Distinct roles of DNMT1-dependent and –independent methylation patterns in the genome of mouse ES cells
ABSTRACT: We generated base-resolution DNA methylomes of a series of DNMT knockout (KO) ES cells with improved coverage at highly repetitive elements. We find that DNMT1- and DNMT3a/3b-dependent activities actually work complementarily and simultaneously to establish symmetric CG methylation and CHH (H=A, T or C) methylation, and unexpectedly have “division of labor” to suppress retrotransposon long terminal repeats (LTRs) and long interspersed elements (LINEs), respectively. Our data also reveal CG density number of 30 seems like a 'threshold' to predetermine the level of methylation in wild type cells and the magnitude of methylation reduction in KO cells. Only genes with low CG number are either induced or surprisingly suppressed in hypomethylated genome. Our data unveil the concerted action of DNMT enzymes in the establishment/maintenance of methylation patterns. Genomic DNA from four different cell lines were treated with bisulfite and sequenced with the Illumina HiSeq platform using paired end reads.
Project description:To examine the relationship of reduced CG methylation and gene expression in Lsh KO MEFs, we computed mean CG methylation levels at promoter regions of protein-coding genes. About 60% of TSS regions of protein-coding genes display a difference of CG methylation values greater than 0.3 (WT CG methylation minus KO CG methylation) indicating that Lsh deletion has widespread effects at promoter regions. RNA-seq analysis detects similar transcript steady state levels in WT and KO samples. To determine the relationship of Pol II binding and CG methylation reduction in KO MEFs, Pol II Chip-seq was performed. Protein coding genes were ranked according their CG methylation differences between WT MEFs and KO MEFs. The greatest loss of CG methylation is found at promoter with low CG density. Pol II association is inversely related to the number of CpG sites within promoter regions. KO MEFs show less Pol II association at CG rich promoter regions. However, RNA-seq reads are indistinguishable comparing WT and KO samples, suggesting similar transcriptional efficiency in the absence of Lsh. To explore other molecular mechanisms that may preserve low transcription activity or repression at CG hypomethylated promoter regions, we examined H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 modifications by ChIP-seq. Genome wide computation of histone modifications at 5kb tiles shows no increase of H3K27me3 level in KO MEFs. When we ranked 5kb tiles based on CG methylation differences between WT and KO, we observed alterations in H3K27me3 distribution, while H3K4me3 modifications are unremarkable. Regions with moderate CG methylation reduction exhibit concomitant decreases in H3K27me3. mRNA profiles and Genome-wide maps of H3K27me3, H3K4me3 and Pol II in wildtype (WT) and Lsh KO primary MEFs.
Project description:Dnmt1 epigenetically propagates symmetrical CG methylation in many eukaryotes. Their genomes are typically depleted of CG dinucleotides because of imperfect repair of deaminated methylcytosines. Here, we extensively survey diverse species lacking Dnmt1 and show that, surprisingly, symmetrical CG methylation is nonetheless frequently present and catalyzed by a different DNA methyltransferase family, Dnmt5. Numerous Dnmt5-containing organisms that diverged more than a billion years ago exhibit clustered methylation, specifically in nucleosome linkers. Clustered methylation occurs at unprecedented densities and directly disfavors nucleosomes, contributing to nucleosome positioning between clusters. Dense methylation is enabled by a regime of genomic sequence evolution that enriches CG dinucleotides and drives the highest CG frequencies known. Species with linker methylation have small, transcriptionally active nuclei that approach the physical limits of chromatin compaction. These features constitute a previously unappreciated genome architecture, in which dense methylation influences nucleosome positions, likely facilitating nuclear processes under extreme spatial constraints. DNA methylation, RNA and nucleosome sequencing data for diverse eukaryotes
Project description:Cytosine methylation silences transposable elements in plants, vertebrates and fungi, but also regulates gene expression1. Plant methylation is catalyzed by three families of enzymes, each with a preferred sequence context: CG, CHG (H = A, C or T) and CHH, with CHH methylation targeted by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway2. Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm, a placenta-like tissue that nourishes the embryo, is globally hypomethylated in the CG context while retaining high non-CG methylation3. Global methylation dynamics in seeds of cereal crops that provide the bulk of human nutrition remain unknown. Here we show that rice endosperm DNA is hypomethylated in all sequence contexts. Non-CG methylation is reduced evenly across the genome, while CG hypomethylation is localized. CHH methylation of small transposable elements is increased in embryos, suggesting that endosperm demethylation enhances transposon silencing. Genes preferentially expressed in endosperm, including those coding for major storage proteins and starch synthesizing enzymes, are frequently hypomethylated in endosperm, indicating that DNA methylation is a crucial regulator of rice endosperm biogenesis. Our data demonstrate that genome-wide reshaping of seed DNA methylation is conserved among angiosperms and has a profound effect on gene expression in cereal crops. Keywords: Epigenetics Examination of DNA methylation in rice
Project description:In this study, we mapped modification of lysine 4 and lysine 27 of histone H3 genome-wide in a series of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) varying in DNA methylation levels based on knock-out and reconstitution of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). We extend previous studies showing cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modifications by examining a breadth of histone modifications, causal relationships, and direct effects. Our data shows a causal regulation of H3K27me3 at gene promoters as well as H3K27ac and H3K27me3 at tissue-specific enhancers. We also identify isoform differences between DNMT family members. This study provides a comprehensive resource for the study of the complex interplay between DNA methylation and histone modification landscape. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) performed on wild-type, Dnmt triple knock-out (Dnmt1/3a/3b; TKO), Dnmt double knock-out (Dnmt3a/3b; DKO), and respective reconstitution mouse embryonic stem cell lines.
