Mammalian NET-seq reveals genome-wide nascent transcription coupled to RNA processing
ABSTRACT: We have generated single-nucleotide resolution, nascent transcription profiles from HeLa cells by developing Native Elongation Transcript sequencing technology for mammalian chromatin (mNET-seq). Our extensive data sets provide a substantial resource to study mammalian nascent transcript profiles. We reveal unanticipated phosphorylation states for RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (Pol II CTD) at both gene ends. We also observe that following 5’ splice site cleavage by the spliceosome, upstream exon transcripts are tethered to Pol II CTD phosphorylated on the serine 5 position (S5P) which is accumulated over downstream exons. We further show that depletion of termination factors substantially reduces Pol II pausing at gene ends leading to termination defects. Remarkably termination factors play an additional promoter role by restricting non-productive RNA synthesis and redistributing Pol II CTD S2P to promoters. These data demonstrate that CTD phosphorylation is more dynamic and variably distributed across mammalian transcription units than previously envisaged. To monitor nascent RNA within the mammalian Pol II complex, and its association with different CTD phosphorylation states, we employed mNET-seq methodology on HeLa cells, complemented with direct sequencing of chromatin-bound RNA (ChrRNA-seq). mNET-seq was preformed using the antibodies 8WG16, CMA602, CMA603 and CMA601, which are specific for unphosphorylated CTD, Ser2 phosphorylation, Ser5 phosphorylation and all CTD isoforms, respectively. In another experiment, to evaluate the effect of transcription termination factors in nascent RNA production by Pol II, mNET-seq and complemented with ChrRNA-seq was preformed on HeLa cells transfected with siRNA against PTBP1, CPSF73, CstF64+CstF64tau or Xrn2, and the gene profiles were compared with profiles from HeLa transfected with siRNA for Luciferase generated by the same protocol.
Project description:Transcription is a highly dynamic process. Consequently, we have developed native elongating transcript sequencing technology for mammalian chromatin (mNET-seq), which generates single-nucleotide resolution, nascent transcription profiles. Nascent RNA was detected in the active site of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) along with associated RNA processing intermediates. In particular, we detected 5'splice site cleavage by the spliceosome, showing that cleaved upstream exon transcripts are associated with Pol II CTD phosphorylated on the serine 5 position (S5P), which is accumulated over downstream exons. Also, depletion of termination factors substantially reduces Pol II pausing at gene ends, leading to termination defects. Notably, termination factors play an additional promoter role by restricting non-productive RNA synthesis in a Pol II CTD S2P-specific manner. Our results suggest that CTD phosphorylation patterns established for yeast transcription are significantly different in mammals. Taken together, mNET-seq provides dynamic and detailed snapshots of the complex events underlying transcription in mammals.
Project description:Transcription controls splicing and other gene regulatory processes, yet mechanisms remain obscure due to our fragmented knowledge of the molecular connections between the dynamically phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) and regulatory factors. By systematically isolating phosphorylation states of the CTD heptapeptide repeat (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7), we identify hundreds of protein factors that are differentially enriched, revealing unappreciated connections between the Pol II CTD and co-transcriptional processes. These data uncover a novel role for threonine-4 in 3’ end processing through controlling the transition between cleavage and termination. Furthermore, serine-5 phosphorylation seeds spliceosomal assembly immediately downstream of 3’ splice sites through a direct interaction with spliceosomal subcomplex, U1. Strikingly, threonine-4 phosphorylation also impacts splicing through serving as a mark of spliceosomal release and ensuring efficient post-transcriptional splicing genome-wide. Thus, comprehensive Pol II interactomes identify the complex and functional connections between transcription machinery and other gene regulatory complexes. Overall design: NET-seq of WT, rai1, rtt103 and Pol II CTD threonine-4 mutants. Nascent RNA-seq of WT and Pol II CTD threonine-4 mutant. RNA-seq of WT and Pol II CTD threonine-4 mutants. ChIP-nexus analysis of phospho-Ser5 and phospho-Thr4 of the Pol II CTD and ChIP-nexus of splicing factors.
