We need your help! If you've ever found our data helpful, please take our impact survey (15 min). Your replies will help keep the data flowing to the scientific community. Please Click here for Survey
Omics score: 3
Central Role of Th2 and Tc2 Lymphocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Pattern II Demyelinating Lesions
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with marked heterogeneity in several aspects including pathological processes. Four histopathological patterns of MS have been described. Pattern II is characterized by antibody and complement deposition. MS is considered a prototypic T cell-mediated disease, but until now the study of pathogenic T cells has encountered major challenges, most importantly the limited access of brain-infiltrating T cells. Here, we used next generation sequencing to identify clonally expanded T cells in demyelinating pattern II brain autopsy lesions and subsequently isolated these as T cell clones from autologous cerebrospinal fluid. The functional characterization shows that T cells releasing Th2 cytokines and able to provide B cell help dominate the T cell infiltrate in pattern II brain lesions. Our data provide the first functional evidence for a role of Th2/Tc2 cells in pattern II MS. Two stimulated CD4+ Th2 brain infiltrating T cell clones compared with stimulated circulaiting memory CD4+ T cells and two stimulated CD8+ T cell clones (one Tc1 and one Tc2) compared with each other.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system with marked heterogeneity in several aspects including pathological processes. Based on infiltrating immune cells, deposition of humoral factors and loss of oligodendrocytes and/or myelin proteins, four lesion patterns have been described. Pattern II is characterized by antibody and complement deposition in addition to T-cell infiltration. MS is considered a T-cell-mediated disease, but until now the study of pathogenic T cells has encountered major challenges, most importantly the limited access of brain-infiltrating T cells. Our objective was to identify, isolate, and characterize brain-infiltrating clonally expanded T cells in pattern II MS lesions. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing to identify clonally expanded T cells in demyelinating pattern II brain autopsy lesions, subsequently isolated these as T-cell clones from autologous cerebrospinal fluid and functionally characterized them. RESULTS: We identified clonally expanded CD8(+) but also CD4(+) T cells in demyelinating pattern II lesions and for the first time were able to isolate these as live T-cell clones. The functional characterization shows that T cells releasing Th2 cytokines and able to provide B cell help dominate the T-cell infiltrate in pattern II brain lesions. INTERPRETATION: Our data provide the first functional evidence for a putative role of Th2/Tc2 cells in pattern II MS supporting the existence of this pathogenic phenotype and questioning the protective role that is generally ascribed to Th2 cells. Our observations are important to consider for future treatments of pattern II MS patients.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with marked heterogeneity in several aspects including pathological processes. Four histopathological patterns of MS have been described. Pattern II is characterized by infiltrating macrophages and T-cells and by antibody and complement deposition. Transcriptome analysis of three patern II demyelinating brain lesions from a multiple sclerosis patient using RNA sequencing demonstrated the presence of mRNA transcripts for genes specific of activated macrophages, T and B cells as well as genes coding for immunoglobulins, complement proteins and some pattern II associated proteins, providing additional evidence supporting pattern II demyelination. Examination of 3 different demyelinating lesions identified by Immunohistopathology.
