ABSTRACT: Identification of eukaryotic mRNAs that are translated at reduced cap binding complex eIF4F concentrations using a cDNA microarray. Although most eukaryotic mRNAs need a functional cap binding complex eIF4F for efficient 5' end-dependent scanning to initiate translation, picornaviral, hepatitis C viral, and a few cellular RNAs have been shown to be translated by internal ribosome entry, a mechanism that can operate in the presence of low levels of functional eIF4F. To identify cellular mRNAs that can be translated when eIF4F is depleted or in low abundance and that, therefore, may contain internal ribosome entry sites, mRNAs that remained associated with polysomes were isolated from human cells after infection with poliovirus and were identified by using a cDNA microarray. Approximately 200 of the 7000 mRNAs analyzed remained associated with polysomes under these conditions. Among the gene products encoded by these polysome-associated mRNAs were immediate-early transcription factors, kinases, and phosphatases of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and several protooncogenes, including c-myc and Pim-1. In addition, the mRNA encoding Cyr61, a secreted factor that can promote angiogenesis and tumor growth, was selectively mobilized into polysomes when eIF4F concentrations were reduced, although its overall abundance changed only slightly. Subsequent tests confirmed the presence of internal ribosome entry sites in the 5' noncoding regions of both Cyr61 and Pim-1 mRNAs. Overall, this study suggests that diverse mRNAs whose gene products have been implicated in a variety of stress responses, including inflammation, angiogenesis, and the response to serum, can use translational initiation mechanisms that require little or no intact cap binding protein complex eIF4F. This study is described more fully in Johannes G et al.(1999) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13118-23.
Project description:Distinctive gene expression patterns in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancers. cDNA microarrays and a clustering algorithm were used to identify patterns of gene expression in human mammary epithelial cells growing in culture and in primary human breast tumors. Clusters of coexpressed genes identified through manipulations of mammary epithelial cells in vitro also showed consistent patterns of variation in expression among breast tumor samples. By using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against proteins encoded by a particular gene in a cluster, the identity of the cell type within the tumor specimen that contributed the observed gene expression pattern could be determined. Clusters of genes with coherent expression patterns in cultured cells and in the breast tumors samples could be related to specific features of biological variation among the samples. Two such clusters were found to have patterns that correlated with variation in cell proliferation rates and with activation of the IFN-regulated signal transduction pathway, respectively. Clusters of genes expressed by stromal cells and lymphocytes in the breast tumors also were identified in this analysis. These results support the feasibility and usefulness of this systematic approach to studying variation in gene expression patterns in human cancers as a means to dissect and classify solid tumors. This study is described more fully in Perou CM, et al. 1999. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:9212-7
Project description:Gene amplifications and deletions frequently contribute to tumorigenesis. Characterization of these DNA copy-number changes is important for both the basic understanding of cancer and its diagnosis. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was developed to survey DNA copy-number variations across a whole genome. With CGH, differentially labelled test and reference genomic DNAs are co-hybridized to normal metaphase chromosomes, and fluorescence ratios along the length of chromosomes provide a cytogenetic representation of DNA copy-number variation. CGH, however, has a limited ( approximately 20 Mb) mapping resolution, and higher-resolution techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), are prohibitively labour-intensive on a genomic scale. Array-based CGH, in which fluorescence ratios at arrayed DNA elements provide a locus-by-locus measure of DNA copy-number variation, represents another means of achieving increased mapping resolution. Published array CGH methods have relied on large genomic clone (for example BAC) array targets and have covered only a small fraction of the human genome. cDNAs representing over 30,000 radiation-hybrid (RH)-mapped human genes provide an alternative and readily available genomic resource for mapping DNA copy-number changes. Although cDNA microarrays have been used extensively to characterize variation in human gene expression, human genomic DNA is a far more complex mixture than the mRNA representation of human cells. Therefore, analysis of DNA copy-number variation using cDNA microarrays would require a sensitivity of detection an order of magnitude greater than has been routinely reported. We describe here a cDNA microarray-based CGH method, and its application to DNA copy-number variation analysis in breast cancer cell lines and tumours. This study is described more fully in Pollack JR et al.(1999) Nat Genet 23:41-6
