Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of undifferentiated rat embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells
ABSTRACT: Validation study of a focused microarray for evaluation of undifferentiated rat ESCs.Using a focused microarray, undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be distinguished from differentiated ESCs and other cells derived from the early embryo since they have a unique gene expression pattern associated with pluripotency and lack of markers of differentiation. To date, however, such an array has not been developed for the rat species and differences in genomes of rat and human or rat and mouse preclude the use of ESC focused human or mouse microarrays for the rat. Here, we developed a focused microarray for screening rat ESCs and provide validation data that this array can distinguish undifferentiated rat ESCs from rat trophoblast stem cells (TS), rat extraembryonic endoderm cells (XEN), mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells (MEFs) and rat ESCs that have been differentiated in vitro. We used this tool to compare rat ESCs which have been expanded in a conventional rat ESC medium containing two inhibitors, e.g., GSK3 and MEK inhibitors, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and found expression of Cdx2, a gene associated with trophoblast determination. The rat ESC focused microarray described in this report has utility for rapid screening rat ESCs. This will enable optimization of culture conditions in the future. qRT-PCR gene expression profiling of undifferentiated ESCs and iPS cells. Equal amounts (1000ng) total RNA from each cell line was used in independent trials conducted by two investigators, these are technical replicates.
Project description:The interaction of natural killer (NK) cells with dendritic cells (DC) results in reciprocal cell activation through the interaction of membrane proteins and the release of soluble factors. Here we report that in NK-DC cocultures, among a set of 84 cytokines investigated, activin A was the second highest induced gene, with CXCL8 being the most upregulated one. Activin A is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and was previously shown to possess both pro- and antiinflammatory activities. In NK-DC cocultures, the induction of activin A required cell contact and was dependent on the presence of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e. IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF) as well as on NK cell-mediated DC killing. CD1+ DC were the main activin A producer cells among myeloid blood DC subsets. In NK-DC cocultures, inhibition of acitivn A by follistatin, a natural inhibitory protein, or by a specific blocking antibody, resulted in the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine release (i.e. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) by DC and in the increase of DC maturation. In conclusion, our study reports that activin A, produced during NK-DC interactions, represents a relevant negative feedback mechanism that might function to prevent excessive immune activation by DC. Human CD14 positive monocytes were differentiated to DC in vitro in the presence of IL-4 (20 ng/ml) and GM-CSF (50 ng/ml) for 6 days. Immature DC were then cocultured with allogeneic IL-15-activated NK cells (at 1:1 NK:DC ratio) for 0, 2 and 6 hrs. RNA was obtained from three independent coculture experiments. Equal amount of total RNA from each experiment was pooled prior to gene expression analysis. The gene expression of common cytokines was quantified using an RT2 Profiler PCR Array (Qiagen).
Project description:Validation study of a focused microarray for evaluation of undifferentiated rat ESCs.Using a focused microarray, undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be distinguished from differentiated ESCs and other cells derived from the early embryo since they have a unique gene expression pattern associated with pluripotency and lack of markers of differentiation. To date, however, such an array has not been developed for the rat species and differences in genomes of rat and human or rat and mouse preclude the use of ESC focused human or mouse microarrays for the rat. Here, we developed a focused microarray for screening rat ESCs and provide validation data that this array can distinguish undifferentiated rat ESCs from rat trophoblast stem cells (TS), rat extraembryonic endoderm cells (XEN), mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells (MEFs) and rat ESCs that have been differentiated in vitro. We used this tool to compare rat ESCs which have been expanded in a conventional rat ESC medium containing two inhibitors, e.g., GSK3 and MEK inhibitors, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and found expression of Cdx2, a gene associated with trophoblast determination. The rat ESC focused microarray described in this report has utility for rapid screening rat ESCs. This will enable optimization of culture conditions in the future. Overall design: A microarray was designed to compare the expression of 84 rat genes by various rat stem cell types and rat embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies. Relative fold changes in gene expression described by the microarray distinguish rat embryonic stem cells from other rat cell types, including rat embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies and mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Project description:Our previous findings suggest that the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a pivotal region for regulating the set-point of arterial pressure, exhibits abnormal inflammation in pre-hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) together with elevated anti-apoptotic and low apoptotic factor levels compared with that of normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats. Whether this chronic condition affects neuronal growth and plasticity in the NTS remains unknown. To unveil the characteristics of the neurodevelopmental environment in the NTS of hypertensive rats, we investigated the gene expression profile of neurotrophins and their receptors in SHRs compared to that of normotensive rat WKY. The NTS was dissected from the brain of 6 SHRs and 6 WKY rats and the total RNA was extracted. In both groups of rats (SHRs & WKY rats, n = 6 each), a total of 2 ug mRNA extracts from each NTS were pooled together, treated with RNase-free DNAse I (Invitrogen Life technologies) to remove any genomic contamination, and further purified using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Reverse transcription was subsequently performed on 1 ug total RNA using SuperArray’s RT2 First Strand Kit (SABiosciences); the resulting cDNA was submitted for real-time quantitative PCR reactions on RT2 ProfilerTM PCR array plates using Superarray RT2 SYBR Green qPCR Master Mix (SAbiosciences) and iCycler iQ thermal cycler (Bio-rad), following the manufacturer’s instructions. The experiment was performed in duplicate in each group.