Project description:ChIP-chip was performed to identify the genomic binding locations for the termination factors Nrd1, and Rtt103, and for RNA polymerase (Pol) II phosphorylated at the tyrosine 1 and threonine 4 position of its C-terminal domain (CTD). In different phases of the transcription cycle, Pol II recruits different factors via its CTD, which consists of heptapeptide repeats with the sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Here we show that the CTD of transcribing yeast Pol II is phosphorylated at Tyr1, and that this impairs recruitment of termination factors. Tyr1 phosphorylation levels rise downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), and decrease before the polyadenylation (pA) site. Tyr1-phosphorylated gene bodies are depleted of CTD-binding termination factors Nrd1, Pcf11, and Rtt103. Tyr1 phosphorylation blocks CTD binding by these termination factors, but stimulates binding of elongation factor Spt6. These results show that CTD modifications can not only stimulate but also block factor recruitment, and lead to an extended CTD code for transcription cycle coordination.
Project description:The transcription cycle of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) correlates with changes to the phosphorylation state of its large subunit C-terminal domain (CTD). We recently developed Native Elongation Transcript sequencing using mammalian cells (mNET-seq), which generates single-nucleotide-resolution genome-wide profiles of nascent RNA and co-transcriptional RNA processing that are associated with different CTD phosphorylation states. Here we provide a detailed protocol for mNET-seq. First, Pol II elongation complexes are isolated with specific phospho-CTD antibodies from chromatin solubilized by micrococcal nuclease digestion. Next, RNA derived from within the Pol II complex is size fractionated and Illumina sequenced. Using mNET-seq, we have previously shown that Pol II pauses at both ends of protein-coding genes but with different CTD phosphorylation patterns, and we have also detected phosphorylation at serine 5 (Ser5-P) CTD-specific splicing intermediates and Pol II accumulation over co-transcriptionally spliced exons. With moderate biochemical and bioinformatic skills, mNET-seq can be completed in ?6 d, not including sequencing and data analysis.
Project description:At the 3'-ends of genes, RNA polymerase (Pol) II is dephosphorylated at tyrosine 1 residues of its C-terminal domain (CTD), resulting in recruitment of transcription termination factors. We show that the multisubunit cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF) is a Pol II CTD phosphatase and its Glc7 subunit is required for Tyr1 dephosphorylation at the poly-adenylation site and Pol II termination in vivo. ChIP-chip was performed to examine the effect of Glc7 nuclear depletion on genome-wide Pol II occupancy [using ?-Rpb3 (1Y26, cat. no. W0012, neoclone) antibody] and CTD tyrosine 1 phosphorylation levels [using ?-TyrY1P (3D12, D. Eick) antibody].
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, short noncoding RNA (ncRNA) generated by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) are terminated by the NRD complex consisting of Nrd1, Nab3, and Sen1. We now show that Pcf11, a component of the cleavage and polyadenylation complex (CPAC), is also generally required for NRD-dependent transcription termination through the action of its C-terminal domain (CTD)-interacting domain (CID). Pcf11 localizes downstream from Nrd1 on NRD terminators, and its recruitment depends on Nrd1. Furthermore, mutation of the Pcf11 CID results in Nrd1 retention on chromatin, delayed degradation of ncRNA, and restricted Pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation and Sen1-Pol II interaction. Finally, the pcf11-13 and sen1-1 mutant phenotypes are very similar, as both accumulate RNA:DNA hybrids and display Pol II pausing downstream from NRD terminators. We predict a mechanism by which the exchange of Nrd1 and Pcf11 on chromatin facilitates Pol II pausing and CTD Ser2-P phosphorylation. This in turn promotes Sen1 activity that is required for NRD-dependent transcription termination in vivo.
