Gene Expression Analysis of Host Immune Responses in rhesus macaques infected with SIVmac239 or deglycosylated live-attenuated SIV
ABSTRACT: To find the differences in innate immune response between nonpathogenic and pathogenic SIV infection, we examined transcriptome in PBMCs from macques infected with pathogenic or nonpathogenic SIV. Juvenile macaques were intavenousy infected with SIVmac239 or ∆5G. Blood samples were collected at 1 week and 3 weeks pi. Total RNA from the PBMCs were used for the microarray analysis.
Project description:Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and a live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (?5G) virus target CD4+ T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and ?5G preferentially infected distinct CD4+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Here, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3+ CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in SLOs. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that Th1-polarized inflammatory responses, defined by expression of CXCR3 chemokines, were distinctly induced in the SIVmac239-infected animals. Consistent with robust expression of CXCL10, CXCR3+ T cells were depleted from blood in the SIVmac239-infected animals. We also discovered that elevation of CXCL10 expression in blood and SLOs was secondary to the induction of CD14+ CD16+ monocytes and MAC387+ macrophages, respectively. Since the significantly higher levels of SIV infection in SLOs occurred with a massive accumulation of infiltrated MAC387+ macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and residential macrophages near high endothelial venules, the results highlight critical roles of innate/inflammatory responses in SIVmac239 infection. Restricted infection in SLOs by ?5G also suggests that glycosylation of Env modulates innate/inflammatory responses elicited by cells of monocyte/macrophage/DC lineages.IMPORTANCE We previously demonstrated that a pathogenic SIVmac239 virus and a live-attenuated, deglycosylated mutant ?5G virus infected distinct CD4+ T cell subsets in SLOs and the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00948-12). Accordingly, infections with SIVmac239, but not with ?5G, deplete CXCR3+ CCR5+ CD4+ T (Th1) cells during the primary infection, thereby compromising the cellular immune response. Thus, we hypothesized that distinct host responses are elicited by the infections with two different viruses. We found that SIVmac239 induced distinctly higher levels of inflammatory Th1 responses than ?5G. In particular, SIVmac239 infection elicited robust expression of CXCL10, a chemokine for CXCR3+ cells, in CD14+ CD16+ monocytes and MAC387+ macrophages recently infiltrated in SLOs. In contrast, ?5G infection elicited only modest inflammatory responses. These results suggest that the glycosylation of Env modulates the inflammatory/Th1 responses through the monocyte/macrophage subsets and elicits marked differences in SIV infection and clinical outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of progressive HIV infection and a key determinant of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected individuals. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the circulation has been implicated as a key factor in HIV infection-related systemic immune activation. We thus investigate the impact of LPS on systemic immune activation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. METHODS: The animals were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239. The levels of plasma viral load and host inflammatory cytokines in PBMC were measured by real-time RT-PCR. CD4/CD8 ratio and systemic immune activation markers were examined by flow cytometric analysis of PBMCs. White blood cell and neutrophil counts and C Reactive Protein levels were determined using biochemistry analyzer. The plasma levels of LPS were determined by Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate (TAL) test. RESULTS: The animals inoculated with SIVmac239 became infected as evidenced by the increased plasma levels of SIV RNA and decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. LPS administration of SIV-infected animals induced a transient increase of plasma SIV RNA and immune activation, which was indicated by the elevated expression of the inflammatory cytokines and CD4+HLA-DR+ T cells in PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the concept that LPS is a driving factor in systemic immune activation of HIV disease.
Project description:To identify viral determinants of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virulence, two pairs of reciprocal recombinants constructed from a pathogenic (SIVmac239) and a nonpathogenic (SIVmac1A11) molecular clone of SIV were tested in rhesus macaques. A large 6.2-kb fragment containing gag, pol, env, and the regulatory genes from each of the cloned (parental) viruses was exchanged to produce one pair of recombinant viruses (designated SIVmac1A11/239gag-env/1A11 and SIVmac239/1A11gag-env/239 to indicate the genetic origins of the 5'/internal/3' regions, respectively, of the virus). A smaller 1.4-kb fragment containing the external env domain of each of the parental viruses was exchanged to create the second pair (SIVmac1A11/239env/1A11 and SIVmac239/1A11env/239) of recombinant viruses. Each of the two parental and four recombinant viruses was inoculated intravenously into four rhesus macaques, and all 24 animals were viremic by 4 weeks postinoculation (p.i.). Virus could not be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of any animals infected with SIVmac1A11 after 6 weeks p.i. but was consistently isolated from all macaques inoculated with SIVmac239 for 92 weeks p.i. Virus isolation was variable from animals infected with recombinant viruses; SIVmac1A11/239gag-env/1A11 and SIVmac239/1A11env/239 were isolated most frequently. Animals inoculated with SIVmac239 had 10 to 100 times more virus-infected PBMC than those infected with recombinant viruses. Three animals infected with SIVmac239 died with simian AIDS (SAIDS) during the 2-year observation period after inoculation, and the fourth SIVmac239-infected animal had clinical signs of SAIDS. Two animals infected with recombinant viruses died with SAIDS; one was infected with SIVmac239/1A11gag-env/239, and the other was infected with SIVmac1A11/239gag-env/1A11. The remaining 18 macaques remained healthy by 2 years p.i., and 13 were aviremic. One year after inoculation, peripheral lymph nodes of some of these healthy, aviremic animals harbored infected cells. All animals seroconverted within the first few weeks of infection, and the magnitude of antibody response to SIV was proportional to the levels and duration of viremia. Virus-suppressive PBMC were detected within 2 to 4 weeks p.i. in all animals but tended to decline as viremia disappeared. There was no association of levels of cell-mediated virus-suppressive activity and either virus load or disease progression. Taken together, these results indicate that differences in more than one region of the viral genome are responsible for the lack of virulence of SIVmac1A11.
