Expression data from Ankrd11Yod/+ and WT embryonic cortical neurospheres
ABSTRACT: Ankrd11 is a potential chromatin regulator implicated in neural development and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with no known function in the brain. Here, we show that knockdown of Ankrd11 in developing murine or human cortical neural precursors caused decreased proliferation, reduced neurogenesis, and aberrant neuronal positioning. Similar cellular phenotypes and aberrant ASD-like behaviors were observed in Yoda mice carrying a point mutation in the Ankrd11 HDAC-binding domain. Consistent with a role for Ankrd11 in histone acetylation, Ankrd11 was associated with chromatin, colocalized with HDAC3, and expression and histone acetylation of Ankrd11 target genes were altered in Yoda neural precursors. Moreover, the Ankrd11 knockdown-mediated decrease in precursor proliferation was rescued by inhibiting histone acetyltransferase activity or expressing HDAC3. Thus, Ankrd11 is a crucial epigenetic regulator of neural development that controls histone acetylation and gene expression, thereby providing a likely explanation for its association with cognitive dysfunction and ASD. We used microarrays to compare the gene expression profile in embryonic neurospheres prepared from neocortices of WT and Ankrd11Yod/+ mice E14.5 cortical secondary neurosheres 5 days post-passage were collected and total RNA extracted. cDNA was hybridized on Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Array and gene expression was analyzed using Parterk software. In total, 6 Ankrd11Yod/+ and 5 WT embryos were used.
Project description:We report the genomic regions enriched in Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. Furthermore, we also report the genomic acetylation pattern on Histone 3, Lysine 9 (H3K9) in macrophages with and without HDAC3 and/or treated with Th2 cytokine IL-4. HDAC3 enriched genomic regions in mouse bone marrow dervied macrophages and H3K9Ac enriched genomic regions in wild-type macrophages and macrophages treated with IL-4 and/or deficient in HDAC3.
Project description:We generated iPSc from skin fibroblasts of two MPSIIIB patients (P1 and P2). MPSIIIB-associated cell defects were prominent in undifferentiated iPSc, in neural stem cells and in their neuronal progeny. We explored alterations of metabolic pathways in MPSIIIB neural cells by performing gene expression profiling of patient versus control neural stem cells. Exon array transcriptome analysis showed 295 transcripts with increased expression level and 1275 transcripts with decreased expression level in patient versus control neural precursors. Total RNA was extracted from proliferating neurosphere cultures derived from two control (C1 and C3) and three patient (P1.1, P1.3, and P2.3) iPSc clones. We considered a minimal fold change of 1.5 fold and a corrected P value lower than 0.05.
Project description:We found that several deacetylase-dead HDAC3 mutants were able to rescue the metabolic phenotype of HDAC3-depleted livers. Here we profile the histone acetylation in the presence of different HDAC3 mutants in mouse liver. Deacetylase-dead HDAC3 mutants, including HAHA, KA, YF and HEBI, were introduced into HDAC3-depleted (Cre) mouse livers by virus along with wild-type (WT) HDAC3 as a control. Livers were harvested at 5 pm (ZT 10) and subjected to ChIP with anti-H3K9ac antibodies followed by deep sequencing.
Project description:In vitro neural stem cell models are widely used to model a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions. However, how well such models correspond to in vivo brain has not been evaluated in an unbiased, comprehensive manner. We used transcriptomic analyses to compare in vitro systems to developing human fetal brain and observed strong conservation of in vivo gene expression and network architecture in differentiating primary human neural progenitor cells (phNPCs). Conserved modules are enriched in genes associated with ASD, supporting the utility of phNPCs for studying neuropsychiatric disease. We also developed and validated a machine learning approach called CoNTExT that identifies the developmental maturity and regional identity of in vitro models. We observed strong differences between in vitro models, including hiPSC-derived neural progenitors from multiple laboratories. This work provides a framework for evaluating in vitro systems and supports their value in studying the molecular mechanisms of human neurodevelopmental disease. In this GEO submission, we upload data from 5 lines of phNPCs as well as hiPSCs cultured in two different laboratories all at multiple differentiation time points. phNPCs: For each of 5 lines generated from 3 donors (15-16 PCW), two independent differentiation experiments each containing two replicates were performed and harvested at four time points (1, 4, 8, 12 wks PD; ~16 samples per line; 77 total samples). We confirmed RNA integrity by RIN score with the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (mean +/- sd: 9.16 +/- 0.78). iPSC: Two hiPSC datasets were RNA profiled as part of this study. hiPSCs grown in the Kosik lab was derived from two independent, non-isogenic IPS lines: one derived from a patient carrying a mutant Tau variant G55R and one reference control. For each of these lines, two samples were harvested at each of 0, 1, 4, and 8 weeks PD (total n=16 samples). hiPSCs grown in the Gage lab were from six samples derived from 3 control lines at each of two time points (0 and 4 wk PD, total n=12 samples). Samples were randomized to microarray chip by all biological variables of interest (donor, line, passage, replicate number, differentiation week, plate date, and RIN) to control for potential batch effects.
