The catalytically inactive Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase3 controls DNA methylation and regulates RNA polymerase V transcript abundance in Arabidopsis
ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is a mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation and genome defense conserved in many eukaryotic organisms. In Arabidopsis, the DNA methyltransferase DRM2 controls RNA-directed DNA methylation in a pathway that also involves the plant specific RNA Polymerase V (Pol V). The Arabidopsis genome also encodes an evolutionarily conserved but catalytically inactive DNA methyltransferase DRM3. Here, we show that DRM3 has moderate effects on global RNA-directed DNA methylation and small RNA abundance throughout the genome, and DRM3 protein physically interacts with Pol V. In drm3 mutants, we observe a lower level of Pol V-dependent transcripts, even though Pol V chromatin occupancy is increased at many sites in the genome. These findings suggest that DRM3 acts to promote Pol V transcriptional elongation or assist in the stabilization of Pol V transcripts, and shed further light on the mechanism of RNA-directed DNA methylation. For wildtype plants as well as drm3, drm2, and nrpe1 mutants ChIP-seq was carried out using an endogenous NRPE1 antibody given to us by the Craig Pikaard lab. Two biological replicates of ChIP-seq were also carried out using anti-Flag resin on wildtype and drm3 plants carrying a Flag epitope tagged version of NRPE1. Small RNA sequencing was carried out on Col, drm3, drm2, and nrpe1 plants. Finally, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing analysis was carried out on previously published datasets (as detailed below) which were realigned using a newer genome version and mapping protocol. As such the updated processed files are part of this submission. Please note that the drm2, drm3, and nrpe1 mutant libraries used in this study were previously published (GSE39901), as were the 2 other Col replicates used (GSE36129) as below and thus duplicated sample records were created for the convenient retrieval of the complete raw data from SRA; Bisulfite_seq-Col_1 - GSM881756 Bisulfite_seq-Col_2 - GSM1193638 Bisulfite_seq-drm3 - GSM981017 Bisulfite_seq-drm2 - GSM981015 Bisulfite_seq-nrpe1- GSM981040
Project description:RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis thaliana depends on the synthesis of non-coding RNAs by nuclear RNA polymerase E (NRPE or Pol V) 1-3, but the mechanism by which Pol V is targeted is unknown. Here we show that genome-wide Pol V association with chromatin redundantly requires the SU(VAR)3-9 homologs, SUVH2 and SUVH9. These proteins resemble histone methyltransferases, however a crystal structure reveals that SUVH9 lacks a peptide-substrate binding cleft and lacks a properly formed S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding pocket necessary for normal catalysis, consistent with a lack of methyltransferase activity for these proteins. SUVH2 and SUVH9 both contain SET- and RING-ASSOCIATED (SRA) domains capable of binding methylated DNA, suggesting that they function to recruit Pol V through DNA methylation. Consistent with this model, mutation of the DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1, MET1, causes losses of DNA methylation, a nearly complete loss of Pol V at its normal locations, and redistribution of Pol V to sites that become hypermethylated. By tethering SUVH2 with a zinc finger to an unmethylated epiallele of the homeodomain transcription factor FWA, we demonstrate that SUVH2 is sufficient to both recruit Pol V and establish DNA methylation and gene silencing. Our results suggest that Pol V is recruited to DNA methylation through the methyl-DNA binding SUVH2 and SUVH9 proteins, and our mechanistic findings suggest a means for selectively targeting regions of the plant genome for epigenetic silencing. For wild type plants (ecotype Columbia) and suvh2 suvh9 double mutants whole-genome small RNA (sRNA-seq) and bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) was performed. For the small RNA sequencing nrpd1 and nrpe1 mutant plants were sequenced in parallel as controls. For the bisulfite sequencing data, the wildtype data and that of the suvh2 and suvh9 single mutants was previously published and is thus not submitted here. In addition, two replicates of whole genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) was performed on wild type (ecotype Columbia) plants as a negative control with experimentals consiting of wildtype and suvh2 suvh9 mutant plants carrying a C-terminally epitope tagged (3XFLAG) NRPE1. Whole genome ChIP seq was also performed using a gifted endogenous NRPE1 antibody in a wildtype and met1 mutant background. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was also performed on fwa-4 epiallele plants transformed with the wild-type SUVH2 protein-coding construct containing a tethering zinc finger targeted to repeats at the fwa gene. For these transgenic libraries a line carrying a FLAG and fwa targeting zinc-finger tagged KRYPTONITE methyltransferase was bisulfite sequenced as a control (“FLAG-ZF-KYP”).