Project description:Established infections with the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) are thought to be permanent with even the most effective immune responses and antiretroviral therapies only able to control, but not clear, these infections. Whether the residual virus that maintains these infections is vulnerable to clearance is a question of central importance to the future management of millions of HIV-infected individuals. We recently reported that approximately 50% of rhesus macaques (RM; Macaca mulatta) vaccinated with SIV protein-expressing rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV/SIV) vectors manifest durable, aviraemic control of infection with the highly pathogenic strain SIVmac239 (ref. 5). Here we show that regardless of the route of challenge, RhCMV/SIV vector-elicited immune responses control SIVmac239 after demonstrable lymphatic and haematogenous viral dissemination, and that replication-competent SIV persists in several sites for weeks to months. Over time, however, protected RM lost signs of SIV infection, showing a consistent lack of measurable plasma- or tissue-associated virus using ultrasensitive assays, and a loss of T-cell reactivity to SIV determinants not in the vaccine. Extensive ultrasensitive quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR with reverse transcription analyses of tissues from RhCMV/SIV vector-protected RM necropsied 69-172?weeks after challenge did not detect SIV RNA or DNA sequences above background levels, and replication-competent SIV was not detected in these RM by extensive co-culture analysis of tissues or by adoptive transfer of 60 million haematolymphoid cells to naive RM. These data provide compelling evidence for progressive clearance of a pathogenic lentiviral infection, and suggest that some lentiviral reservoirs may be susceptible to the continuous effector memory T-cell-mediated immune surveillance elicited and maintained by cytomegalovirus vectors.
Project description:Long-term delivery of anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies using adeno-associated virus (AAV) holds promise for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. We previously reported that after receiving a single administration of AAV vector coding for anti-SIV antibody 5L7, monkey 84-05 achieved high levels of AAV-delivered 5L7 IgG1 in vivo which conferred sterile protection against six successive, escalating dose, intravenous challenges with highly infectious, highly pathogenic SIVmac239, including a final challenge with 10 animal infectious doses (1). Here we report that monkey 84-05 has successfully maintained 240-350 ?g/ml of anti-SIV antibody 5L7 for over 6 years. Approximately 2% of the circulating IgG in this monkey is this one monoclonal antibody. This monkey generated little or no anti-drug antibodies (ADA) to the AAV-delivered antibody for the duration of the study. Due to the nature of the high-dose challenge used and in order to rule out a potential low-level infection not detected by regular viral loads, we have used ultrasensitive techniques to detect cell-associated viral DNA and RNA in PBMCs from this animal. In addition, we have tested serum from 84-05 by ELISA against overlapping peptides spanning the whole envelope sequence for SIVmac239 (PepScan) and against recombinant p27 and gp41 proteins. No reactivity has been detected in the ELISAs indicating the absence of naturally arising anti-SIV antibodies; moreover, the ultrasensitive cell-associated viral tests yielded no positive reaction. We conclude that macaque 84-05 was effectively protected and remained uninfected. Our data show that durable, continuous antibody expression can be achieved after one single administration of AAV and support the potential for lifelong protection against HIV from a single vector administration.
Project description:There is currently a need for proxy measures of the HIV rebound competent reservoir (RCR) that can predict viral rebound after combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) interruption. In this study, macaques infected with a barcoded SIVmac239 virus received cART beginning between 4- and 27 days post-infection, leading to the establishment of different levels of viral dissemination and persistence. Later treatment initiation led to higher SIV DNA levels maintained during treatment, which was significantly associated with an increased frequency of SIV reactivation and production of progeny capable of causing rebound viremia following treatment interruption. However, a 100-fold increase in SIV DNA in PBMCs was associated with only a 2-fold increase in the frequency of reactivation. These data suggest that the RCR can be established soon after infection, and that a large fraction of persistent viral DNA that accumulates after this time makes relatively little contribution to viral rebound.
