Deep Sequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Chicken Spleen in Response to J Subgroup Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV-J) Infection.
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed genes between ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-)chickens spleens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: 140-day-old female chickens of White Recessive Rock (WRR) were confirmed as J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Total RNA from three ALV-J-infected spleens (designated: WRR1+, WRR2+, WRR3+) and three uninfected normal spleen samples (designated: WRR1-, WRR2-, WRR3-) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction (Invitrogen, CA, USA). RNA samples of three individuals within each group were pooled with equal amounts, and then were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Results: Through raw data processed, 49,979,648 and 43,704,401 clean reads with an average length of 101 bp, which represented total residues of 4,859,084,087 and 4,238,826,168 bp, were obtained for WRR- and WRR+ libraries, respectively. Subsequently, the clean reads in the two libraries were assembled. Altogether, 121,493 contigs were assembled with an average length of 927 bp (ranged from 300 bp to 23,402 bp), leading to generation of 82,829 unigenes. The length of unigenes varied from 351 bp to 28,928 bp, with an average length of 1,155 bp. Based on the FPKM value of each gene, 252 DEGs were identified by DEGseq package using Benjamini-q-value of 0.05 as a cut-off. In ALV-J infected spleens, 90 genes showed up-regulated and 162 showed down-regulated expression when compared to uninfected samples. Conclusions: Our study represents the first time to elucidate the ALV-J infected chickens’spleens at the transcription level by RNA-seq technology. A total of 252 genes were found to be differentially expressed in ALV-J infected spleens when compared to uninfected chickens. These genes can be considered as candidates for further study ALV-J invasion. Spleen mRNA profiles of 140-day-old ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-) female chickens of White Recessive Rock were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed miRNAs between ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-)chickens spleens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: 140-day-old female chickens of White Recessive Rock (WRR) were confirmed as J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Total RNA from three ALV-J-infected spleens (designated: WRR1+, WRR2+, WRR3+) and three uninfected normal spleen samples (designated: WRR1-, WRR2-, WRR3-) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction (Invitrogen, CA, USA). RNA samples of three individuals within each group were pooled with equal amounts, and then were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2500. Results: After raw data filtered, 12,150,275 and 15,227,930 reads of 18-32 bp, representing 569,847 and 543,062 unique sequences, were obtained for WRR- and WRR+ libraries, respectively. Through blasting with the chicken reference genome, 360,180 WRR- sequences and 327,391 WRR+ sequences, which accounted for more than 60% of the unique sequences, were perfectly matched.To analyze the miRNA detection efficiency of Illimuna deep sequencing, all the clean reads were blasted with the Rfam data base 10.1, annotated and then removed rRNA, tRNA, snoRNA and other snRNAs. The annotation results revealed that miRNAs accounted for more than 68% of all clean reads in the WRR− and WRR+ libraries. In this study, a total of 476 miRNAs were identified after compared the unique sequences against the chicken miRNAs precursors in miRBase 18.0. Base on unique sequences matched counts, 167 differential expression miRNAs were identified by DEGseq package using Benjamini-q-value of 0.001 as a cut-off. In ALV-J infected spleens, 83 miRNAs showed up-regulated expression and 84 were down-regulated when compared to uninfected samples. Conclusions: Our study represents the first time to analysis of miRNA Expression in Spleen of J Subgroup Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV-J) Infected (WRR+) and Uninfected (WRR-) Broilers. A total of 167 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in ALV-J infected spleens when compared to uninfected chickens. These miRNAs can be considered as candidates for further study ALV-J invasion. Overall design: Spleen miRNA profiles of 140-day-old ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-) female chickens of White Recessive Rock were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Hiseq 2500.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause several different leukemia-like proliferative diseases in the hemopoietic system of chickens. Here, we investigated the transcriptome profiles and miRNA expression profiles of ALV-J-infected and uninfected chicken spleens to identify the genes and miRNAs related to ALV-J invasion. In total, 252 genes and 167 miRNAs were differentially expressed in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to control uninfected spleens. miR-23b expression was up-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared with the control spleens, and transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was down-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to uninfected spleens. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that IRF1 was a direct target of miR-23b. miR-23b overexpression significantly (P = 0.0022) decreased IRF1 mRNA levels and repressed IRF1-3'-UTR reporter activity. In vitro experiments revealed that miR-23b overexpression strengthened ALV-J replication, whereas miR-23b loss of function inhibited ALV-J replication. IRF1 overexpression inhibited ALV-J replication, and IRF1 knockdown enhanced ALV-J replication. Moreover, IRF1 overexpression significantly (P = 0.0014) increased IFN-β expression. In conclusion, these results suggested that miR-23b may play an important role in ALV-J replication by targeting IRF1.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that induces myeloid tumors and hemangiomas in chickens and causes severe economic losses with commercial layer chickens and meat-type chickens. High-throughput sequencing followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and bioinformatics analyses were performed to advance the understanding of regulatory networks associated with differentially expressed non-coding RNAs and mRNAs that facilitate ALV-J infection. We examined the expression of mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and miRNAs in the spleens of 20-week-old chickens infected with ALV-J and uninfected chickens. We found that 1723 mRNAs, 7,883 lncRNAs and 13 miRNAs in the spleen were differentially expressed between the uninfected and infected groups (P < 0.05). Transcriptome analysis showed that, compared to mRNA, chicken lncRNAs shared relatively fewer exon numbers and shorter transcripts. Through competing endogenous RNA and co-expression network analyses, we identified several tumor-associated or immune-related genes and lncRNAs. Along transcripts whose expression levels significantly decreased in both ALV-J infected spleen and tumor tissues, BCL11B showed the greatest change. These results suggest that BCL11B may be mechanistically involved in tumorigenesis in chicken and neoplastic diseases, may be related to immune response, and potentially be novel biomarker for ALV-J infection. Our results provide new insight into the pathology of ALV-J infection and high-quality transcriptome resource for in-depth study of epigenetic influences on disease resistance and immune system.
