Calibrating ChIP-seq with nucleosomal internal standards to measure histone modification density genome-wide
ABSTRACT: Despite serving as a central experimental technique in epigenetics research, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) suffers from several serious drawbacks: it is a relative measurement untethered to any external scale that obviates fair comparison amongst experiments; it employs antibody reagents that have differing affinity and specificity for target epitopes, which are in turn variable in abundance; and it is frequently not reproducible. To address these problems, we developed internal standard calibrated ChIP (ICeChIP), a method of spiking a native chromatin sample with nucleosomes reconstituted from recombinant and semisynthetic histones on barcoded DNA prior to immunoprecipitation. ICeChIP measures local histone modification densities on a biologically meaningful scale, enabling unbiased trans-experimental comparisons and revealing a correlation between the apparent symmetry of H3K4me3 in promoter nucleosomes and gene expression. Direct in situ assessment of immunoprecipitation accommodates for a number of experimental pitfalls, and provides a critical examination of untested assumptions inherent in conventional ChIP. Examination of spiked-in semi-synthetic nucleosomes in ICeChIP-seq experiments performed for HEK293, mESC E14 and DM S2 cell line
Project description:Selective maintenance of genomic methylation imprints during pre-implantation development is required for parental origin-specific expression of imprinted genes. The Kruppel-like zinc finger protein ZFP57 acts as a factor necessary for maintaining the DNA methylation memory at multiple imprinting control regions (ICRs) in early mouse embryos and ES cells. Maternal-zygotic deletion of ZFP57 in mice presents a highly penetrant phenotype with no animals surviving to birth. In addition, several cases of human transient neonatal diabetes (TND) are associated with somatic mutations in ZFP57 coding sequence. Here we comprehensively map sequence-specific ZFP57 binding sites in an allele-specific manner using hybrid ES cell lines from reciprocal crosses between C57BL/6J and Cast/EiJ mice assigning allele specificity to approximately two thirds of all binding sites. While half of these are biallelic and include ERV targets, the rest show mono-allelic binding based either on parental-origin or on genetic background of the allele. Parental-origin allele-specific binding was methylation-dependent and mapped only to imprinted DMRs established in the germline (gDMRs). No binding was evident at secondary somatically-derived DMRs. ZFP57-bound gDMRs can predict imprinted gene expression and we identify new imprinted genes, including the Fkbp6 gene with a critical function in mouse male germ cell development. Genetic-background specific sequence differences also influence ZFP57 binding. We show that genetic variation that disrupts the consensus binding motif and its methylation is associated with mono-allelic expression of neighbouring genes. The work described here uncovers further roles for ZFP57 mediated regulation of genomic imprinting and identifies a novel mechanism for genetically determined mono-allelic gene expression. Input and Zfp57 CHiP-Seq profiles of hybrid Black6/Cast ES cells were generated by sequencing using the Illumina GAIIx platform.
Project description:T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an immature hematopoietic malignancy driven mainly by oncogenic activation of NOTCH1 signaling. In this study we used a mouse model of T-ALL through the overexpression of the intarcellular transcriptionally active part of Notch1 (N1-IC). This model faithfully recapitulates the major characteristics of the human disease. Comparison of the leukemic cells from peripheral tumors(thymoma) of this mouse model to normal thymic cells Double Positive (DP) for the markers CD4 and CD8 that express very low levels of Notch1 showed major expression changes (please see GSE34554) in pathways controlling the transition from physiology to disease. Further correlation of the data to ChIP-Seq data from the same cell populations led us to identify a hitherto unknown antagonism of the Notch1 oncogenic pathway and the polycomb complex (PRC2) in leukemia. Importantly exome sequencing in primary samples from human patients with T-ALL revealed that the PRC2 complex is frequently mutated and inactivated, further supporting the tumor suppressor role of the complex in this disease. Gene expression profiles from CD4+/8+ Double Positive (named DP) derived from normal thymus and Notch1-IC over-expressing tumors (named T-ALL) were analyzed for the genomewide enrichments of two major activating epigenetic marks (Histone 3 Lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) and lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3)), one reprressive mark (Histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation, H3K27me3) and the major oncogene Notch1.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a block in myeloid differentiation the stage of which is dependent on the nature of the transforming oncogene and the developmental stage of the oncogenic hit. This is also true for the t(8;21) translocation which gives rise to the RUNX1/ETO fusion protein and initiates the most common form of human AML. To understand the molecular principles governing this differential action, we used the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells expressing an inducible RUNX1/ETO protein into blood cells as a traceable model combined with genome-wide analyses of transcription factor binding and gene expression. We found that RUNX1/ETO interferes with both the activating and repressive function of its normal counterpart, RUNX1, at early and late stages of blood cell development. However, the response of the transcriptional network to RUNX1/ETO expression is stage-specific, highlighting the molecular mechanisms determining specific target cell expansion after an oncogenic hit. High throughput sequencing data have been used to study RUNX1/ETO role in hematopoietic system
Project description:For the purpose of the Gene Regulatory Network validation we have performed chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) experiment for three transcription factors; namely GATA3, MAF and MYB. ChIP-Seq of GATA3, MAF and MYB in human naïve CD4+ T-cells differentiated toward Th1 and Th2 until day 6. Matched INPUT samples were also sequenced for each condition.
