The Parathyroid Hormone-Regulated Transcriptome in Osteocytes: Parallel Actions with 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 to Oppose Gene Expression Changes During Differentiation and to Promote Mature Cell Function
ABSTRACT: This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Refer to individual Series
Project description:Osteocytes are derived from osteoblast lineage cells that become progressively embedded in mineralized bone. Development of the osteocytogenic cell line IDG-SW3 has enabled a temporal and mechanistic investigation of this process. Through RNA-seq analyses, we show that while substantial changes in gene expression occur during the osteoblast to osteocyte transition, the majority of the transcriptome remains qualitatively osteoblast-like. Genes either up-regulated or expressed uniquely in the osteocyte include local and systemic factors such as Sost and Fgf23 as well as genes implicated in neuronal, muscle, vascular, or regulatory function. As assessed by ChIP-seq, numerous changes in epigenetic histone modifications also occur during osteocytogenesis; these are largely qualitative rather than quantitative. Specific epigenetic changes correlate with altered gene expression patterns that are observed during the transition. These genomic changes likely influence the highly restricted transcriptomic response to 1,25(OH)2D3 that occurs during differentiation. VDR binding in osteocytes revealed an extensive cistrome co-occupied by RXR and located predominantly at sites distal to regulated genes. Although sites of VDR binding were apparent near many 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated genes, the expression of others adjacent to VDR binding sites were unaffected; lack of VDR binding was particularly prevalent at down-regulated genes. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)2D3 was found to induce the Boc and Cdon co-receptors that are active in hedgehog signaling in osteocytes. We conclude that osteocytogenesis is accompanied by changes in gene expression that may be driven by both genetic and epigenetic components. These changes are likely responsible for the osteocyte phenotype and may contribute to reduced sensitivity to 1,25(OH)2D3. ChIP-seq was performed on differentiated IDGSW3 cells at day 35 for VDR and RXR following 3 hour vehicle or 1,25(OH)2d3 treatment in biological replicate. ChIP-seq was also performed for H3K4me1, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K27Ac, H4K5Ac, H3K9Ac, H4K20me1, H3K36me3, or H3K9me3 at day 3 and day 35 of differentiation in the basal condition.
Project description:Although localized to the mineralized matrix of bone, osteocytes are able to respond to systemic factors such as the calciotropic hormones 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH. In the present studies, we examine the transcriptomic response to PTH in an osteocyte cell model and found that this hormone regulated an extensive panel of genes. Surprisingly, PTH uniquely modulated two cohorts of genes, one that was expressed and associated with the osteoblast to osteocyte transition and the other a cohort that was expressed only in the mature osteocyte. Interestingly, PTH’s effects were largely to oppose the expression of differentiation-related genes in the former cohort, while potentiating the expression of osteocyte-specific genes in the latter cohort. A comparison of the transcriptional effects of PTH with those obtained previously with 1,25(OH)2D3 revealed a subset of genes that was strongly overlapping. While 1,25(OH)2D3 potentiated the expression of osteocyte-specific genes similar to that seen with PTH, the overlap between the two hormones was more limited. Additional experiments identified the PKA-activated phospho-CREB (pCREB) cistrome, revealing that while many of the differentiation-related PTH regulated genes were apparent targets of a PKA-mediated signaling pathway, a reduction in pCREB binding at sites associated with osteocyte-specific PTH targets appeared to involve alternative PTH activation pathways. That pCREB binding activities positioned near important hormone-regulated gene cohorts were localized to control regions of genes was reinforced by the presence of epigenetic enhancer signatures exemplified by unique modifications at histones H3 and H4. These studies suggest that both PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 may play important and perhaps cooperative roles in limiting osteocyte differentiation from its precursors while simultaneously exerting distinct roles in regulating mature osteocyte function. Our results provide new insight into transcription factor-associated mechanisms through which PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate a plethora of genes important to the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage. ChIP-seq was performed on MC3T3-E1 cells for Phospho-Creb following 1 hour vehicle or forskolin treatment in biological replicate. Input sample was previously published in GSE41920 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSM1027508).
