Long noncoding RNAs and mRNAs expression analysis of gallbladder cancer
ABSTRACT: Although many protein-coding genes have been identified to be aberrantly expressed in gallbladder cancer, the mechanism that account for the development and progression of gallbladder cancer remains unclear. In recent years, long noncoding RNAs have been shown to play vital roles in mammalian cell biology. In this study, we found that a small number of lncRNAs that are aberrantly expressed. A ten chip study using total RNA recovered five separate gallbladder cancer tissues and five matched adjacent gallbladder normal tissues
Project description:To further understand the molecular mechanisms in the development of gallbladder cancer, we employed this microarray to identify lncRNAs associated with gallbladder cancer. 9 pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues and paired normal gallbladder tissues were collected after colecystectomy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the progression of cancer. However, little is known on the miRNAs expression profiles of gallbladder cancer.We performed this microarray to identify miRNAs associated with gallbladder cancer. Overall design: 4 pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues and paired normal gallbladder tissues were collected after colecystectomy.
Project description:We determined the global microRNA expression profiles of primary human gallbladder cells and genetically reprogrammed human gallbladder cells and compared with pancreatic beta cells to ascertain the degree of cellular transdifferentatiation of insulin-producing human gallbladder cells to become beta-like cells. First, we cultured patient-derived gallbladder cells and then we transduced these with beta cell transcription factors to reprogram gallbladder cells to become beta-like cells. We used a pan-islet surface monoclonal antibody to enrich for insulin-producing reprogrammed human gallbladder cells using FACS.
Project description:We determined the global gene expression profiles of primary human gallbladder cells and genetically reprogrammed human gallbladder cells and compared with pancreatic beta cells to ascertain the degree of cellular transdifferentatiation of insulin-producing human gallbladder cells to become beta-like cells. First, we cultured patient-derived gallbladder cells and then we transduced these with beta cell transcription factors to reprogram gallbladder cells to become beta-like cells. We used a pan-islet surface monoclonal antibody to enrich for insulin-producing reprogrammed human gallbladder cells using FACS.
Project description:Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is associated with poor disease prognosis with a survival of less than 5 years in 90% the cases. This has been attributed to late presentation of the disease, lack of early diagnostic markers and limited efficiency of therapeutic interventions. Elucidation of the molecular events in GBC carcinogenesis can contribute in better management of the disease by aiding in identification of therapeutic targets. To identify the aberrantly activated signaling events in GBC, tandem mass tag-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of five GBC cell lines based on the invasive property was carried out. Using a panel of five GBC cell lines, a total of 2,623 phosphosites from 1,343 proteins were identified. Of these, 55 phosphosites were hyperphosphorylated and 39 phosphosites were hypophosphorylated in both replicates and all the 4 invasive GBC cell lines. Proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40) was one of the proteins found to be hyperphosphorylated in all the invasive GBC cell lines. Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical labeling of phospho-PRAS40 (T246) revealed moderate to strong staining in 77% of the primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases. Inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation using inhibitors of its upstream kinases, PIM1 and AKT resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation, colony forming and invasive ability of the GBC cells. Our findings support the role of PRAS40 phosphorylation in tumor cell survival and aggressiveness in GBC and suggest its potential as a therapeutic target for GBC.
Project description:We carried out an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of gallbladder cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissue to systematically identify differentially expressed proteins in gallbladder cancer. Ten gallbladder adenocarcinoma and ten adjacent non-tumor tissue samples were selected post pathological confirmation for the study. Samples were pooled and In-solution trypsin digestion was carried out. Post digestion, peptides were iTRAQ labeled with 114 and 115 (gallbladder adenocarcinoma) and 116 and 117 (adjacent non-tumor samples). LC-MS/MS analysis of SCX fractions was carried out using a reversed phase analytical C18 column connected to 1200 Series Nanoflow LC interfaced with LTQ-Orbitrap Velos. Data were acquired using Xcalibur 2.1. Proteome Discoverer (v 1.3) suite was used for quantitation and database searches. LC-MS/MS data were searched using Mascot and SEQUEST search algorithms against Human RefSeq 50 supplemented with frequently observed contaminants.