Project description:Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is an epigenome-modifying enzyme that is required for normal mouse development and tissue-specific functions. In vitro, HDAC3 protein itself has minimal enzyme activity, but gains its histone deacetylation function from stable association with the conserved deacetylase activation domain (DAD) contained in nuclear receptor corepressors NCOR1 and SMRT. Here we show that HDAC3 enzyme activity is undetectable in mice bearing point mutations in the DAD of both NCOR1 and SMRT (NS-DADm), despite normal levels of HDAC3 protein. Local histone acetylation is increased, and genomic HDAC3 recruitment is reduced though not abrogated. Remarkably, the NS-DADm mice are born and live to adulthood, whereas genetic deletion of HDAC3 is embryonic lethal. These findings demonstrate that nuclear receptor corepressors are required for HDAC3 enzyme activity in vivo, and suggest that a deacetylase-independent function of HDAC3 may be required for life. This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Refer to individual Series.
Project description:Macrophages, a key cellular component of inflammation, become functionally polarized in a signal- and context-specific manner. Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 polarize macrophages to a state of alternative activation that limits inflammation and promotes wound healing. Alternative activation is mediated by a transcriptional program that is influenced by epigenomic modifications including histone acetylation. To determine if Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has a role in macrophage polarization including alternative activation, we have performed global gene expression analysis in macrophages with and without HDAC3 and with or without IL-4 exposure. From this data, we conclude that macrophages lacking histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) display a polarization phenotype similar to IL-4 induced alternative activation and furthermore are hyper-responsive to IL-4 stimulation. Mouse bone marrow derived macrophages were obtained from both control and HDAC3 KO animals and treated with vehicle control (BSA) or IL-4 for 24 hours. RNA was isolated and subjected to analysis using an Agilent Whole Genome Microarray Kit.
Project description:Genome-wide mapping of transcriptional regulatory elements are essential tools for the understanding of the molecular events orchestrating self-renewal, commitment and differentiation of stem cells. We combined high-throughput identification of nascent, Pol-II-transcribed RNAs by Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE-Seq) with genome-wide profiling of histones modifications by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) to map active promoters and enhancers in a model of human neural commitment, represented by embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced to differentiate into self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem cells (NESC). We integrated CAGE-seq, ChIP-seq and gene expression profiles to discover shared or cell-specific regulatory elements, transcription start sites and transcripts associated to the transition from pluripotent to neural-restricted stem cell. Our analysis showed that >90% of the promoters are in common between the two cell types, while approximately half of the enhancers are cell-specific and account for most of the epigenetic changes occurring during neural induction, and most likely for the modulation of the promoters to generate cell-specific gene expression programs. Interestingly, the majority of the promoters activated or up-regulated during neural induction have a “bivalent” histone modification signature in ESCs, suggesting that developmentally-regulated promoters are already poised for transcription in ESCs, which are apparently pre-committed to neuroectodermal differentiation. Overall, our study provide a collection of differentially used enhancers, promoters, transcription starts sites, protein-coding and non-coding RNAs in human ESCs and ESC-derived NESCs, and a broad, genome-wide description of promoter and enhancer usage and gene expression programs occurring in the transition from a pluripotent to a neural-restricted cell fate. Investiagtion of promoters usage changes during ESCs neural induction ESCs and NESCs promoter usage profiling by CAGE-seq
Project description:The development and severity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and other chronic inflammatory conditions can be influenced by host genetic and environmental factors, including signals derived from commensal bacteria. However, the mechanisms that integrate these diverse cues remain undefined. Here we demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) isolated from IBD patients exhibit decreased expression of the epigenome-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3). Further, genome-wide analyses of murine IECs that lack HDAC3 (HDAC3ΔIEC) revealed that HDAC3 deficiency resulted in dysregulated gene expression coupled with alterations in histone acetylation. Critically, conventionally-housed HDAC3ΔIEC mice demonstrated loss of Paneth cells, impaired IEC function and alterations in the composition of intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, HDAC3ΔIEC mice exhibited significantly increased susceptibility to intestinal damage and inflammation, indicating that epithelial expression of HDAC3 plays a central role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Strikingly, rederivation of HDAC3ΔIEC mice into germ-free conditions revealed that dysregulated IEC gene expression, Paneth cell homeostasis, and intestinal barrier function were largely restored in the absence of commensal bacteria. Collectively, these data indicate that the HDAC3 is a critical factor that integrates commensal bacteria-derived signals to calibrate epithelial cell responses required to establish normal host-commensal relationships and maintain intestinal homeostasis. Analyses of histone acetylation in primary IECs from HDAC3FF (3 biologic replicates) and HDAC3ΔIEC (3 biologic replicates) mice were conducted utilizing ChIP-seq for H3K9Ac.
