Transcription profiling of rat model of nonischemic cerebral hypoperfusion to investigate molecular mechanisms of early response in adaptive cerebral arteriogenesis
ABSTRACT: This study aims at a comprehensive understanding of the genomic program activated during early-phase of collateral vessel growth in a rat model for cerebral adaptive arteriogenesis (3-VO). While arteriogenesis constitutes a promising therapeutic concept for cerebrovascular ischemia, genomic profiles essential for therapeutic target identification were analysed solely for collateral arteries of the heart and periphery. Despite challenging anatomical conditions of the brain the 3-VO model allows identification of differentially expressed genes during adaptive cerebral arteriogenesis by selective removal of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Experiment Overall Design: Using an established rat model of nonischemic cerebral hypoperfusion (3-VO) (Busch, Buschmann; 2003), RNA was extracted from isolated ipsilateral PCA. Pooled RNAs from groups of intact (0h), sham and 3-VO animals 24h and 3 days after surgery, were hybridised repeatedly for an extensive genome screen of 15866 genes applying standardized Affymetrix technology. For each Array total RNA from 8 animals was processed, pooled and hybridized to a Rat230A GeneChip per group. These groups were classified as follows: intact control (N=3), 24h3VO (N=3); 24h sham (N=3), 3days3VO (N=3); and 3days sham(N=3). Hybridization, washing, antibody amplification, staining, and scanning of probe arrays were performed according to the Affymetrix Technical Manual. Probe arrays were scanned using the GeneChip System (Hewlett-Packard, Santa Cruz, CA)(Affymetrix) and raw data were processed using GCOS and normalized to a global intensity of 500.
Project description:This study aims at a comprehensive understanding of the genomic program activated during early-phase of collateral vessel growth in a rat model for cerebral adaptive arteriogenesis (3-VO). While arteriogenesis constitutes a promising therapeutic concept for cerebrovascular ischemia, genomic profiles essential for therapeutic target identification were analysed solely for collateral arteries of the heart and periphery. Despite challenging anatomical conditions of the brain the 3-VO model allows identification of differentially expressed genes during adaptive cerebral arteriogenesis by selective removal of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Keywords: early response time course, selective collateral growth, brain Overall design: Using an established rat model of nonischemic cerebral hypoperfusion (3-VO) (Busch, Buschmann; 2003), RNA was extracted from isolated ipsilateral PCA. Pooled RNAs from groups of intact (0h), sham and 3-VO animals 24h and 3 days after surgery, were hybridised repeatedly for an extensive genome screen of 15866 genes applying standardized Affymetrix technology. For each Array total RNA from 8 animals was processed, pooled and hybridized to a Rat230A GeneChip per group. These groups were classified as follows: intact control (N=3), 24h3VO (N=3); 24h sham (N=3), 3days3VO (N=3); and 3days sham(N=3). Hybridization, washing, antibody amplification, staining, and scanning of probe arrays were performed according to the Affymetrix Technical Manual. Probe arrays were scanned using the GeneChip System (Hewlett-Packard, Santa Cruz, CA)(Affymetrix) and raw data were processed using GCOS and normalized to a global intensity of 500.
Project description:The Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat model develops chronic hypertensive disease when fed a high salt diet that ultimately results in renal and heart failure, as well as prevalent cerebrovascular pathologies. Phenotypic changes in the cerebral vasculature are preceded by changes in gene expression, and evidence supports a role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in vascular cell proliferation, yet little is known regarding ERK1/2 –regulated gene transcription in cerebrovascular smooth muscle during hypertension. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that salt-induced hypertensive disease results in upregulation of ERK1/2 activity and ERK1/2-regulated genes that promote remodeling in cerebral resistance arteries. Dahl S rats were fed either a 0.4% NaCl (low salt, LS) or 8% NaCl (high salt, HS) diet until evidence of left ventricular dysfunction. Gene expression profiling using oligonucleotide array analysis detected a significant fold-change of 1.5 or greater in 133 out of 15,923 genes examined. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-regulated genes were overrepresented and provided a link to genes involved in proliferation and extracellular matrix signaling including plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-1), osteopontin (OPN) and junB. These data suggests that salt induced hypertensive disease promotes hyperplasia and changes in matricellular genes that are likely important in vascular remodeling. Experiment Overall Design: Analysis was based on a comparison between the Low Salt and High Salt groups. Arteries from 3 animals were pooled for each sample, thus there were 9 animals/group. Analysis of significance amongst all genes as well as prospective hypotheses correlating to disease were performed.
Project description:This data set shows dramatic changes in gene expression in microglia isolated from C57Bl6/J mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, as compared to those subjected to sham surgery. Mice deficient in Mincle (Clec4e-/-) showed significantly improved injury outcomes 3 and 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, when comparing changes in gene expression in microglia 24 hours after blood reperfusion, there were no differences between wild-type and Clec4e-/- mice, indicating that Mincle does not participate in early microglial activation. Wild type and Mincle knock-out (Clec4e-/-) mice. After 1 h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and 24 h of reperfusion, mice were perfused with PBS, their brains dissected, and 2 ipsilesional hemispheres (with cerebellum and brainstem removed) pooled for microglia isolation. For sham-operated animals, the whole forebrain was used and brains were not pooled. After myelin separation by Percoll gradient centrifugation, around 80,000 CD45intermediate, CD11b+ microglial cells were sorted from each sample. Sham samples n=3, tMCAO samples n=5.