Project description:The role of on-CG methylation in seed development and dormancy remains unknown. There are four genes in charge of non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis: drm1, drm2, cmt2 and cmt3. The majority of non-CG methylation in vegetative tissues, leaf, is gone in homozygous ddcc mutant line (Hume et al., 2014). To uncover the possible role of non-CG DNA methylation in seed development and dormancy, we characterized the methylome of ddcc mutant in Arabidopsis dry seed using Illumina sequencing. Meanwhile, vegetative tissue, leaves from 3 week plant with ddcc mutant and from wild type, and dry seed from wild type plant were used as control. Illumina sequencing of bisulfite-converted genomic DNA from dry seed and 3-week-plant leaves of ddcc mutant and wild type.
Project description:DNA methylation plays an important role in development and disease. The primary sites of DNA methylation in vertebrates are cytosines in the CpG dinucleotide context, which account for roughly three quarters of the total DNA methylation content in human and mouse cells. While the genomic distribution, inter-individual stability and functional role of CpG methylation are reasonably well understood, little is known about DNA methylation targeting CpA, CpC and CpT dinucleotides. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of non-CG methylation in 72 genome-scale DNA methylation maps across human pluripotent and differentiated cell types. We confirm non-CG methylation to be predominant in pluripotent cell types and observe an expected decrease upon differentiation and near complete absence in various differentiated cells. Our data highlight that non-CG methylation is highly variable and shows little conservation between different pluripotent cell lines. While we show a strong correlation of non-CG methylation and DNMT3 expression levels we find a statistical independence of non-CG methylation from pluripotency associated gene expression. Finally, non-CG methylation appears to be spatially correlated with CpG methylation. In summary these results contribute further to our understanding of DNA methylation in human cells and help clarify previous observations using a large representative sample set. Examination of nonCG DNA methylation patterns in pluripotent and differentiated cells
Project description:In this study, we mapped modification of lysine 4 and lysine 27 of histone H3 genome-wide in a series of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) varying in DNA methylation levels based on knock-out and reconstitution of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). We extend previous studies showing cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modifications by examining a breadth of histone modifications, causal relationships, and direct effects. Our data shows a causal regulation of H3K27me3 at gene promoters as well as H3K27ac and H3K27me3 at tissue-specific enhancers. We also identify isoform differences between DNMT family members. This study provides a comprehensive resource for the study of the complex interplay between DNA methylation and histone modification landscape. Histone ChIP-seq of H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K4me1, and H3K27ac were performed on wild-type, Dnmt triple knock-out (Dnmt1/3a/3b; TKO), Dnmt double knock-out (Dnmt3a/3b; DKO), and respective reconstitution mouse embryonic stem cell lines
Project description:The role of on-CG methylation in seed development and dormancy remains unknown. There are four genes in charge of non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis: drm1, drm2, cmt2 and cmt3. The majority of non-CG methylation in vegetative tissues, leaf, is gone in homozygous ddcc mutant line (Hume et al., 2014). To uncover the possible role of non-CG DNA methylation in seed development and dormancy, we characterized the transcriptome of ddcc mutant in Arabidopsis post-mature green seeds using Illumina sequencing. Meanwhile, post-mature green seeds from wild type were used as control. Illumina sequencing of transcripts from post-mature green seeds of ddcc mutant and wild type. Two biological replicates were collected.
Project description:Titanium is the most widely used alloy family in dental and orthopedic implants due to its natural ability to integrate into bone, but cytotoxic alloying elements are required in titanium for its mechanical properties to match the functionality of natural bone in high-load bearing applications. Recent advances in nanostructuring, such as Equal Channel Angular Pressing-Conform (ECAP-C), reduce the grain size and increase the strength of pure grades of titanium, thereby eliminating the need for cytotoxic elements and increasing cytocompatibilty as measured by traditional cell biology techniques. Transcriptomic profiling of cells grown on conventional coarse grain (CG) versus nanostructured ultrafine grain (UG) surfaces can simultaneously enhance our understanding of genomics and biomaterials, facilitating the development of a new generation of implantable materials. Sterile Ti discs, 13.5 mm in diameter and polished to a 2 nm average surface roughness were arrayed in a non-tissue culture treated 24-well cell culture plate using a block design, with 12 CG and 12 UG disks. Wells were re-fed after 24 hours and after 72 hours Ti discs were transferred to new plates for standard cell harvesting protocols. The cells from four wells were consolidated into one sample and were stored at -80°C in RNAlater. All subsequent steps were identical for all samples. Samples on CG were used as the control for UG-CG comparisons.