Project description:Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections. To study the role of IL-19 and IL-24 in regulating T-cell responses, we examined the frequency of T-helper type 1 (Th1)/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, Th22/Tc22, and Tr1 cells in 26 filariae-infected individuals stimulated with filarial antigen following IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization. IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cells and significantly reduced frequencies of Th2/Tc2, Tr1, and/or Th9/Tc9 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the modulation of T-cell responses in filarial infections.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease in human and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells have been shown to be beneficial for this disease. However, mechanisms by which Th2 cells ameliorate disease in MS are poorly understood. Microglial activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS and other neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we delineate that Th2 cells are capable of suppressing microglial activation via cell-to-cell contact. After polarization of MBP-primed Th1 cells to Th2 by gemfibrozil and other drugs, we observed that MBP-primed Th2 cells dose dependently inhibited the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated microglia via cell-to-cell contact. Similarly, Th2 cells also suppressed the microglial inflammatory response in the presence of different pathological stimuli of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and HIV associated dementia (HAD). Interestingly, Th2 cells expressed higher levels of alphaV (αV) and beta3 (β3) integrins as compared to Th1 cells, and functional blocking antibodies against αV and β3 integrins impaired the ability of Th2 cells to suppress microglial activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microglia expressed the beta subunit of PDGF receptor (PDGFRβ) and that neutralization of PDGFRβ abrogated the ability of Th2 cells to suppress microglial inflammation. Activation of microglial cAMP response element-binding (CREB) by Th2 cells, suppression of CREB activation by neutralization of either αV and β3 integrins on Th2 cells or PDGFRβ on microglia, abrogation of anti-inflammatory activity of Th2 cells by siRNA knockdown of microglial CREB, highlights the importance of αVβ3 and PDGFRβ in guiding the anti-inflammatory activity of Th2 cells via activation of CREB, which may be responsible for beneficial effect of Th2 cells in MS and other related disorders.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease mediated by infiltration of T cells into the central nervous system after compromise of the blood-brain barrier. We have previously shown that administration of tuftsin, a macrophage/microglial activator, dramatically improves the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established animal model for MS. Tuftsin administration correlates with upregulation of the immunosuppressive Helper-2 T cell (Th2) cytokine transcription factor GATA-3. We now show that tuftsin-mediated microglial activation results in shifting microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the T cell phenotype is shifted towards immunoprotection after exposure to tuftsin-treated activated microglia; specifically, downregulation of pro-inflammatory Th1 responses is triggered in conjunction with upregulation of Th2-specific responses and expansion of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Finally, tuftsin-shifted T cells, delivered into animals via adoptive transfer, reverse the pathology observed in mice with established EAE. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that tuftsin decreases the proinflammatory environment of EAE and may represent a therapeutic opportunity for treatment of MS.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions demonstrate immunopathological heterogeneity in patterns of demyelination. Previous cross-sectional studies reported immunopatterns of demyelination were identical among multiple active demyelinating lesions from the same individual, but differed between individuals, leading to the hypothesis of intraindividual pathological homogeneity and interindividual heterogeneity. Other groups suggested a time-dependent heterogeneity of lesions. The objective of our present study was to analyze tissue samples collected longitudinally to determine whether patterns of demyelination persist over time within a given patient.Archival tissue samples derived from patients with pathologically confirmed central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease who had undergone either diagnostic serial biopsy or biopsy followed by autopsy were analyzed immunohistochemically. The inclusion criteria consisted of the presence of early active demyelinating lesions--required for immunopattern classification--obtained from the same patient at 2 or more time points.Among 1,321 surgical biopsies consistent with MS, 22 cases met the study inclusion criteria. Twenty-one patients (95%) showed a persistence of immunopathological patterns in tissue sampled from different time points. This persistence was demonstrated for all major patterns of demyelination. A single patient showed features suggestive of both pattern II and pattern III on biopsy, but only pattern II among all active lesions examined at autopsy.These findings continue to support the concept of patient-dependent immunopathological heterogeneity in early MS and suggest that the mechanisms and targets of tissue injury may differ among patient subgroups. These observations have potentially significant implications for individualized therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Strongyloides stercoralis infection is associated with diminished antigen-specific Th1- and Th17-associated responses and enhanced Th2-associated responses. