GeoChip data of soil microbial communities in the maize rhizosphere and bulk soils
ABSTRACT: Microbial communities in the rhizosphere make significant contributions to crop health and nutrient cycling. However, their ability to perform important biogeochemical processes remains uncharacterized. Important functional genes, which characterize the rhizosphere microbial community, were identified to understand metabolic capabilities in the maize rhizosphere using GeoChip 3.0-based functional gene array method. Triplicate samples were taken for both rhizosphere and bulk soil, in which each individual sample was a pool of four plants or soil cores. To determine the abundance of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soils, GeoChip 3.0 was used.
Project description:Microbial communities in the rhizosphere make significant contributions to crop health and nutrient cycling. However, their ability to perform important biogeochemical processes remains uncharacterized. Important functional genes, which characterize the rhizosphere microbial community, were identified to understand metabolic capabilities in the maize rhizosphere using GeoChip 3.0-based functional gene array method. Triplicate samples were taken for both rhizosphere and bulk soil, in which each individual sample was a pool of four plants or soil cores. To determine the abundance of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soils, GeoChip 3.0 was used.
Project description:Soil transplant serves as a proxy to simulate climate change in realistic climate regimes. Here, we assessed the effects of climate warming and cooling on soil microbial communities, which are key drivers in Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, four years after soil transplant over large transects from northern (N site) to central (NC site) and southern China (NS site) and vice versa. Four years after soil transplant, soil nitrogen components, microbial biomass, community phylogenetic and functional structures were altered. Microbial functional diversity, measured by a metagenomic tool named GeoChip, and phylogenetic diversity are increased with temperature, while microbial biomass were similar or decreased. Nevertheless, the effects of climate change was overridden by maize cropping, underscoring the need to disentangle them in research. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that vegetation, climatic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation), soil nitrogen components and CO2 efflux were significantly correlated to the microbial community composition. Further investigation unveiled strong correlations between carbon cycling genes and CO2 efflux in bare soil but not cropped soil, and between nitrogen cycling genes and nitrification, which provides mechanistic understanding of these microbe-mediated processes and empowers an interesting possibility of incorporating bacterial gene abundance in greenhouse gas emission modeling. Fifty four samples were collected from three soil types (Phaeozem,Cambisol,Acrisol) in three sites (Hailun, Fengqiu and Yingtan) along a latitude with reciprocal transplant; Both with and without maize cropping in each site; Three replicates in every treatments.
Project description:Aeolian soil erosion, exacerbated by anthropogenic perturbations, has become one of the most alarming processes of land degradation and desertification. By contrast, dust deposition might confer a potential fertilization effect. To examine how they affect topsoil microbial community, we conducted a study GeoChip techniques in a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. We found that microbial communities were significantly (P<0.039) altered and most of microbial functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium cycling were decreased or remained unaltered in relative abundance by both erosion and deposition, which might be attributed to acceleration of organic matter mineralization by the breakdown of aggregates during dust transport and deposition. As a result, there were strong correlations between microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes. amyA genes encoding alpha-amylases were significantly (P=0.01) increased by soil deposition, reflecting changes of carbon profiles. Consistently, plant abundance, total nitrogen and total organic carbon were correlated with functional gene composition, revealing the importance of environmental nutrients to soil microbial function potentials. Collectively, our results identified microbial indicator species and functional genes of aeolian soil transfer, and demonstrated that functional genes had higher susceptibility to environmental nutrients than taxonomy. Given the ecological importance of aeolian soil transfer, knowledge gained here are crucial for assessing microbe-mediated nutrient cyclings and human health hazard. The experimental sites comprised of three treatments of control, soil erosion and deposition, with 5 replicates of each treatment.