Project description:Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a major epigenetic regulator, are the predominant cause of Rett syndrome. We previously found that Mecp2-null microglia are deficient in phagocytic ability, and that engraftment of wild-type monocytes into the brain of Mecp2-deficient mice attenuates pathology. We have observed that Mecp2 deficiency is associated with increased levels of histone acetylation at the cis-regulatory regions of the Mecp2-regulated genes in macrophages. We hypothesized that Mecp2 recruits protein complexes containing histone deacetylases (HDACs) to repress the expression of its target genes. Our ChIP-Seq studies in bone-marrow derived macrophages revealed that Mecp2 co-localizes with Ncor2/Hdac3 protein complex at cis-regulatory regions of the target genes. These results suggest a role for Mecp2 in the recruitment and regulation of Ncor2/Hdac3 repressosome that plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammatory responses in macrophages. Examination of NCOR2 and HDAC3 genome-wide location in bone-marrow derived macrophages.
Project description:Aberrational epigenetic marks are believed to play a major role in establishing the abnormal features of cancer cells. Rational use and development of drugs aimed at epigenetic processes requires an understanding of the range, extent, and roles of epigenetic reprogramming in cancer cells. Using ChIP-chip and MeDIP-chip approaches, we localized well-established and prevalent epigenetic marks (H3K27me3, H3K4me3, H3K9me3, DNA methylation) on a genome scale in several lines of putative glioma stem cells (brain tumor stem cells, BTSCs) and, for comparison, normal human fetal neural stem cells (fNSCs). We determined a substantial “core” set of promoters possessing each mark in every surveyed BTSC cell type, which largely overlapped the corresponding fNSC sets. However, there was substantial diversity among cell types in mark localization. We observed large differences among cell types in total number of H3K9me3+ positive promoters and peaks and in broad modification areas for H3K27me3 and, to a lesser extent, H3K9me3. We verified that a change in a broad modification (defined as >50 kb peak length) affected gene expression of CACNG7. We detected large numbers of bivalent promoters, but most bivalent promoters did not display direct overlap of contrasting epigenetic marks, but rather occupied nearby regions of the proximal promoter. There were significant differences in the sets of promoters bearing bivalent marks in the different cell types and few consistent differences between fNSCs and BTSCs. Overall, our “core set” data establishes sets of potential therapeutic targets, but the diversity in sets of sites and broad modifications among cell types underscores the need to carefully consider BTSC subtype variation in epigenetic therapy. Our results point toward substantial differences among cell types in the activity of the production/maintenance systems for H3K9me3 and for broad regions of modification (H3K27me3 or H3K9me3). Finally, the unexpected diversity in bivalent promoter sets among these multipotent cells indicates that bivalent promoters may play complex roles in the overall biology of these cells. These results provide key information for forming the basis for future rational drug therapy aimed at epigenetic processes in these cells. ChIP-chip and MeDIP-chip localization of histone modifications and DNA methylation in glioma stem cells and fetal neural stem cells comparison of 4 lines of brain tumor stem cells to each other and to normal fetal neural stem cells