Project description:In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag, pol, long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97.8%). However, the gp85 genes displayed high variability with any known chicken ALV strains. Growth kinetics of DF-1 cells infected with the isolated ALV showed viral titers that were lower than those infected with the GD13 (ALV-A), CD08 (ALV-B), and CHN06 (ALV-J) on day 7 post-infection. The infected Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens could produce continuous viremia, atrophy of immune organs, growth retardation and no tumors were observed. These subgroup ALVs are unique and may be common in south China. The results suggested that updating the control and eradication program of exogenous ALV for yellow feather broiler breeders in south China needs to be considered because of the emergence of the new subgroup viruses.
Project description:Gross lesions characterized by swollen livers and spleens accompanied by diffuse white miliary spots, which resembled those of Marek's disease, were detected in two flocks of local meat-type chickens at a Japanese poultry processing plant in June and August 2010. The microscopic examinations revealed proliferative foci consisting of spindle or polymorphic cells in the interstitium of livers, splenic follicles and the interstitium of kidneys. These cells were positive immunohistochemically with Iba1 antibody, indicating they were histiocytic cells. Some of them contained antigens of avian leukosis virus (ALV) by immunohistochemistry,and the env gene of ALV subgroup J was detected from the spleens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product indicated that the env gene might be descended from the American ADOL-7501 strain of ALV-J. These results suggest that the swollen livers and spleens of the meat-type chickens may come from histiocytic proliferation caused by ALV-J infection.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Growth traits are important in poultry production, however, little is known for its regulatory mechanism at epigenetic level. Therefore, in this study, we aim to compare DNA methylation profiles between fast- and slow-growing broilers in order to identify candidate genes for chicken growth. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in high and low tails of Recessive White Rock (WRR(h); WRR(l)) and that of Xinhua Chickens (XH(h); XH(l)) at 7 weeks of age. The results showed that the average methylation density was the lowest in CGIs followed by promoters. Within the gene body, the methylation density of introns was higher than that of UTRs and exons. Moreover, different methylation levels were observed in different repeat types with the highest in LINE/CR1. Methylated CGIs were prominently distributed in the intergenic regions and were enriched in the size ranging 200-300 bp. In total 13,294 methylated genes were found in four samples, including 4,085 differentially methylated genes of WRR(h) Vs. WRR(l), 5,599 of XH(h) Vs. XH(l), 4,204 of WRR(h) Vs. XH(h), as well as 7,301 of WRR(l) Vs. XH(l). Moreover, 132 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were observed in both inner contrasts (WRR(h) Vs. WRR(l) and XH(h) Vs. XH(l)), whereas 129 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were found in both across-breed contrasts (WRR(h) Vs. XH(h) and WRR(l) Vs. XH(l)). Further analysis showed that overall 75 genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in all four contrasts, which included some well-known growth factors of IGF1R, FGF12, FGF14, FGF18, FGFR2, and FGFR3. In addition, we validate the MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing in some regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the global DNA methylation pattern of chicken muscle, and identified candidate genes that potentially regulate muscle development at 7 weeks of age at methylation level.