Project description:Tibet is one of the most threatened regions by climate warming, thus understanding how its microbial communities function may be of high importance for predicting microbial responses to climate changes. Here, we report a study to profile soil microbial structural genes, which infers functional roles of microbial communities, aiming to explore potential microbial responses to climate changes via a strategy of space-for-time substitution. Using a microarray-based metagenomics tool named GeoChip 4.0, we showed that microbial communities were distinct for most but not all of the sites. Substantial variations were apparent in stress, N and C cycling genes, but they were in line with the functional roles of these genes. sixty-three samples were collected from four elevations (3200,3400,3600 and 3800 m) along a Tibetan alpine meadow; Three replicates in each treatment
Project description:Tibet is one of the most threatened regions by climate warming, thus understanding how its microbial communities function may be of high importance for predicting microbial responses to climate changes. Here, we report a study to profile soil microbial structural genes, which infers functional roles of microbial communities, along four sites/elevations of a Tibetan mountainous grassland, aiming to explore potential microbial responses to climate changes via a strategy of space-for-time substitution. Using a microarray-based metagenomics tool named GeoChip 4.0, we showed that microbial communities were distinct for most but not all of the sites. Substantial variations were apparent in stress, N and C cycling genes, but they were in line with the functional roles of these genes. Cold shock genes were more abundant at higher elevations. Also, gdh converting ammonium into urea was more abundant at higher elevations while ureC converting urea into ammonium was less abundant, which was consistent with soil ammonium contents. Significant correlations were observed between N-cycling genes (ureC, gdh and amoA) and nitrous oxide flux, suggesting that they contributed to community metabolism. Lastly, we found by CCA, Mantel tests and the similarity tests that soil pH, temperature, NH4+–N and vegetation diversity accounted for the majority (81.4%) of microbial community variations, suggesting that these four attributes were major factors affecting soil microbial communities. Based on these observations, we predict that climate changes in the Tibetan grasslands are very likely to change soil microbial community functional structure, with particular impacts on microbial N cycling genes and consequently microbe-mediated soil N dynamics. Twelve samples were collected from four elevations (3200, 3400, 3600 and 3800 m) along a Tibetan grassland; Three replicates in every elevation
Project description:Understanding and quantifying the effects of environmental factors influencing the variation of abundance and diversity of microbial communities was a key theme of ecology. For microbial communities, there were two factors proposed in explaining the variation in current theory, which were contemporary environmental heterogeneity and historical events. Here, we report a study to profile soil microbial structure, which infers functional roles of microbial communities, along the latitudinal gradient from the north to the south in China mainland, aiming to explore potential microbial responses to external condition, especially for global climate changes via a strategy of space-for-time substitution. Using a microarray-based metagenomics tool named GeoChip 5.0, we showed that microbial communities were distinct for most but not all of the sites. Using substantial statistical analyses, exploring the dominant factor in influencing the soil microbial communities along the latitudinal gradient. Substantial variations were apparent in nutrient cycling genes, but they were in line with the functional roles of these genes. 300 samples were collected from 30 sites along the latitudinal gradient, with 10 replicates in every site
Project description:To study whether and how soil nitrogen conditions affect the ecological effects of long-term elevated CO2 on microbial community and soil ecoprocess, here we investigated soil microbial community in a grassland ecosystem subjected to ambient CO2 (aCO2, 368 ppm), elevated CO2 (eCO2, 560 ppm), ambient nitrogen deposition (aN) or elevated nitrogen deposition (eN) treatments for a decade. Under the aN condition, a majority of microbial function genes, as measured by GeoChip 4.0, were increased in relative abundance or remained unchanged by eCO2. Under the eN condition, most of functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, energy processes, organic remediation and stress responses were decreased or remained unchanged by eCO2, while genes associated with antibiotics and metal resistance were increased. The eCO2 effects on fungi and archaea were largely similar under both nitrogen conditions, but differed substantially for bacteria. Coupling of microbial carbon or nitrogen cycling genes, represented by positive percentage and density of gene interaction in association networks, was higher under the aN condition. In accordance, changes of soil CO2 flux, net N mineralization, ammonification and nitrification was higher under the aN condition. Collectively, these results demonstrated that eCO2 effects are contingent on nitrogen conditions, underscoring the difficulty toward predictive modeling of soil ecosystem and ecoprocesses under future climate scenarios and necessitating more detailed studies. Fourty eight samples were collected for four different carbon and nitrogen treatment levels (aCaN,eCaN,aCeN and eCeN) ; Twelve replicates in every elevation