Project description:DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays critical roles in gene silencing, development, and the maintenance of genome integrity. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation is established by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2) and is targeted by 24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) through a pathway termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM)1. This pathway requires two plant-specific RNA polymerases: Pol-IV, which functions to initiate siRNA biogenesis and Pol-V, which functions in the downstream DNA methyltransferase targeting phase of the RdDM pathway to generate scaffold transcripts that recruit downstream RdDM factors1,2. To understand the mechanisms controlling Pol-IV targeting we investigated the function of SAWADEE HOMEODOMAIN HOMOLOG 1 (SHH1)3,4, a Pol-IV interacting protein3. Here we show that SHH1 acts upstream in the RdDM pathway to enable siRNA production from a large subset of the most active RdDM targets and that SHH1 is required for Pol-IV occupancy at these same loci. We also show that the SHH1 SAWADEE domain is a novel chromatin binding module that adopts a unique tandem Tudor-like fold and functions as a dual lysine reader, probing for both unmethylated K4 and methylated K9 modifications on the histone 3 (H3) tail. Finally, we show that key residues within both lysine binding pockets of SHH1 are required in vivo to maintain siRNA and DNA methylation levels as well as Pol-IV occupancy at RdDM targets, demonstrating a central role for methyl H3K9 binding in SHH1 function and providing the first insights into the mechanism of Pol-IV targeting. Given the parallels between methylation systems in plants and mammals1,5, a further understanding of this early targeting step may aid in our ability to control the expression of endogenous and newly introduced genes, which has broad implications for agriculture and gene therapy. For wild type plants (ecotype Columbia) and RdDM mutants whole-genome small RNA (sRNA-seq) and bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) was performed. The Col and nrpe1 BS-seq libraries were previously reported (GSE39247) and so are not part of this submission. In addition, two replicates of whole genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) was performed on wild type (ecotype Columbia) plants as a negative control with experimentals consiting of nrpd1 mutant plants carrying a C-terminally epitope tagged (3XFLAG) NRPD1. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and small RNA sequencing was also performed on shh1 mutant plants transformed with the wild-type SHH1 protein-coding construct as well as multiple constructs containing point mutations. For these complementation libraries a separate shh1 mutant and Col control line were sequenced (“complementation replicates”).
Project description:DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic gene regulation mechanism. DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM) is a key de novo methyltransferase in plants, but how DRM acts mechanistically is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the methyltransferase domain of tobacco DRM (NtDRM) and reveal a molecular basis for its rearranged structure. NtDRM forms a functional homo-dimer critical for catalytic activity. We also show that Arabidopsis DRM2 exists in complex with the siRNA effector ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4) and preferentially methylates one DNA strand, likely the strand acting as the template for non-coding Pol V RNA transcripts. This strand-biased DNA methylation is also positively correlated with strand-biased siRNA accumulation. These data suggest a model in which DRM2 is guided to target loci by AGO4-siRNA and involves base-pairing of associated siRNAs with nascent RNA transcripts. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was done for a wildtype line (ecotype Col) as well as various transgenic lines in a drm2 mutant background (ecotype Col). Each transgenic line expressed a version of the DRM2 protein that was either wildtype or carried induced mutations in order to test the function of various domains in the DRM2 protein. Two sets of whole-genome bisulfite were performed (130615 or 131216) and comparisons were mainly done within sets although comparisons can also be done between sets. The drm2 mutant methylome was also analyzed in this study using a previously published whole-genome bisulfite library (GSE39901).
Project description:DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotic organisms. De novo DNA methylation in plants can be achieved by the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway, where the plant-specific DNA-dependent RNA polymerase Pol IV transcribes target sequences to initiate 24-nt siRNA production and action. The Arabidopsis DTF1/SHH1 has been shown to associate with Pol IV and is required for 24-nt siRNA accumulation and transcriptional silencing at several RdDM target loci. However, the extent and mechanism of DTF1 function in RdDM is unclear. We show here that DTF1 is necessary for the accumulation of the majority of Pol IV-dependent 24-nt siRNAs. It is also required for a large proportion of Pol IV-dependent de novo DNA methylation. Interestingly, there is a group of RdDM target loci where 24-nt siRNA accumulation but not DNA methylation is dependent on DTF1. Taken together, our results show that DTF1 is a core component of the RdDM pathway. Our results also suggest the involvement of DTF1 in an important negative feedback mechanism for DNA methylation at some RdDM target loci. Examination of whole-genome DNA methylation and small RNA in 12-day-old Col-0, dtf1-2, nrpd1-3 and nrpe1-11 seedlings
Project description:The plant-specific DNA-dependent RNA polymerase V (Pol V) evolved from Pol II to function in an RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. Here, we have identified targets of Pol V in Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome-wide scale using ChIP-seq of NRPE1, the largest catalytic subunit of Pol V. We found that Pol V is enriched at promoters and evolutionarily recent transposons. This localization pattern is highly correlated with Pol V-dependent DNA methylation and small RNA accumulation. We also show that genome-wide association of Pol V with chromatin is dependent on all members of a putative chromatin-remodeling complex termed DDR. Our study presents the first genome-wide view of Pol V occupancy and sheds light on the mechanistic basis of Pol V localization. Furthermore, these findings suggest a role for Pol V and RNA-directed DNA methylation in genome surveillance and in responding to genome evolution. For wild type plants (ecotype Columbia) and nrpe1 mutants whole-genome small RNA (sRNA-seq) and bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) was performed. In addition whole genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) was performed on wild type (ecotype Columbia) plants as a negative control with experimentals consiting of wild type plants carrying a C-terminally epitope tagged (2XFLAG) NRPE1, as well as the NRPE1-FLAG construct in drd1, dms3, and rdm1 mutant backgrounds.
