Nuclear TIGAR mediates an epigenetic-metabolic loop via Nrf2 for cancer therapeutics resistance
ABSTRACT: Epigenetic and metabolic reprogrammings are implicated in cancer progression with unclear mechanisms. We report here that the histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives cancer cell and tumor resistance to therapeutics such as tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and radiation by reprogramming of glucose metabolism. NSD2 coordinately up-regulates expression of TIGAR, HK2 and G6PD and stimulates pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) production of NADPH for ROS reduction. We discover that elevated expression of TIGAR, previously characterized as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, is localized in the nuclei of resistant tumor cells where it stimulates NSD2 expression and global H3K36me2 mark. Mechanistically, TIGAR interacts with the antioxidant regulator Nrf2 and facilitates chromatin assembly of Nrf2-H3K4me3 methylase MLL1 and elongating Pol-II, independent of its metabolic enzymatic activity. In human tumors, high levels of NSD2 correlate strongly with early recurrence and poor survival and are associated with nuclear-localized TIGAR. This study defines a nuclear TIGAR-mediated, epigenetic autoregulatory loop functioning in redox rebalance for resistance to tumor therapeutics. A total of 4 samples were analyzed in this study. The study included two cell lines, MCF7 and the tamoxifen-resistant subline TMR. Both were were cultured in medium containing vehicle control and/or 4-hydroxytamoxifen (Tam). The untreated MCF7 and TMR cell lines served as controls for the study.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) is overexpressed and hyperactivated in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the determinants of AR overexpression in CRPC are poorly defined. Here we show that retinoic acid receptor–related orphan receptor γ (ROR-γ) is overexpressed and amplified in metastatic CRPC tumors, and that ROR-γ drives AR expression in the tumors. ROR-γ recruits nuclear receptor coactivator 1 and 3 (NCOA1 and NCOA3, also known as SRC-1 and SRC-3) to an AR–ROR response element (RORE) to stimulate AR gene transcription. ROR-γ antagonists suppress the expression of both AR and its variant AR-V7 in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines and tumors. ROR-γ antagonists also markedly diminish genome-wide AR binding, H3K27ac abundance and expression of the AR target gene network. Finally, ROR-γ antagonists suppressed tumor growth in multiple AR-expressing, but not AR-negative, xenograft PCa models, and they effectively sensitized CRPC tumors to enzalutamide, without overt toxicity in mice. Taken together, these results establish ROR-γ as a key player in CRPC by acting upstream of AR and as a potential therapeutic target for advanced PCa. A total of 6 samples were analyzed in this study. The study included one cell line C4-2B. C4-2B cells were cultured in medium containing vehicle control and/or SR2211 and/or XY011 and/or Enzalutamide (ENZ). The untreated C4-2B cells served as controls for the study.
Project description:Background:Nuclear receptor suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, and trithorax (SET) domain-containing 2 (NSD2), is a well-known histone lysine methyltransferase (HMTase). The aim of this study was to investigate the biological role of NSD2 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods:GEO and OncoLnc databases were used to identify NSD2 expression and estimate its clinical value in ccRCC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to further evaluate NSD2 protein level in ccRCC tissues. The expression of NSD2 in different cell lines and the transfection efficiency were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The effect of NSD2 and the underlying mechanism in ccRCC progression were investigated via MTT, flow cytometry, Western blotting and xenograft tumor assays. Results:NSD2 was over-expressed in both ccRCC tissues and cell lines. NSD2 expression could discriminate ccRCC samples from normal samples, and moreover, high NSD2 expression was characterized with a short overall survival (OS) time. Additionally, knockdown of NSD2 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting Akt/Erk signaling and regulating Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Meanwhile, up-regulation of NSD2 contributed to the opposite effects. Silencing of NSD2 reduced xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion:NSD2 serves as an oncogenic factor in the progression of ccRCC via activation of Akt/Erk signaling.
Project description:NSD2 is a histone methyltransferase that specifically dimethylates histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me2), a modification associated with gene activation. Dramatic overexpression of NSD2 in t(4;14) multiple myeloma (MM) and an activating mutation of NSD2 discovered in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are significantly associated with altered gene activation, transcription, and DNA damage repair. The partner proteins through which NSD2 may influence critical cellular processes remain poorly defined. In this study, we utilized proximity-based labeling (BioID) combined with label-free quantitative MS to identify high confidence NSD2 interacting partners in MM cells. The top 24 proteins identified were involved in maintaining chromatin structure, transcriptional regulation, RNA pre-spliceosome assembly, and DNA damage. Among these, an important DNA damage regulator, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), was discovered. PARP1 and NSD2 have been found to be recruited to DNA double strand breaks upon damage and H3K36me2 marks are enriched at damage sites. We demonstrate that PARP1 regulates NSD2 via PARylation upon oxidative stress. In vitro assays suggest the PARylation significantly reduces NSD2 histone methyltransferase activity. Furthermore, PARylation of NSD2 inhibits its ability to bind to nucleosomes and further get recruited at NSD2-regulated genes, suggesting PARP1 regulates NSD2 localization and H3K36me2 balance. This work provides clear evidence of cross-talk between PARylation and histone methylation and offers new directions to characterize NSD2 function in DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, and other pathways.
Project description:We generated knock-in mice expressing GFP under the control of the endogenous GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide) promoter that enable the isolation of a purified population of small intestine K cells. Using RNA-Seq, we comprehensively characterized the transcriptomes of GIP-GFP cells as well as the entire enteroendocrine lineage derived from Neurogenin3 (Ngn3)-expressing progenitors. We interrogated the whole transcriptome of FACS-isolated small intestine GIPGFP cells using high-throughput mRNA sequencing. We also obtained the global gene expression patterns of the entire enteroendocrine cell lineage as well as the non-enteroendocrine cell population, comprising enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. To achieve this, small intestine epithelial cells from male mice resulting from the breeding of Neurogenin3 (Ngn3)-Cre mice with ROSA26-LoxP-STOP-LoxP-tomato indicator mice were isolated based on Tomato fluorescence and negative staining for CD45. Due to the small cell numbers, we constructed each of the three RNA-Seq libraries (GIPGFP, Ngn3TOMATO, and Ngn3-) using a pool of equal amounts of individual RNA samples without RNA amplification.
Project description:The histone lysine methyltransferase nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein 2 (NSD2, also known as WHSC1/MMSET) is an epigenetic modifier and is thought to play a driving role in oncogenesis. Both NSD2 overexpression and point mutations that increase its catalytic activity are associated with several human cancers. Although NSD2 is an attractive therapeutic target, no potent, selective, and bioactive small molecule inhibitors of NSD2 have been reported to date, possibly due to the challenges of developing high-throughput assays for NSD2. Here, to establish a platform for the discovery and development of selective NSD2 inhibitors, we optimized and implemented multiple assays. We performed quantitative high-throughput screening with full-length WT NSD2 and a nucleosome substrate against a diverse collection of bioactive small molecules comprising 16,251 compounds. We further interrogated 174 inhibitory compounds identified in the primary screen with orthogonal and counter assays and with activity assays based on the clinically relevant NSD2 variants E1099K and T1150A. We selected five confirmed inhibitors for follow-up, which included a radiolabeled validation assay, surface plasmon resonance studies, methyltransferase profiling, and histone methylation in cells. We found that all five NSD2 inhibitors bind the catalytic SET domain and one exhibited apparent activity in cells, validating the workflow and providing a template for identifying selective NSD2 inhibitors. In summary, we have established a robust discovery pipeline for identifying potent NSD2 inhibitors from small-molecule libraries.
Project description:The human myelogenous leukemic cell line, K562 undergoes erythroid differentiation by exposure to hemin. Here, we uncovered NSD2 as an innate erythroid differentiation-related factor through a genome-wide CRISPR library screen and explored the regulatory role of NSD2 during myeloid leukemia cell differentiation. We found that NSD2 stability was disrupted by poly-ubiquitination in differentiated K562 cells. Proteomic analysis revealed an interaction between NSD2 and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, BRCA1, which ubiquitylates NSD on K292. Depletion of BRCA1 stabilized NSD2 protein and suppressed K562 cell differentiation. Furthermore, BRCA1 protein level was decreased in bone marrow tumor, while NSD2 level was elevated. Surprisingly, among BRCA1 mutation(s) discovered in lymphoma patients, BRCA1 K1183R prevented its translocation into the nucleus, failed to reduce NSD2 protein levels in hemin-treated K562 cells and eventually disrupted cell differentiation. Our results indicate the regulation of NSD2 stability by BRCA1-mediated ubiquitination as a potential therapeutic target process in multiple myeloma.
Project description:Naïve mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and primed epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) represent successive snapshots of pluripotency during embryogenesis. Using transcriptomic and epigenomic mapping, we show that a small fraction of transcripts are differentially expressed between mESCs and mEpiSCs and these genes show expected changes in chromatin at their promoters and enhancers. Unexpectedly, the cis-regulatory circuitry of genes that are expressed at identical levels between these cell states also differs dramatically. In mESCs, these genes are associated with dominant proximal enhancers and dormant distal enhancers, which we term seed enhancers. In mEpiSCs, the naïve-dominant enhancers are lost, and the seed enhancers take up primary transcriptional control. Seed enhancers have increased sequence conservation and show preferential usage in downstream somatic tissues, often expanding into super enhancers. We propose that seed enhancers ensure proper enhancer utilization and transcriptional fidelity as mammalian cells transition from naïve pluripotency to a somatic regulatory program. RNA sequencing in quadruplicate of mouse embryonic stem cells and epiblast stem cells
Project description:Multiple sclerosis involves an aberrant autoimmune response and progressive failure of remyelination in the central nervous system. Prevention of neural degeneration and subsequent disability requires remyelination through the generation of new oligodendrocytes, but current treatments exclusively target the immune system. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are stem cells in the central nervous system and the principal source of myelinating oligodendrocytes. These cells are abundant in demyelinated regions of patients with multiple sclerosis, yet fail to differentiate, thereby representing a cellular target for pharmacological intervention. To discover therapeutic compounds for enhancing myelination from endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, we screened a library of bioactive small molecules on mouse pluripotent epiblast stem-cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we show seven drugs function at nanomolar doses selectively to enhance the generation of mature oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells in vitro. Two drugs, miconazole and clobetasol, are effective in promoting precocious myelination in organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, and in vivo in early postnatal mouse pups. Systemic delivery of each of the two drugs significantly increases the number of new oligodendrocytes and enhances remyelination in a lysolecithin-induced mouse model of focal demyelination. Administering each of the two drugs at the peak of disease in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis results in striking reversal of disease severity. Immune response assays show that miconazole functions directly as a remyelinating drug with no effect on the immune system, whereas clobetasol is a potent immunosuppressant as well as a remyelinating agent. Mechanistic studies show that miconazole and clobetasol function in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase and glucocorticoid receptor signalling, respectively. Furthermore, both drugs enhance the generation of human oligodendrocytes from human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in vitro. Collectively, our results provide a rationale for testing miconazole and clobetasol, or structurally modified derivatives, to enhance remyelination in patients. RNA sequencing of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells treated with vehicle, miconazole or clobetasol for 0, 2, 6, or 12 hours. Cells were plated 1.5 hours prior to addition of drug.
Project description:Epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging hallmark of cancers. We developed a high-information-content mass spectrometry approach to profile global histone modifications in human cancers. When applied to 115 lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, this approach identified distinct molecular chromatin signatures. One signature was characterized by increased histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) dimethylation, exhibited by several lines harboring translocations in NSD2, which encodes a methyltransferase. A previously unknown NSD2 p.Glu1099Lys (p.E1099K) variant was identified in nontranslocated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines sharing this signature. Ectopic expression of the variant induced a chromatin signature characteristic of NSD2 hyperactivation and promoted transformation. NSD2 knockdown selectively inhibited the proliferation of NSD2-mutant lines and impaired the in vivo growth of an NSD2-mutant ALL xenograft. Sequencing analysis of >1,000 pediatric cancer genomes identified the NSD2 p.E1099K alteration in 14% of t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1-containing ALLs. These findings identify NSD2 as a potential therapeutic target for pediatric ALL and provide a general framework for the functional annotation of cancer epigenomes.
Project description:Senescent cells may possess the intrinsic programs of metabolic and epigenomic remodeling, but the molecular mechanism remains to be clarified. Using an RNAi-based screen of chromatin regulators, we found that knockdown of the NSD2/WHSC1/MMSET methyltransferase induced cellular senescence that augmented mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation in primary human fibroblasts. Transcriptome analysis showed that loss of NSD2 downregulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes in a retinoblastoma protein (RB)-mediated manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses further revealed that NSD2 was enriched at the gene bodies of actively transcribed genes, including cell cycle-related genes, and that loss of NSD2 decreased the levels of histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) at these gene loci. Consistent with these findings, oncogene-induced or replicative senescent cells showed reduced NSD2 expression together with lower H3K36me3 levels at NSD2-enriched genes. In addition, we found that NSD2 gene was upregulated by serum stimulation and required for the induction of cell cycle-related genes. Indeed, in both mouse and human tissues and human cancer cell lines, the expression levels of NSD2 were positively correlated with those of cell cycle-related genes. These data reveal that NSD2 plays a pivotal role in epigenomic maintenance and cell cycle control to prevent cellular senescence.