Project description:Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a rare cancer entity in Western Europe and the US with an incidence of less than 3/100.000 and a survival rate <10%. Radical surgery is the only potentially curative treatment option but most patients diagnosed with GBC are not resectable. Thus, there is a great need for the development of new treatment options, including targeted therapy for GBC. To dissect the epigenetic regulation during GBC development, we performed global miRNA profiling of 40 GBC and 8 normal gallbladder tissues. MiRNAs that are associated with survival were functionally analysed by cell proliferation and colony formation assays. In addition, we performed whole genome gene expression analysis of cells expressing miRNA mimics or control and performed biochemical assays to dissect miR-145 signalling. The GBC miRNA profiles exhibited large differences compared to normal gallbladder tissues with 49% of miRNAs being differentially expressed (FDR<0.001). In addition, 8 miRNAs were found to be down- and 16 to be up regulated in the GBCs with poor outcome (p<0.05). The most down regulated miRNA was miR-145-5p and the top up regulated miRNA was miR-575. Overexpression of miR-145 led to a significant reduction of cell proliferation and colony formation, whereas, opposite effects were observed for miR-575. Gene expression profiling of cells overexpressing miR-145 revealed activation of the STAT1 signalling pathway by inhibition of PTPRF in cholangiocellular but not hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Thereby, PTPRF directly bound to STAT1 and reduced STAT1 phosphorylation. This study identified pro- and anti-tumorigenic miRNAs in GBC and provides new mechanistic insight in the tumour suppressive function of miR-145 loss leading to active STAT1 signalling. Overall design: To study the expression profiles of miRNAs in gallbladder carcinoma
Project description:Poor prognosis in gallbladder cancer is due to late presentation of the disease, lack of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis and limited targeted therapies. Early diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets can significantly improve clinical management of GBC. We carried out quantitative proteomic analysis using a panel of gallbladder cancer cell lines using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). We identified 3,655 proteins among which 654 were found to be overexpressed and 387 were downregulated in the invasive cell lines (OCUG-1, NOZ and GB-d1) compared to the non-invasive cell line, TGBC24TKB. Among these, macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) was observed to be >3-fold overexpressed. MIF is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a causative role in multiple diseases including cancer. MIF has been reported to play a central role in tumor cell proliferation and invasion in several cancers. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed our findings showing overexpression of MIF in 21 of 29 gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases. A significant decrease in cell viability, colony forming ability and invasive property of the gallbladder cancer cells was observed upon MIF inhibition using MIF siRNA and MIF antagonists. Our findings support the role of MIF in tumor aggressiveness and suggest its potential application as a therapeutic target for gallbladder cancer.
Project description:Purpose: The uncommonness of gallbladder cancer in the developed world has contributed to the generally poor understanding of the disease. The development of new and effective treatment has been and continues to be a major public health imperative. Methods: We report mutational and copy number analysis of 44 predominantly early-staged gallbladder tumors and 5-gallbladder cancer cell lines by a combination of directed and whole exome sequencing at an average coverage of 100X and above. Using gallbladder cancer cell lines and xenograft mouse models we performed phospho-proteome array profiling, followed by an in-depth functional characterization. Results: We describe recurrent activating ERBB2 somatic mutation in 6 of 44 gallbladder primary tumors with an overall mutation frequency of 13%, along with KRAS activating mutations in 3 of 44 samples. Consistent with whole exome findings, a phospho-proteomic array profile of 49-tyrosine kinase revealed constitutive phosphorylation of ERBB2 and EGFR that were found to heterodimerize. We demonstrate that treatment with ERBB2-specific, EGFR-specific shRNA or with covalent EGFR family inhibitor BIBW-2992 inhibits transformation, survival, migration, invasion, and tumor forming characteristics of gallbladder cancer cells harboring wild type or KRAS (G13D) but not KRAS (G12V) mutation. Furthermore, we show in vivo reduction in tumor size is paralleled by a reduction in the amounts of phospho-ERK in KRAS (G13D) but not in KRAS (G12V) xenografts, validating the in vitro findings Conclusion: Findings from this study implicate ERBB2 as an important therapeutic target in early stage gallbladder cancer. We also present the first evidence that the presence of KRAS (G12V), but not KRAS (G13D) mutation, may preclude gallbladder cancer patients to respond to anti-EGFR treatment, similar to the clinical algorithm commonly practiced to opt for anti-EGFR treatment in colorectal cancer.