Project description:DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that is associated with transcriptional repression of transposable elements and protein coding genes. Conversely, transcriptionally active regulatory regions are strongly correlated with histone 3 lysine 4 di- and trimethylation (H3K4m2/3). We previously showed that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with mutations in the H3K4m2/m3 demethylase JUMONJI 14 (JMJ14) exhibit a mild reduction in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) that is associated with an increase in H3K4m2/m3 levels. To determine whether this incomplete RdDM reduction was the result of redundancy with other demethylases, we examined the genetic interaction of JMJ14 with another class of H3K4 demethylases: LYSINE-SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1-LIKE 1 and LYSINE-SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1-LIKE 2 (LDL1 and LDL2). Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses reveal that both families impact RdDM, but not other DNA methylation pathways. ChIP-seq experiments show that regions that exhibit an observable DNA methylation decrease are co-incidental with increases in H3K4m2/m3. Interestingly, the impact on DNA methylation was stronger at DNA-methylated regions adjacent to H3K4m2/m3-marked protein coding genes, suggesting that the activity of H3K4 demethylases may be particularly crucial to prevent spreading of active epigenetic marks. Finally, RNA sequencing analyses indicate that at RdDM targets, the increase of H3K4m2/m3 is not generally associated with transcriptional de-repression. This suggests that the histone mark itself—not transcription—impacts the extent of RdDM. For wild type plants (ecotype Columbia) and RdDM mutants whole-genome small RNA (sRNA-seq) and bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) was performed. The Col and nrpe1 BS-seq libraries were previously reported (GSE39247) and so are not part of this submission. In addition, two replicates of whole genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) was performed on wild type (ecotype Columbia) plants as a negative control with experimentals consiting of nrpd1 mutant plants carrying a C-terminally epitope tagged (3XFLAG) NRPD1. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and small RNA sequencing was also performed on shh1 mutant plants transformed with the wild-type SHH1 protein-coding construct as well as multiple constructs containing point mutations. For these complementation libraries a separate shh1 mutant and Col control line were sequenced (“complementation replicates”).
Project description:Promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing is implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, the mechanisms of pausing including its dynamics during transcriptional responses remain to be fully understood. We performed global analysis of short capped RNAs and Pol II Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing in MCF-7 breast cancer cells to map Pol II pausing across the genome, and used permanganate footprinting to specifically follow pausing during transcriptional activation of several genes involved in the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). We find that the gene for EMT master regulator Snail (SNAI1), but not Slug (SNAI2), shows evidence of Pol II pausing before activation. Transcriptional activation of the paused SNAI1 gene is accompanied by a further increase in Pol II pausing signal whereas activation of non-paused SNAI2 gene results in the acquisition of a typical pausing signature. The increase in pausing signal reflects increased transcription initiation without changes in Pol II pausing. Activation of the heat shock HSP70 gene involves pausing release that speeds up Pol II turnover, but does not change pausing location. We suggest that Pol II pausing is retained during transcriptional activation and can further undergo regulated release in a signal-specific manner. Untreated MCF-7 cells were analyzed for the distribution of Pol II using ChIP-sequencing with Anti-Pol II N-20 antibody (two independent biological replicates, A, B), and for the distribution of paused RNA polymerase II by sequencing of short capped RNAs (scRNAs) prepared from nuclei (three independent biological replicates, 1-3). All samples were sequenced on a MiSeq instrument in paired-end format
