Genomics

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298

Genome-wide Definition of Promoter and Enhancer Usage During Neural Induction of Human Embryonic Stem Cells [ChIP-seq]


ABSTRACT: Genome-wide mapping of transcriptional regulatory elements are essential tools for the understanding of the molecular events orchestrating self-renewal, commitment and differentiation of stem cells. We combined high-throughput identification of nascent, Pol-II-transcribed RNAs by Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE-Seq) with genome-wide profiling of histones modifications by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) to map active promoters and enhancers in a model of human neural commitment, represented by embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced to differentiate into self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem cells (NESC). We integrated CAGE-seq, ChIP-seq and gene expression profiles to discover shared or cell-specific regulatory elements, transcription start sites and transcripts associated to the transition from pluripotent to neural-restricted stem cell. Our analysis showed that >90% of the promoters are in common between the two cell types, while approximately half of the enhancers are cell-specific and account for most of the epigenetic changes occurring during neural induction, and most likely for the modulation of the promoters to generate cell-specific gene expression programs. Interestingly, the majority of the promoters activated or up-regulated during neural induction have a “bivalent” histone modification signature in ESCs, suggesting that developmentally-regulated promoters are already poised for transcription in ESCs, which are apparently pre-committed to neuroectodermal differentiation. Overall, our study provide a collection of differentially used enhancers, promoters, transcription starts sites, protein-coding and non-coding RNAs in human ESCs and ESC-derived NESCs, and a broad, genome-wide description of promoter and enhancer usage and gene expression programs occurring in the transition from a pluripotent to a neural-restricted cell fate. Genome-wide mapping of H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 in NESCs ChIP-seq for H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 in NESCs

ORGANISM(S): Homo sapiens  

SUBMITTER: Fulvio Mavilio   Annarita Miccio  Valentina Poletti  Silvio Bicciato  Gianluca De Bellis  Alessia D Carri  Luca Petiti  Elena Cattaneo  Clelia Peano  Guidantonio M Tagliazucchi  Emilia M Mazza 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-61265 | ArrayExpress | 2015-05-21

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): SRP046750GSE61265PRJNA260624

REPOSITORIES: GEO, ArrayExpress, ENA

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Genome-wide mapping of transcriptional regulatory elements is an essential tool for understanding the molecular events orchestrating self-renewal, commitment and differentiation of stem cells. We combined high-throughput identification of transcription start sites with genome-wide profiling of histones modifications to map active promoters and enhancers in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced to neuroepithelial-like stem cells (NESCs). Our analysis showed that most promoters are active in both ce  ...[more]

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