Project description:CARM1, a coactivator for various cancer-relevant transcription factors, is overexpressed in breast cancer. To elucidate the functions of CARM1 in tumorigenesis, we knocked out CARM1 from several breast cancer cell lines using Zinc-Finger Nuclease technology, which resulted in drastic phenotypic and biochemical changes. The CARM1 KO cell lines enabled identification of novel CARM1 substrates, notably the SWI/SNF core subunit BAF155. Methylation of BAF155 at R1064 was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker for cancer recurrence and to regulate breast cancer cell migration and metastasis. Further, CARM1-mediated BAF155 methylation affects gene expression by directing methylated BAF155 to unique chromatin regions (e.g., c-Myc pathway genes). Collectively our studies uncover a mechanism by which BAF155 acquires tumorigenic functions via arginine methylation. Examination of methylation of BAF155 (R1064) in breast cancer cells
Project description:RUNX2 is a transcription factor that is first expressed in early osteoblast-lineage cells and represents a primary determinant of osteoblastogenesis. While numerous target genes are regulated by RUNX2, little is known of sites on the genome occupied by RUNX2 or of the gene networks that are controlled by these sites. To explore this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the RUNX2 cistrome in both pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells (POB) and their mature osteoblast progeny (OB), characterized the two cistromes and assessed their relationship to changes in gene expression. We found that although RUNX2 was widely bound to the genome in POB cells, this binding profile was reduced upon differentiation to OBs. Numerous sites were lost upon differentiation, new sites were also gained; many sites remained common to both cell states. Additional features were identified as well including location relative to potential target genes, abundance with respect to single genes, the frequent presence of a consensus TGTGGT RUNX2 binding motif, co-occupancy by C/EBPβ and the presence of a typical epigenetic histone enhancer signature. This signature was changed quantitatively following differentiation. While RUNX2 binding sites were associated extensively with adjacent genes, the distal nature of the majority of these sites prevented assessment of whether they represented direct targets of RUNX2 action. Changes in gene expression, however, revealed an abundance of genes that contained RUNX2 binding sites and were regulated in concert. These studies establish a basis for further analysis of the role of RUNX2 activity and its function during osteoblast lineage maturation. 2 transcription factors and 5 histone modifications were examined in undifferentiated MC3T3-E1 cells as well as post 15 day osteogenic differentiation MC3T3-E1 cells. The samples were completed in biological replicate and examined separately.
Project description:The biological effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on osteoblast differentiation and function differ significantly depending upon the cellular state of maturation. To explore this phenomenon mechanistically, we examined the impact of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the transcriptomes of both pre-osteoblastic (POBs) and differentiated osteoblastic (OBs) MC3T3-E1 cells, and assessed localization of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) at sites of action on a genome-scale using ChIP-seq analysis. We observed that the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced transcriptomes of POBs and OBs were quantitatively and qualitatively different, supporting not only the altered biology observed but the potential for a change in VDR interaction at the genome as well. This idea was confirmed through discovery that VDR cistromes in POBs and OBs were also strikingly different. Depletion of VDR binding sites in OBs, due in part to reduced VDR expression, was the likely cause of the loss of VDR-target gene interaction. Continued novel regulation by 1,25(OH)2D3, however, suggested that factors in addition to the VDR might also be involved. Accordingly, we show that transcriptomic modifications are also accompanied by changes in genome binding of the master osteoblast regulator RUNX2 and the chromatin remodeler C/EBPβ. Importantly, genome occupancy was also highlighted by the presence of epigenetic enhancer signatures which were selectively changed in response to both differentiation and 1,25(OH)2D3. The impact of VDR, RUNX2, and C/EBPβ on osteoblast differentiation is exemplified by their actions at the Runx2 and Sp7 gene loci. We conclude that each of these mechanisms may contribute to the diverse actions of 1,25(OH)2D3 on differentiating osteoblasts. 4 transcription factors and 5 histone modifications were examined in undifferentiated MC3T3-E1 cells as well as post 15 day osteogenic differentiation MC3T3-E1 cells, which were treated for 3 hours prior to ChIP assay with ethanol vehicle or with 10-7M 1,25(OH)2D3. For the vehicle matched samples for RUNX2, CEBP beta and histones, please refer to study GSE41955. The samples were completed in biological replicate and examined separately.