Project description:Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) governs stage-specific interactions with different cellular machines. The CTD consists of Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 heptad repeats and sequential phosphorylations of Ser7, Ser5 and Ser2 occur universally at Pol II-transcribed genes. Phosphorylation of Thr4, however, appears to selectively modulate transcription of specific classes of genes. Here, we identify ten new Thr4 kinases from different kinase structural groups. Irreversible chemical inhibition of the most active Thr4 kinase, Hrr25, reveals a novel role for this kinase in transcription termination of specific class of noncoding snoRNA genes. Genome-wide profiles of Hrr25 reveal a selective enrichment at 3' regions of noncoding genes that display termination defects. Importantly, phospho-Thr4 marks placed by Hrr25 are recognized by Rtt103, a key component of the termination machinery. Our results suggest that these uncommon CTD kinases place phospho-Thr4 marks to regulate expression of targeted genes.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae short non-coding RNA (ncRNA) generated by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) are terminated by the NRD complex consisting of Nrd1, Nab3 and Sen1. We now show that Pcf11, a component of the cleavage and polyadenylation complex (CPAC), is generally required for NRD-dependent transcription termination through the action of its CTD interacting domain (CID). Pcf11 localizes downstream of Nrd1 on NRD terminators, and its recruitment depends on Nrd1. Furthermore mutation of the Pcf11 CID results in Nrd1 retention on chromatin, delayed degradation of ncRNA and restricts Pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation and Sen1-Pol II interaction. Finally, the pcf11-13 and sen1-1 mutant phenotypes are very similar as both accumulate RNA:DNA hybrids and display Pol II pausing downstream of NRD terminators. We predict a mechanism whereby Nrd1 and Pcf11 exchange on chromatin facilitates Pol II pausing and CTD Ser2-P phosphorylation. This in turn promotes Sen1 activity that is required for NRD-dependent transcription termination in vivo. ChIP-seq with antibody against pol II in wild type and Pcf11 mutants: Pcf11-2, Pcf11-9 and Pcf11-13 grown at 25C and 37C along with input samples
Project description:Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II C-terminal domain (CTD) repeats (1-YSPTSPS-7) is coupled to transcription and may act as a 'code' that controls mRNA synthesis and processing. To examine the code in budding yeast, we mapped genome-wide CTD Ser2, Ser5 and Ser7 phosphorylations and the CTD-associated termination factors Nrd1 and Pcf11. Phospho-CTD dynamics are not scaled to gene length and are gene-specific, with highest Ser5 and Ser7 phosphorylation at the 5' ends of well-expressed genes with nucleosome-occupied promoters. The CTD kinases Kin28 and Ctk1 markedly affect Pol II distribution in a gene-specific way. The code is therefore written differently on different genes, probably under the control of promoters. Ser7 phosphorylation is enriched on introns and at sites of Nrd1 accumulation, suggesting links to splicing and Nrd1 recruitment. Nrd1 and Pcf11 frequently colocalize, suggesting functional overlap. Unexpectedly, Pcf11 is enriched at centromeres and Pol III-transcribed genes.
Project description:Gene transcription is a highly complex and strictly regulated process. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) undergoes massive cycles of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the process of gene transcription. These post-translational modifications of CTD provide an interactive platform for various factors required for transcription initiation, elongation, termination, and co-transcriptional RNA processing. Pol II CTD kinases and phosphatases are key regulators and any deviation may cause genome-wide transcriptional dysregulation leading to various pathological conditions including cancer. PTEN, a well known tumor suppressor, is one of the most commonly somatically altered in diverse malignancies. When mutated in the germline, PTEN causes cancer predisposition. Numerous studies have demonstrated that PTEN regulates the expression of hundreds of genes, however, no mechanism is known so far. PTEN is a dual specificity phosphatase, using both lipid and protein as substrates. In the present study, we demonstrate that PTEN interacts with the RNA Pol II and that PTEN expression is inversely correlated with global phosphorylation of Pol II CTD. Furthermore, PTEN dephosphorylates Pol II CTD in vitro with a significant specificity for Ser5p. Interestingly, ChIP-seq data analysis revealed that PTEN globally binds to promoter proximal regions, and PTEN loss increases genome-wide Pol II Ser5p occupancy, suggest that PTEN is a Pol II CTD phosphatase. Our observations demonstrate an unexplored function of PTEN with the potential of global transcriptional regulation, adding a new dimension to somatic carcinogenesis and germline cancer predisposition.