Project description:Pharmacological inhibition of chromatin co-regulatory factors represents a clinically validated strategy to modulate oncogenic signaling through selective attenuation of gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition preferentially abrogates the viability of multiple myeloma cell lines. Phenotypic effects are preceded by the direct transcriptional suppression of the lymphocyte-specific transcription factor IRF4 and the subsequent down-regulation of the IRF4 transcriptional program. Ectopic expression of IRF4 antagonizes the phenotypic effects of CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition and prevents the suppression of the IRF4 target c-MYC. These findings suggest that CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition represents a viable therapeutic strategy for targeting multiple myeloma and other lymphoid malignancies dependent on the IRF4 network. A total of 13 ChIP-seq samples were sequenced. Samples were treated with control (DMSO) or test compound (2.5 uM SGC-CBP30 or 0.25uM CPI267203) for 6 hours. Signal from input samples was included to subtract background signal from each ChIP-seq sample. Antibodies used were against p300, H3K18ac, H3K27ac, or BRD4.
Project description:The self-renewing pluripotent state was first captured in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) over two decades ago. The standard condition requires the presence of serum and LIF, which provide growth promoting signals for cell expansion. However, there are pro-differentiation signals which destabilize the undifferentiated state of mESCs. The dual inhibition (2i) of the pro-differentiation Mek/Erk and Gsk3/Tcf3 pathways in mESCs is sufficient to establish an enhanced pluripotent “ground state” which bears features resembling the pre-implantation mouse epiblast. Gsk3 inhibition alleviates the repression of Esrrb, a transcription factor that can substitute for Nanog function in mESCs. The molecular mechanism that is mediated by Mek inhibition is however not clear. In this study, we investigate the pathway through which Mek inhibition operates to maintain ground state pluripotency. We have found that in mESCs, Kruppel-like factor 2 (Klf2) is a protein target of the Mek/Erk pathway; and that Klf2 protein is phosphorylated by Erk2 and subsequently degraded through the proteosome. It is therefore by Mek-inhibition through PD0325901 or 2i that enables the stabilization and accumulation of Klf2 to sustain ground state pluripotency. Importantly, we found that Klf2-null mESCs, while viable under LIF/Serum conditions, cannot be maintained and eventually gradually die within a few passages. Our result thus demonstrates that Klf2 is an essential factor of ground state pluripotency. Collectively, our study defines the Mek/Klf2 axis that cooperates with the Gsk3/Esrrb pathway in mediating ground state pluripotency.
Project description:CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is a lineage-specific transcription factor that directs development of granulocytes. To obtain insights into the genome-wide transcriptome of mutant C/EBPα, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation on DNA promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip) in the murine 32D myeloid progenitor cell line. These cells expressed an estradiol-inducible form of mutant C/EBPα. In the murine 32D myeloid progenitor cell line, expressing an estradiol-inducible form of C-terminal mutant of C/EBPα. (n=2, replicates). We have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation on DNA promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip) after 4 hours of estradiol incubation.
Project description:CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is a lineage-specific transcription factor that directs development of granulocytes. To obtain insights into the genome-wide transcriptome of wild type C/EBPα, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation on DNA promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip) in the murine 32D myeloid progenitor cell line. These cells expressed an estradiol-inducible form of wild-type C/EBPα. In the murine 32D myeloid progenitor cell line, expressing either an estradiol-inducible form of wild-type C/EBPα. (C/EBPα-ER, n=3, replicates), or as a control ER (n=2, replicates), we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation on DNA promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip) after 4 hours of estradiol incubation.