Project description:To investigate the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on gene expression profile after focal cerebral ischemia in mouse, we employed Agilent SurePrint G3 Mouse Gene Expression 8×60K Microarray as a platform to identify which genes influenced by VEGF in mouse after focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were randomized to sham group, in which mice underwent sham surgery; MCAO group, in which transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was performed and mice received vehicle (PBS, 0.01M, pH 7.4) intracerebroventricularly in the right lateral ventricle 3hr after reperfusion; VEGF group (n = 36), in which rhVEGF-A165 (10μg/ml, dissolved in 0.01M PBS) was injected into the right lateral ventricle 3hr after reperfusion. Mice were sacrificed at 24hr after reperfusion, brains removed and peri-infarct areas were used for microarray. Gene expression microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes among sham group, MCAO group and VEGF group. Expression of thirty-seven genes was confirmed in the same RNA samples by real-time PCR. Gene expression in sham group, MCAO group and VEGF group was measured at 24 hours after reperfusion. Three independent experiments were performed using different mice for each experiment.
Project description:Ischemic stroke triggers severe focal hypoperfusion accompanied with deprivation of oxygen and glucose to the cerebral tissue, together with loss of ATP, depolorization of neurons, elevated extracellular potassium concentration, and subsequently leads to excitotoxicity as well as increased oxidative stress promoting microvascular injury, blood-brain-barrier deregulation, post-ischemic inflammation and eventually the consequential neurological deficit. Although reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue is critical for restoring normal function, it can paradoxically result in secondary damage, called ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Microarray analysis was performed on the right striatum and cortex (corresponded to infarct area) of post-I/R injured brain tissues of wild-type (WT-MCAO) using Illumina mouse Ref8 V2 genechips. Suture-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced for 2h followed by reperfusion, with tissue extraction taking place 2h, 8h and 24h post-reperfusion (n=4 respectively). Sham controls were included in this study too (n=4 respectively).
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE27459: Human cerebral cortex DNA methylation by MeDIP-Chip GSE27460: Rhesus macaque cerebral cortex DNA methylation profiling by MeDIP-Chip Refer to individual Series
Project description:Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and long-term disability and ischemic stroke accounts for 87% of all strokes. Though timely recanalization of the occluded vessel is essential in the treatment of ischemic stroke, it is well known to cause ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury which result in neuronal cell death, brain tissue loss and severe neurological deficits. In this work, we employed a global proteomic approach to examine the changes of cerebral cortex proteins in rats undergoing acute and long-term I/R injury. In vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of focal cerebral I/R injury in rats was established. The animals were divided into three model groups with 2 h-MCAO followed with different reperfusion time, 1 day, 7 days and 14 days, respectively. For each model group a sham group was correspondingly set. Each group included four animals. For proteomic analysis, cerebral cortex proteins were extracted and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, whole-lane slicing, in-gel digestion and label-free quantitative LC-MS/MS. A total of 5621 proteins were identified and their quantities between the surgery and corresponding sham groups and across the three reperfusion time points were compared for mechanism investigation. This dataset includes all the raw files of the 840 LC-MS runs (6 groups x 4 animals x 35 gel squares/sample), as well as their identification and quantitation results at the levels of peptide fragments, peptides and proteins, respectively.
Project description:Cerebral Aneurysm tissues and superficial temporal arteries were compared through RNA-Seq to identify differentially expressed genes, and through microRNA microarray to identify differentially expressed microRNAs. Significant miR:gene pairs were identified for potential microRNA silencing regualtory effects. To study differentially expressed genes and microRNAs in cerebral aneurysms, we collected 7 cerebral aneurysm tisses and 10 superficial temporal artery (STA) tisses from 17 individuals. We performed RNA-Seq and microRNA microarray analysis on these samples, and compared them using STA as a control.
Project description:Cerebral organoids – three-dimensional cultures of human cerebral tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells – have emerged as models of human cortical development. However, the extent to which in vitro organoid systems recapitulate neural progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation programs observed in vivo remains unclear. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to dissect and compare cell composition and progenitor-to-neuron lineage relationships in human cerebral organoids and fetal neocortex. Covariation network analysis using the fetal neocortex data reveals known and novel interactions among genes central to neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In the organoid, we detect diverse progenitors and differentiated cell types of neuronal and mesenchymal lineages, and identify cells that derived from regions resembling the fetal neocortex. We find that these organoid cortical cells use gene expression programs remarkably similar to those of the fetal tissue in order to organize into cerebral cortex-like regions. Our comparison of in vivo and in vitro cortical single cell transcriptomes illuminates the genetic features underlying human cortical development that can be studied in organoid cultures. 734 single-cell transcriptomes from human fetal neocortex or human cerebral organoids from multiple time points were analyzed in this study. All single cell samples were processed on the microfluidic Fluidigm C1 platform and contain 92 external RNA spike-ins. Fetal neocortex data were generated at 12 weeks post conception (chip 1: 81 cells; chip 2: 83 cells) and 13 weeks post conception (62 cells). Cerebral organoid data were generated from dissociated whole organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cell line 409B2 (iPSC 409B2) at 33 days (40 cells), 35 days (68 cells), 37 days (71 cells), 41 days (74 cells), and 65 days (80 cells) after the start of embryoid body culture. Cerebral organoid data were also generated from microdissected cortical-like regions from H9 embryonic stem cell derived organoids at 53 days (region 1, 48 cells; region 2, 48 cells) or from iPSC 409B2 organoids at 58 days (region 3, 43 cells; region 4, 36 cells).
Project description:In the present work we analyse the proteomic profile of two models of cerebral hypoxia with different severity as well as their response after treatment with the antioxidant melatonin and the nitric oxide-donor isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN).