°C for 3 min, and washed with PBS at 4°C for 1 min. Slides were stained with 0.1% toluidine blue at room temperature for 10 s, washed with PBS at 4°C for 10 s, and then air-dried for 5 min. Immediately after staining, slides were processed for laser capture microdissection (LCM). Experiment Overall Design: A Leica AS LMD (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) was used for LCM. SNc sections corresponded to level A4.5 of the brain atlas (Stephan et al., 1980). These sections contained transverse sections of the oculomotor nerve. A strip of the unilateral SNc was dissected (Fig. 1). The SNcs from two slides were collected and placed in a PCR tube containing 10 μl extraction buffer of the PicoPure RNA Isolation Kit (Arcturus Bioscience, Mountain View, CA, USA). Experiment Overall Design: 4. Microarray experiments Experiment Overall Design: Total RNA was extracted by the PicoPure RNA Isolation Kit, and eluted in approximately 10 μl buffer, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of amplified RNA (aRNA) for the microarray experiments, total RNA was amplified using two rounds of in vitro transcription. The first round of amplification was performed using the RiboAmp HS RNA Amplification Kit (Arcturus). The second round of amplification used the Low RNA Input Fluorescent Linear Amplification Kit (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and cyanine-3 or cyanine-5 labeling. The labeled aRNA was hybridized with Agilent whole human genome oligo microarray G4112A. In order to correct the buffer composition in the second round of amplification using the Low RNA Input Fluorescent Linear Amplification Kit, cDNA (11 μl) that was purified in the round 2 procedure by the RiboAmp HS RNA Amplification Kit, was added to the modified transcription buffer of the Agilent kit. Each sample contained 4 μl of 5 first strand buffer, 20 μl of 4 transcription buffer, 6 μl 0.1 M DTT, 8 μl NTP mix, 6.4 μl 50% PEG, 0.5 μl RNase inhibitor (RNase Out; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), 0.6 µl inorganic pyrophosphatase, 0.8 μl T7 RNA polymerase, 2.4 μl cyanine (PerkinElmer Life Sciences, Boston, MA, USA; cyanine-3 for controls and cyanine-5 for MPTP-treated marmosets), and 20.3 μl DW. Labeled aRNA was synthesized according to the instructions for the Agilent kit. Experiment Overall Design: An Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer and an RNA 6000 Pico LabChip Kit were used to examine the length distribution of labeled aRNAs. A preliminary experiment using the protocol found in the appendices of the HistoGene LCM Immunofluorescence Staining Kit (Arcturus) was performed to determine the degree of degradation of total RNA that occurred during tissue staining.
Project description:It has been shown that acupuncture at acupoints GB34 and LR3 inhibits the degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. This preventative effect of peripheral acupuncture stimulation is hypothesized to be transmitted through the spinal cord to the nigrostriatal neurons. The gene expression profile changes following acupuncture at the acupoints were investigated in the cervical spinal cord of an MPTP-induced parkinsonism model using an Affymetrix genechip mouse gene 1.0 ST array. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four experimental groups; ① C: Control, ② M: MPTP-treatment only, ③ MA: MPTP- and acupuncture-treatment at acupoints GB34 and LR3, ④ MNA: MPTP- and acupuncture-treatment at non-acupoints. Total RNA was isolated from the cervical spinal cord regions of each experimental group (4 experimental group × 2 samples of each experimental group = total 8 samples).
Project description:Acupuncture at acupoints GB34 and LR3 has been reported to inhibit nigrostriatal degeneration in parkinsonism models, yet the genes related to this preventive effect of acupuncture on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system remain elusive. We investigated gene expression profile changes in the striatal region of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism models after acupuncture at the acupoints GB34 and LR3 C57BL/6 mice were divided into four experimental groups; ① C: Control, ② M: MPTP-treatment only, ③ MA: MPTP- and acupuncture-treatment at acupoints GB34 and LR3, ④ MNA: MPTP- and acupuncture-treatment at non-acupoints. Total RNA was isolated from two brains' striatal regions of each experimental group (4 experimental group × 2 samples of each experimental group = total 8 samples).
Project description:Acupuncture stimulations at GB34 and LR3 inhibit the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the parkinsonism animal models. Especially, behavioral tests showed that acupuncture stimulations improved the motor dysfunction in a previous study. The thalamus is a crucial area for the motor circuit and has been identified as one of the most markedly damaged areas in Parkinson’s disease (PD), so acupuncture stimulations might also have an effect on the thalamic damage. We investigated gene expression profile changes in the thalamic region of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism models after acupuncture at the acupoints GB34 and LR3 C57BL/6 mice were divided into four experimental groups; ① C: Control, ② M: MPTP-treatment only, ③ MA: MPTP- and acupuncture-treatment at acupoints GB34 and LR3, ④ MNA: MPTP- and acupuncture-treatment at non-acupoints. Total RNA was isolated from two brains' thalamic regions of each experimental group (4 experimental group × 2 samples of each experimental group = total 8 samples).
Project description:RNA-SEQ of dopaminergic neurons from the mid-brain of mice that received one daily intraperitoneal injection of MPTP-HCl (30 mg/kg free base per day) or saline for five consecutive days. Samples were taken 4 days. Murine midbrain dopaminergic neurons that were treated with MPTP-HCl
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, iPSC-derived donor cells may inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. Purification of neural progenitor cells or DA neurons as suitable donor cells has been attempted, but the isolation of DA progenitor cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells has so far been unsuccessful. Here we show human iPSC-derived DA progenitor cells can be efficiently isolated by cell sorting using a floor plate marker, Corin. we were able to develop a method for 1) scalable DA neuron induction on human laminin fragment and 2) sorting DA progenitor cells using an anti-Corin antibody. Furthermore, we determined the optimal timing for the cell sorting and transplantation. The grafted cells survived well and functioned as midbrain DA neurons in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, and showed minimal risk of tumor formation. The sorting of Corin-positive cells is favorable in terms of both safety and efficiency, and our protocol will contribute to the clinical application of human iPSCs for Parkinson’s disease. Differentiated human iPSC-derived neural progenitors just after sorting (day12 unsorted, day12 Corin+) and dopaminergic progenitors after an aggregation culture (day28 and day42, unsorted and day12-sorted, respectively), and human fetal ventral mesencephalon and dorsal mesencephalon (gestational age of 7.5 weeks) were subjected to RNA extraction and hybrdization on Affymetrix microarrays. Each sample except for human mesencephalon, undifferentiated iPSC, and day12-unsorted, day42-sample has 3 or 4 repeats.