Project description:Purpose: Aim of the study is to determine how many of the dysregulated genes in the RNAseq are direct targets of (P1) HNF4α2 and (P2) HNF4α8 and examine HNF4α and TCF4 binding in vivo. We performed ChIPseq on TCF4 in the absense or presence of DOX in the Tet-On inducible HCT116 HNF4α2 and HNF4α8 lines, and ChIPseq for HNF4α (a445 Ab) in the presence of DOX. Methods: HNF4α2 and HNF4α8 lines were induced with 0.3 μg/mL DOX for 24 hours. Samples were generated by deep sequencing, using the NEXTflex ChIPseq. Result: There were more HNF4α2 peaks than HNF4α8 peaks, with some common peaks bound by HNF4α2 and HNF4α8. Binding patterns were observed between HNF4α and TCF4. Conclusion: HNF4α2 can displace TCF4 better than HNF4α8 on AP-1 bound sites. Tet-On inducible HCT116 cell (HNF4α2 and HNF4α8) lines, treated with (0.3 μg/mL) or without DOX for 24 hours, were 50bp single-end sequenced using Illumina-compatible-NEXTflex ChIP kit (Bioo Scientific).
Project description:1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis in higher organisms through its actions in the intestine, kidney and skeleton. Interestingly, while several intestinal genes are known to play a contributory role in calcium homeostasis, the entire caste of key components remains to be identified. To examine the vitamin D receptor (VDR) cistrome in this issue, we conducted a ChIP-seq analysis of binding sites for the VDR across the proximal intestine in vitamin D-sufficient normal mice treated with vehicle or 1,25(OH)2D3. The residual VDR cistrome was comprised of 4617 sites which was increased almost 4-fold following hormone treatment. Interestingly, the majority of the genes regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in each diet group as well as those found in common in both groups contained frequent VDR sites that likely regulated their expression. This study revealed a global VDR cistrome regulating a network of genes in the intestine that both represent direct targets of vitamin D action in mice and are involved in calcium absorption. Wildtype mice were fed a standard rodent chow diet (Harlan Teklad, #5008). At 8 weeks of age, 3 mice were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 ng/g bw) or vehicle control and the proximal half of the small intestine (duodenum and jejunum) was collected 1 h later.
Project description:We showed that Bmal1 mainly regulates clock gene initiation, with this functioning being highly conserved across species. compare RNA-seq and chip-seq between wildtype and mutant cells
Project description:The active vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) is an important regulator of adult brain functions. How these regulations are achieved is poorly known, partly due to the paucity of information on RA molecular targets. The striatum, the region involved in control of motor, cognitive and affective functions, may be particularly prone to such regulation as it displays the highest levels of RA and its receptors (RARs). We report the first genome-wide analysis of RAR-binding sites in the brain. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), as well as transcriptomic analysis of RARβ-null mutant mice, we identified genomic transcriptional targets of RARβ in the striatum. Our data point to a strong contribution of RARβ in controlling neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and transcription, with a particular involvement of G-protein, cAMP and calcium signaling. Quantitative PCR analysis of striatal subregions revealed a higher sensitivity of ventral structures (nucleus accumbens) to lack of RARβ signaling. There is a high overlap of transcriptional targets of RARβ and genes affected in expression in Huntington’s disease (HD), and we observed a decrease of RARβ expression in the striatum of R6/2 transgenic mice, a murine model of HD. A large number of genes bearing RARβ binding sites have also been implicated in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, raising the possibility that compromised RA signaling in striatum may be a mechanistic link explaining the similar affective and cognitive symptoms of these diseases. Globally, our data point to a possibility of a neuroprotective function of RARβ in the striatum. Genome-wide mapping of RARβ and H3K4me3 binding sites in mouse caudate putamen