Project description:The relationship between epigenetic marks on chromatin and the regulation of DNA replication is poorly understood. Mutation of the H3K27 methyltransferase genes, ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED PROTEIN5 (ATXR5) and ATXR6, result in re-replication (repeated origin firing within the same cell cycle). Here we show that mutations that reduce DNA methylation act to suppress the re-replication phenotype of atxr5 atxr6 mutants. This suggests that DNA methylation, a mark enriched at the same heterochromatic regions that re-replicate in atxr5/6 mutants, is required for aberrant re-replication. In contrast, RNA sequencing analyses suggest that ATXR5/6 and DNA methylation cooperatively transcriptionally silence transposable elements (TEs). Hence our results suggest a complex relationship between ATXR5/6 and DNA methylation in the regulation of DNA replication and transcription of TEs. DNA-seq: One gram of mature rosette leaves were collected from 3-4-week-old plants, chopped in 0.5 ml of filtered Galbraith buffer, and stained with propidium iodide. A BD FACS Aria II in the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) Flow Cytometry Core Facility was used to sort the nuclei. For sequencing, 7,000-9,000 8C nuclei of each sample were collected, and purified DNA with Picopure purification kit (Arcturus) following manufacturer instructions. RNA-seq: RNA-seq experiments were performed in two biological replicates for each genotype. 0.1g of tissue was ground in Trizol. Total RNA were treated with DNaseI (Roche), and cleaned up with phenol-chlorophorm and precipitated with ethanol. Libraries were generated and sequenced following manufacturer instructions (Illumina). BS-seq: 0.5-1g of mature rosette leaves were collected, and genomic DNA was extracted using Plant DNeasey mini purification kit (Qiagen). Libraries were generated as previously described (Feng et al., Methods Mol Biol. 2011;733:223-38.).
Project description:Histone variants play crucial roles in gene expression, genome integrity and chromosome segregation. However, to what extent histone variants control chromatin architecture remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized histone variant H2A.W plays a crucial role in condensation of heterochromatin. Genome-wide profiling of all four types of H2A variants in Arabidopsis shows that H2A.W specifically associates with heterochromatin. H2A.W recruitment is independent of heterochromatic marks H3K9me2 and DNA methylation. Genetic interactions show that H2A.W acts in synergy with CMT3 mediated methylation to maintain genome integrity. In vitro, H2A.W enhances chromatin condensation through a higher propensity to make fiber-to-fiber interactions via its conserved C-terminal motif. In vivo, elimination of H2A.W causes decondensation of heterochromatin and conversely, ectopic expression of H2A.W promotes heterochromatin condensation. These results demonstrate that H2A.W plays critical roles in heterochromatin by promoting higher order chromatin condensation. Since similar H2A.W C-terminal motifs are present in other variant found in mammals and other organisms our findings impact our understanding of heterochromatin condensation in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms. Two mRNA-seq samples, two bisulfite-seq samples, six ChIP-seq samples.
Project description:Epigenetic gene silencing is of central importance to maintain genome integrity and is mediated by an elaborate interplay between DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling complexes. DNA methylation and repressive histone marks usually correlate with transcriptionally silent heterochromatin, however there are exceptions to this interdependence. In Arabidopsis, mutation of MORPHEUS MOLECULE 1 (MOM1) causes transcriptional derepression of heterochromatin independently of changes in DNA methylation. More recently, two Arabidopsis homologs of mouse Microrchidia (MORC) have also been implicated in gene silencing and heterochromatin condensation without altering genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. In this study, we show that AtMORC6 physically interacts with AtMORC1 and with its close homologue AtMORC2 in two mutually exclusive protein complexes. RNA-seq analysis of high-order mutants indicates that AtMORC1 and AtMORC2 act redundantly to repress a common set of loci. We also examined the genetic interactions between AtMORC6 and MOM1 pathways. Although AtMORC6 and MOM1 control the silencing of a very similar set of genomic loci, we observed synergistic transcriptional regulation in the mom1/atmorc6 double mutant, suggesting that these epigenetic regulators act mainly by independent silencing mechanisms. RNA-seq libraries were prepared for two suites of mutants to allow direct comparisons between mutants within each set. The two sets consisted of the following samples: Set_1) A wildtype (Col) control, the morc1 mutant, the morc2 mutant, the morc1 morc2 double mutant, the morc6 mutant, and the morc1 morc2 morc6 triple mutant ; Set_2) A wildtpe (Col) control, the morc6 mutant, the mom1 mutant, and the mom1 morc6 double mutant. For each sample, two biological replicates were performed (denoted "bio_replicate_1" or "bio_replicate_2"). Whole genome bisulifte libraries were sequenced from material grown in parallel.