Project description:Subgroup A of the avian leukosis virus (ALV-A) can cause severe pathological lesions and death in infected chickens, and its reported hosts have increased recently. To assess the susceptibility of adult chickens, quails, and pigeons to ALV-A, three sets of 250-day-old birds were intraperitoneally inoculated with ALV-A. Viremia and cloacal virus shedding were dynamically detected using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ALV-P27 antigen ELISA or RT-PCR; pathological lesions were assessed using tissue sections; ALV-A in tissues was detected by IFA; and ALV-A antibody responses were detected using antibody ELISA kits and an immune diffusion test. The results indicated that persistent viremia occurred in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens, and transient viremia occurred in 17% (2/12) of infected quails, but no viremia occurred in infected pigeons. Cloacal virus shedding occurred intermittently in 80% (8/10) of infected chickens and in 8% (1/12) of infected quails but did not occur in infected pigeons. Severe inflammatory pathological lesions occurred in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens, and mild lesions occurred in a few of the infected quails, but no pathological lesions occurred in the infected pigeons. The ALV-A virus was detected in the visceral tissues of most infected chickens but not in the infected quails and pigeons. Obviously different ALV-A antibody responses occurred in the infected chickens, quails and pigeons. It can be concluded that adult chickens, quails and pigeons have dramatically different susceptibilities to ALV-A. This is the first report on artificial infection by ALV-A in different birds.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs between ALV-J infected MDM and uninfected MDM in chickens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: Total RNA from two ALV-J-infected MDM (designated: J3h_1, J3h_2, J36h_1 and J36h_2) and two uninfected MDM samples (designated: NC3h_1, NC3h_2, NC36h_1 and NC36h_2) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction at 3 h post infection (hpi) and 36 hpi. RNA samples were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Results:Compared to the uninfected control, a total of 1568 and 550 up-regulated genes were identified in chicken MDM at 3 hpi and 36 hpi respectively, and 1227 and 397 down-regulated genes were identified at 3 hpi and 36 hpi, respectively.128 and 30 DE lncRNAs were identified in MDM at 3 hpi and 36 hpi, respectively. Conclusions: Strong immune response induced by ALV-J infection in MDM at 3 hpi. Many genes, lncRNAs involved in immune response such as PRRs signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway at 3 hpi. Specifically, 78 ISGs expression significantly increased in ALV-J-infected MDM at 3 hpi. We speculated that host innate immune response could inhibit ALV-J replication in chicken MDM. These results provide valuable insights into the game of host antiviral immune response and ALV-J infection. Overall design: Chicken mRNAs and lncRNAs profiles of ALV-J infected MDM and uninfected MDM were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Hiseq 2000.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF) is recognized as the predominant factor affecting meat quality due to its positive correlation with tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Chicken IMF deposition depends on the balance among lipid synthesis, transport, uptake, and subsequent metabolism, involving a lot of genes and pathways, however, its precise molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the breast muscle tissue of female Wenchang chickens (WC) (higher IMF content, 1.24 in D120 and 1.62 in D180) and female White Recessive Rock chickens (WRR; lower IMF content, 0.53 in D120 and 0.90 in D180) were subjected to RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Results showed that many genes related to lipid catabolism, such as SLC27A1, LPL, ABCA1, and CPT1A were down-regulated in WC chickens, and these genes were involved in the PPAR signaling pathway and formed an IPA® network related to lipid metabolism. Furthermore, SLC27A1 was more down-regulated in WRR.D180.B than in WRR.D120.B. Decreased cellular triglyceride (TG) and up-regulated CPT1A were observed in the SLC27A1 overexpression QM-7 cells, and increased cellular triglyceride (TG) and down-regulated CPT1A were observed in the SLC27A1 knockdown QM-7 cells. These results suggest that lower lipid catabolism exists in WC chickens but not in WRR chickens, and lower expression of SLC27A1 facilitate IMF deposition in chicken via down-regulated fatty acid oxidation mediated by CPT1A. These findings indicate that reduced lipid catabolism, rather than increased lipid anabolism, contributes to chicken IMF deposition.
Project description:Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) has recently been identified as avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) replication-dependent factor that remarkably facilitates ALV-J replication via interaction with the envelope glycoprotein (SU) of ALV-J. However, the dynamic distribution and localization of CTHRC1 in various tissues upon ALV-J infection are still unknown. In this study, data revealed that the levels of CTHRC1 were significantly increased in various tissues and that the protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus of parenchymal cells in tissues of chickens that were infected by ALV-J naturally and experimentally. Interestingly, CTHRC1 was also observed in leukocytes other than erythrocytes in congested veins of ALV-J-infected tissues. Consequently, the positive cells in these veins were confirmed as lymphocytes by laser confocal microscopy. Taken together, these results conclude that the CTHRC1 is an inducible protein and exhibited ubiquitous expression in ALV-J-infected chickens, which may provide basic information for in-depth study of ALV-J infection and replication mechanisms.