Project description:Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing unprecedented changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen) and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies), Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific. The study was carried out at the Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz (EACF, 62°04’S, 58°21’W), located in Martel Inlet, Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which is part of the South Shetlands Archipelago in Maritime Antarctica. It is a medium sized research station with a population of 10 to 15 people during the winter months (March to November) and about 60 people during the austral summer months (November to March). During the austral summers of 2006 – 2007 and 2008 – 2009, the vascular plants D. antarctica or C. quitensis were sampled, where both plants were found, in triplicate at six different sites: A – Arctowski (2006 – 2007), Q – Quimica (2006 – 2007), I – Ipanema (2006 – 2007), M – North Mountain (2008 – 2009), D – Demay Point (2008 – 2009), C – Copacabana (2008 – 2009) (Figure 1). Points A, C and D were located inside an environmental protected area. Point A is close to the Arctowski Polish Station and next to a colony of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), point C is next to the USA summer station Copacabana in a Gentoo penguin (P. papua) colony, and point D is near to a Polish refuge next to a colony of Chinstrap penguins (P. antarcticus). At point I, there were no penguin colonies present, but this section was used as a nesting site by local species of flying birds. Point Q was located in the vicinity of the EACF; thus there has been (and continues to be) an intense anthropogenic influence on this spot, which is not the case at the other sampling sites. Point M was located at the top of North Mountain, around 200 m altitude. This site has no influence from penguin colonies and only a few nests of skua (Catharacta sp.) were observed. At each sampling site, triplicate soil samples were taken for chemical and biological analyses, with the exception of the Arctowski site (A) where we only took two replicates. Each vascular plant sample was frozen (-20°C) at the EACF.
Project description:Despite the global importance of forests, it is virtually unknown how their soil microbial communities adapt at the phylogenetic and functional level to long term metal pollution. Studying twelve sites located along two distinct gradients of metal pollution in Southern Poland revealed that both community composition (via MiSeq Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes) and functional gene potential (using GeoChip 4.2) were highly similar across the gradients despite drastically diverging metal contamination levels. Metal pollution level significantly impacted microbial community structure (p = 0.037), but not bacterial taxon richness. Metal pollution altered the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Also, a group of metal resistance genes showed significant correlations with metal concentrations in soil, although no clear impact of metal pollution levels on overall functional diversity and structure of microbial communities was observed. While screens of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA, provided only limited insight into resilience mechanisms, analysis of specific functional genes, e.g. involved in metal resistance, appeared to be a more promising strategy. This study showed that the effect of metal pollution on soil microbial communities was not straightforward, but could be filtered out from natural variation and habitat factors by multivariate statistical analysis and spatial sampling involving separate pollution gradients. 12 samples were collected from two long-term polluted areas (Olkusz and Miasteczko Śląskie) in Southern Poland. In the study presented here, a consecutively operated, well-defined cohort of 50 NSCLC cases, followed up more than five years, was used to acquire expression profiles of a total of 8,644 unique genes, leading to the successful construction of supervised
Project description:The response of soil microbial community to climate warming through both function shift and composition reorganization may profoundly influence global nutrient cycles, leading to potential significant carbon release from the terrain to the atmosphere. Despite the observed carbon flux change in northern permafrost, it remains unclear how soil microbial community contributes to this ecosystem alteration. Here, we applied microarray-based GeoChip 4.0 to investigate the functional and compositional response of subsurface (15~25cm) soil microbial community under about one year’s artificial heating (+2°C) in the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research site on Alaska’s moist acidic tundra. Statistical analyses of GeoChip signal intensities showed significant microbial function shift in AK samples. Detrended correspondence analysis and dissimilarity tests (MRPP and ANOSIM) indicated significant functional structure difference between the warmed and the control communities. ANOVA revealed that 60% of the 70 detected individual genes in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur cyclings were substantially increased (p<0.05) by heating. 18 out of 33 detected carbon degradation genes were more abundant in warming samples in AK site, regardless of the discrepancy of labile or recalcitrant C, indicating a high temperature sensitivity of carbon degradation genes in rich carbon pool environment. These results demonstrated a rapid response of northern permafrost soil microbial community to warming. Considering the large carbon storage in northern permafrost region, microbial activity in this region may cause dramatic positive feedback to climate change, which is important and necessary to be integrated into climate change models. Overall design: A total of 12 soil samples were analyzed for functional genes of microbial communities. The soil samples include soil warming treatment and control with six biological replicates. Please note that the *532.exp.ftr files recorded intensities of targeted spots, and *532.void.ftr files were intensities of the areas between two adjacent targeted spots, which were used as background intensity (noise) in the normalization step in GeoChip.