Project description:Male Sprague Dawley adult rats were subjected to a cervical hemisection at C2 (C2HS). Costal diaphragm (both ipsilesional and contralesional sides) were assessed under control conditions (sham surgery) and at 1 and 7 days post-C2HS. We used SA Biosciences Rat Skeletal Muscle Development and Disease RT2 Profiler PCR Array to quantitate gene expression of muscle atrophy and regeneration-relevant genes from the uninjured and injured tissues on the indicated sides and at the indicated timepoints post-lesion. qPCR gene expression profiling. Tissue was derived from the costal diaphragm from control animals, and from contralesional and ipsilesional sides at days 1 and 7 post-lesion. RNA was extracted from flash-frozen tissue (TRIzol reagent) and quantitated via spectrophotometry. Equal amount total RNA from each donor was pooled prior to gene expression analysis. N=3 or 4 rats per condition. Four genes in the array study appeared to undergo unphysiologic increases in expression following SCI: Mmp9, Leptin, activin A and alpha actinin. For these genes, expression levels in control tissue were detectable but extremely low, thus fold-increases following SCI are numerically exaggerated. Therefore, we cannot explicitly comment on the physiologic scale of this response
Project description:This study evaluated changes in gene expression upon IL-7 treatment in human naive and memory Treg. CD4+CD25+CD127low naïve and memory Treg were isolated from fresh PBMC and separately stimulated with αCD3α/CD28 coupled beads (Invitrogen-Dynal) at a 1:10 bead/T cell ratio, treated with or without 10 ng/ml of rhIL-7 (R&D Systems) for 16 hours. qPCR gene expression profiling of CD4+CD25+CD127low naïve and memory Treg obtained from 2 separate donors. Cell lysates were prepared separately from the 2 donors and pooled prior to RNA extraction.
Project description:8-cell stage rat embryos were sired by males treated with saline or a chemotherapeutic cocktail, BEP, consisting of Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin for 9 weeks. Animals were given an additional 9 weeks of recovery, without any treatment, prior to mating. qPCR gene expression profiling for 84 stem cell transcription factors. Total RNA extracted from 25-35 embryos at the eight-cell stage sired by control or BEP-treated males after a 9-wk recovery period (2 females mated per male, n= 4 males/treatment).
Project description:Normal fibroblasts and SSc fibroblasts between the third and six subpassages were used for experiments. Normal and scleroderma fibroblasts were serum-starved for 24 hours and incubated in the presence or absence of TGF-β1 (2ng/ml) for 6 hours. Total RNA was extracted from culture cells with ISOGEN (Nippon Gene, Tokyo, Japan). MicroRNA isolation from total RNA was performed using RT2 qPCR-Grade miRNA Isolation Kit (SA Bioscience). For RT2 Profiler PCR Array (SABioscience), microRNAs were reverse-transcribed into first strand cDNA using RT2 miRNA First Strand Kit (SABiosciences). A mixture of equal amounts of cDNAs from 5 normal fibroblasts or 5 SSc fibroblasts was prepared. The cDNA was mixed with RT2 SYBR Green/ROX qPCR Master Mix and the mixture was added into a 96-well RT2 miRNA PCR Array (SABiosciences) that included primer pairs for 88 human microRNAs. Human dermal fibroblasts were obtained by skin biopsy from the affected areas (dorsal forearm) of 5 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and <2 years of skin thickening. Control fibroblasts were obtained by skin biopsies from 5 healthy donors. Control donors were each matched with a SSc patient for age, sex, and biopsy site.
Project description:The aim of the study was to elucidate which TGFB signaling pathway molecules are involved in the colon cancer chemoresistance. The PCR array used for this experiments was 84 Human TGF-β Signaling Targets (Cat. N. PAHS-235ZA, Qiagen) The expression of 84 Human TGF-β Signaling Targets genes was analyzed by RT2 profiler PCR array (PAHS-235ZA, Qiagen) using the StepOne Plus instrument (Applied Biosystems) following the manufacturer’s protocol. Two independent experiments were performed for each group of treatment. Untreated cells were used as reference control sample. The mRNA expression levels of each gene in each cell treatment were normalized using the expression of the housekeeping genes B2M, GAPDH, RPLP0, HPRT1 and ACTB.
Project description:To determine the differentially expressed miRNAs in MDA-MB-231-GATA3 cells vs. MDA-MB-231-Control cells Pooled polyclonal cells from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells +/- GATA3 over-expression were analyzed for miRNA expression
Project description:We examined the effect of IL-17 signaling pathway on extracellular matrix (ECM) expression and the involvement of IL-17 signaling pathway in pathogenesis of SSc. To identify differences in the expression pattern of ECM genes in IL-17A- or IL-17F-treated cells, we performed PCR array analysis, consisting of 84 ECM-related genes. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were cultured until they were confluent, and then stimulated with IL-17A or IL-17F for 12 hours, and total RNA was extracted. A mixture of equal amounts of mRNAs from three normal fibroblasts was prepared in the presence or absence of IL-17A or -17F, and mRNA expression profile was evaluated using PCR Array. Normal fibroblasts were obtained by skin biopsies from 3 healthy donors. Fibroblasts from donors were used and treated separately as indicated in the summary. Equal amount total RNA from each donor was pooled prior to gene expression analysis.