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37 are two known anti-inflammatory cytokines that are highly expressed in S. stercoralis infection. We therefore wanted to examine the role of IL-27 and IL-37 in regulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in S. stercoralis infection. To this end, we examined the frequency of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, and Th22/Tc22 cells in 15 S. stercoralis-infected individuals and 10 uninfected individuals stimulated with parasite antigen following IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. We also examined the production of prototypical type 1, type 2, type 9, type 17, and type 22 cytokines in the whole-blood supernatants. Our data reveal that IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th17/Tc17, Th9, and Th22 cells with parasite antigen stimulation. There was no induction of any T cell response in uninfected individuals following parasite antigen stimulation and IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. Moreover, we also observed increased production of gamma interferon (IFN-?), IL-5, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 and decreased production of IL-10 following IL-27 and IL-37 neutralization and parasite antigen stimulation in whole-blood cultures. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-27 and IL-37 limit the induction of particular T cell subsets along with cytokine responses in S. stercoralis infections, which suggest the importance of IL-27 and IL-37 in immune modulation in a chronic helminth infection.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is still the most widely accepted animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Different types of EAE have been developed in order to investigate pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the heterogenic human disease. Generally, investigations in EAE are more suitable for the analysis of immunogenetic elements (major histocompatibility complex restriction and candidate risk genes) and for the study of histopathological features (inflammation, demyelination and degeneration) of the disease than for screening of new treatments. Recent studies in new EAE models, especially in transgenic ones, have in connection with new analytical techniques such as microarray assays provided a deeper insight into the pathogenic cellular and molecular mechanisms of EAE and potentially of MS. For example, it was possible to better delineate the role of soluble pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-? and interleukins 1, 12 and 23), anti-inflammatory (transforming growth factor-? and interleukins 4, 10, 27 and 35) and neurotrophic factors (ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor). Also, the regulatory and effector functions of distinct immune cell subpopulations such as CD4+ Th1, Th2, Th3 and Th17 cells, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg cells, CD8+ Tc1 and Tc2, B cells and ??+ T cells have been disclosed in more detail. The new insights may help to identify novel targets for the treatment of MS. However, translation of the experimental results into the clinical practice requires prudence and great caution.
Project description:During recent decades, the autoimmune disease neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), once broadly classified under the umbrella of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been extended to include autoimmune inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), which are now diagnosable with serum serological tests. These antibody-mediated inflammatory diseases of the CNS share a clinical presentation to MS. A number of practical learning points emerge in this review, which is geared toward the pattern recognition of optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, brainstem/cerebellar and hemispheric tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL)-associated MS, aquaporin-4-antibody and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody NMOSD, overlap syndrome, and some yet-to-be-defined/classified demyelinating disease, all unspecifically labeled under MSsyndrome. The goal of this review is to increase clinicians' awareness of the clinical nuances of the autoimmune conditions for MS and NMSOD, and to highlight highly suggestive patterns of clinical, paraclinical or imaging presentations in order to improve differentiation. With overlay in clinical manifestations between MS and NMOSD, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, orbits and spinal cord, serology, and most importantly, high index of suspicion based on pattern recognition, will help lead to the final diagnosis.
Project description:Early active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions can be classified histologically into three main immunopathological patterns of demyelination (patterns I-III), which suggest pathogenic heterogeneity and may predict therapy response. Patterns I and II show signs of immune-mediated demyelination, but only pattern II is associated with antibody/complement deposition. In pattern III lesions, which include Baló's concentric sclerosis, primary oligodendrocyte damage was proposed. Serum antibody reactivities could reflect disease pathogenesis and thus distinguish histopathologically defined MS patterns. We established a customized microarray with more than 700 peptides that represent human and viral antigens potentially relevant for inflammatory demyelinating CNS diseases, and tested sera from 66 patients (pattern I n?=?12; II n?=?29; III n?=?25, including 8 with Baló's), healthy controls, patients with Sjögren's syndrome and stroke patients. Cell-based assays were performed for aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP4 antibody detection. No single peptide showed differential binding among study cohorts. Because antibodies can react with different peptides from one protein, we also analyzed groups of peptides. Patients with pattern II showed significantly higher reactivities to Nogo-A peptides as compared to patterns I (p?=?0.02) and III (p?=?0.02). Pattern III patients showed higher reactivities to AQP1 (compared to pattern I p?=?0.002, pattern II p?=?0.001) and varicella zoster virus (VZV, compared to pattern II p?=?0.05). In patients with Baló's, AQP1 reactivity was also significantly higher compared to patients without Baló's (p?=?0.04), and the former revealed distinct antibody signatures. Histologically, Baló's patients showed loss of AQP1 and AQP4 in demyelinating lesions, but no antibodies binding conformational AQP1 or AQP4 were detected. In summary, higher reactivities to Nogo-A peptides in pattern II patients could be relevant for enhanced axonal repair and remyelination. Higher reactivities to AQP1 peptides in pattern III patients and its subgroup of Baló's patients possibly reflect astrocytic damage. Finally, latent VZV infection may cause peripheral immune activation.