Project description:Analysis of topoisomerase function in bacterial replication fork movement: use of DNA microarrays. We used DNA microarrays of the Escherichia coli genome to trace the progression of chromosomal replication forks in synchronized cells. We found that both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (topo IV) promote replication fork progression. When both enzymes were inhibited, the replication fork stopped rapidly. The elongation rate with topo IV alone was 1/3 of normal. Genetic data confirmed and extended these results. Inactivation of gyrase alone caused a slow stop of replication. Topo IV activity was sufficient to prevent accumulation of (+) supercoils in plasmid DNA in vivo, suggesting that topo IV can promote replication by removing (+) supercoils in front of the chromosomal fork. This study is detailed in Khodursky AB et al.(2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9419-24 Keywords: other
Project description:Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of half of the world's population, causing a wide spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to ulcers to gastric cancer. Although the basis for these diverse clinical outcomes is not understood, more severe disease is associated with strains harboring a pathogenicity island. To characterize the genetic diversity of more and less virulent strains, we examined the genomic content of 15 H. pylori clinical isolates by using a whole genome H. pylori DNA microarray. We found that a full 22% of H. pylori genes are dispensable in one or more strains, thus defining a minimal functional core of 1281 H. pylori genes. While the core genes encode most metabolic and cellular processes, the strain-specific genes include genes unique to H. pylori, restriction modification genes, transposases, and genes encoding cell surface proteins, which may aid the bacteria under specific circumstances during their long-term infection of genetically diverse hosts. We observed distinct patterns of the strain-specific gene distribution along the chromosome, which may result from different mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss. Among the strain-specific genes, we have found a class of candidate virulence genes identified by their coinheritance with the pathogenicity island.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is clinically heterogeneous: 40% of patients respond well to current therapy and have prolonged survival, whereas the remainder succumb to the disease. We proposed that this variability in natural history reflects unrecognized molecular heterogeneity in the tumors. Using DNA microarrays, we have conducted a systematic characterization of gene expression in B-cell malignancies. Here we show that there is diversity in gene expression among the tumors of DLBCL patients, apparently reflecting the variation in tumor proliferation rate, host response and differentiation state of the tumor. We identified two molecularly distinct forms of DLBCL which had gene expression patterns indicative of different stages of B-cell differentiation. One type expressed genes characteristic of germinal center B cells ('germinal center B-like DLBCL'); the second type expressed genes normally induced during in vitro activation of peripheral blood B cells ('activated B-like DLBCL'). Patients with germinal center B-like DLBCL had a significantly better overall survival than those with activated B-like DLBCL. The molecular classification of tumors on the basis of gene expression can thus identify previously undetected and clinically significant subtypes of cancer. This study is described more fully in Alizadeh AA et al.(2000) Nature 403:503-11
Project description:Protein microarrays for highly parallel detection and quantitation of specific proteins and antibodies in complex solutions. This study is described more fully in Haab, Dunham, and Brown, Genome Biology 2001 2(2): research0004.1-0004.13.
Project description:Set of 65 surgical specimens of human breast tumors from 42 different individuals, using complementary DNA microarrays representing 8,102 human genes. Gene expression variation patterns within this set provided a distinctive molecular portrait of each tumor. Twenty of the tumors were sampled twice, before and after a 16-week course of doxorubicin chemotherapy, and two tumors were paired with a lymph node metastasis from the same patient. Gene expression patterns in two tumor samples from the same individual were almost always more similar to each other than either was to any other sample. This study is described more fully in Perou CM et al.(2000) Nature 406:747-52
Project description:A Saccharomyces cerevisiae population was cultured for many generations under conditions to which it is not optimally adapted. These experiments were designed to investigate adaptive evolution under natural selection. This study is described in more detail in Ferea TL, et al. 1999. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:9721-6
Project description:The arrays were used to study the effects of modifying phosphate levels in yeast, either through mutation, or chemical manipulation. This study is described in more detail in Ogawa N et al.(2000) Mol Biol Cell 11:4309-21