Project description:Infections with mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) BCG, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected persons. In contrast to HIV, SIV infection of sooty mangabeys is nonpathogenic, characterized by a lack of clinical disease including an absence of opportunistic infections. The goal of this study was to identify innate immune responses to M. bovis BCG maintained during nonpathogenic lentiviral infections, through a comparison of functional responses during pathogenic HIV or nonpathogenic SIV infections. Monocytes were evaluated for their ability to express key anti-mycobacterial cytokines TNF-α and IL-12 following a six-hour ex vivo BCG exposure. While HIV-infection was associated with a decreased percentage of IL-12-producing monocytes, nonpathogenic SIV-infection was associated with an increased percentage of monocytes producing both cytokines. Gene expression analysis of PBMC following ex vivo BCG exposure identified differential expression of NK cell-related genes and several cytokines, including IFN-γ and IL-23, between HIV-infected and control subjects. In contrast, SIV-infected and uninfected-control mangabeys exhibited no significant differences in gene expression after BCG exposure. Finally, differential gene expression patterns were identified between species, with mangabeys exhibiting lower IL-6 and higher IL-17 in response to BCG when compared to humans. Overall, this comparison of immune responses to M. bovis BCG identified unique immune signatures (involving cytokines IL-12, TNF-α, IL-23, IL-17, and IL-6) that are altered during HIV, but maintained or increased during nonpathogenic SIV infections. These unique cytokine and transcriptome signatures provide insight into the differential immune responses to Mycobacteria during pathogenic HIV-infection of humans or nonpathogenic SIV-infection of mangabeys. Overall design: Seven HIVneg and 7 HIV+ human samples and four SIVneg and 4 SIV+ samples were used here.
Project description:Immunization of macaques with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) with deletions in nef (SIV?nef) is shown to elicit protective immunity to infection by pathogenic SIV, yet the mechanisms that orchestrate protection and prevent pathogenesis remains unknown. We utilized whole-genome transcriptional profiling to reveal molecular signatures of protective immunity in circulating CD8+ T cells of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVmac239?nef and challenged with pathogenic SIVmac251. Our findings suggest that protective immunity to pathogenic SIV infection induced by SIVmac239?nef is associated with balanced induction of T cell activation and immunoregulatory mechanisms and dampened activation of interferon-induced signaling pathways and cytolytic enzyme production as compared with pathogenic SIVmac251 infection of unvaccinated controls. We provide evidence that protective immunity to SIVmac251 correlates with induction of biomarkers of T cell activation, differentiation, signaling, and adhesion that were down regulated in unvaccinated controls. The study highlights potential immunomodulatory networks associated with protective immunity against the virus.
Project description:Previous studies have established that strain 68-1-derived rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteins (RhCMV/SIV) are able to elicit and maintain cellular immune responses that provide protection against mucosal challenge of highly pathogenic SIV in rhesus monkeys (RMs). However, these efficacious RhCMV/SIV vectors were replication and spread competent and therefore have the potential to cause disease in immunocompromised subjects. To develop a safer CMV-based vaccine for clinical use, we attenuated 68-1 RhCMV/SIV vectors by deletion of the Rh110 gene encoding the pp71 tegument protein (?Rh110), allowing for suppression of lytic gene expression. ?Rh110 RhCMV/SIV vectors are highly spread deficient in vivo (~1000-fold compared to the parent vector) yet are still able to superinfect RhCMV+ RMs and generate high-frequency effector-memory-biased T cell responses. Here, we demonstrate that ?Rh110 68-1 RhCMV/SIV-expressing homologous or heterologous SIV antigens are highly efficacious against intravaginal (IVag) SIVmac239 challenge, providing control and progressive clearance of SIV infection in 59% of vaccinated RMs. Moreover, among 12 ?Rh110 RhCMV/SIV-vaccinated RMs that controlled and progressively cleared an initial SIV challenge, 9 were able to stringently control a second SIV challenge ~3 years after last vaccination, demonstrating the durability of this vaccine. Thus, ?Rh110 RhCMV/SIV vectors have a safety and efficacy profile that warrants adaptation and clinical evaluation of corresponding HCMV vectors as a prophylactic HIV/AIDS vaccine.
Project description:Natural SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs) does not progress to disease despite chronic virus replication. In contrast to pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RMs), chronic SIV infection of SMs is characterized by low immune activation. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, we longitudinally assessed host gene expression in SIV-infected SMs and RMs. We found that acute SIV infection of SMs is consistently associated with a robust innate immune response, including widespread up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Our findings indicate that active immune regulatory mechanisms, rather than intrinsically attenuated innate immune responses, underlie the low immuneactivation of chronically SIV-infected SMs. Overall design: We infected 5 SMs with SIVsmm and assessed their gene expression in RNA derived from whole blood at 3,7,10,14,30 and 180 days post-infection using Rhesus Affymetrix GeneChips. As a comparison, we also analyzed gene expression in 4 RMs infected with SIVsmm, and 8 RMs infected with SIVmac239, a classical pathogenic SIV.