UNC50 prompts G1/S transition and proliferation in HCC through regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking
ABSTRACT: Background: UNC50 has long been recognized as a Golgi apparatus protein in yeast, and is involved in nicotinic receptor trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about UNC50 gene function in human biology despite it being conserved from yeast to high eukaryotes. Objectives: We investigated the relation between UNC50 and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the potential mechanisms underlying HCC development. Methods: UNC50 mRNA expression patterns in 12 HCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues determined using northern blotting were confirmed by real-time PCR in another 44 paired tissues. Microarray experiments were used to screen for global effects of UNC50 knockdown in the Hep3B cell line, and were confirmed by real-time PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, and tetrazolium assay in both UNC50 overexpression and knockdown Hep3B cells. Results: UNC50 expression levels were upregulated in HCC tissues in comparison with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. UNC50 knockdown reduced mRNA levels of the downstream targets of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway: cyclin D1 (CCND1), EGF, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), aldose reductase-like 1 (AKR1B10), cell surface–associated mucin 1 (MUC1), and gastrin (GAST). Moreover, UNC50 influenced EGF, inducing cell cycle entry by affecting cell surface EGFR amounts. Conclusions: UNC50 is a potential oncogene that promotes HCC progression by affecting the EGFR pathway. To gain insight into the role UNC50 plays in HCC progression, we used microarray analyses to identify indirect evidence of UNC50 gene function via the knockdown strategy in Hep3B cells. Hep3B cells transfected with the shRNA expression plasmids shR-467, shR-554, shR-749, and shR-MOCK were purified with 1ug/ml puromycin, and the total RNA from each cell was extracted and analyzed with oligo microarrays.
Project description:Bmi1 plays a pivotal role in hepatic carcinoma (HCC), but its targets in HCC is unknown. To screen the potential targets, we transfected HCC cell line Huh7 and Hep3B with Bmi1 shRNA lenti-virus. After confirming the Bmi1 was knocked down using western blotting, we extracted total RNA and then run the microarray detection. Gene expression profiles in Bmi1 KO cells were compared with those in Bmi1 WT cells to screen potential targets of Bmi1. Overall design: Bmi1 gene was knocked down using shRNA lenti-virus in HCC cell lines and the potential target genes were screened.
Project description:Emerging evidences indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are often deregulated and have fundamental roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism underlying miRNA dysregulation in HCC is still elusive. In this report, we used an integrated analysis strategy combining methylated DNA immunoprecipitation chip (MeDIP-chip) and miRNA expression microarray data to study the correlation between aberrant methylation and dysregulation of miRNA in HCC. In all, we showed that global miRNA methylation profiles were significantly different between cancerous and normal hepatocytes, and abnormal methylation was an important mechanism governing miRNA expression in HCC. MeDIP-chip was processed in cancerous hepatocytes SK-HEP-1, HepG2, MHCC97-H and normal hepatocytes PHHC-4-1, PHHC-4-2, PHHC-4-3 (3 technical repeat of PHHC-4). MiRNA microarray were processed for cancerous hepatocytes SK-HEP-1, HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, MHCC97-H, MHCC97-L, SMMC-7721 and normal hepatocytes PHHC-1, PHHC-2, PHHC-3. Then an integrated analysis strategy combining MeDIP-chip and miRNA expression microarray [GSE20077] were used to study the correlation of aberrant DNA methylation and dysregulation of miRNAs.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Prolonged cancer treatment will induce the development of acquired resistance to EGFR TKI. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of EGFR-TKIs resistance, we generate EGFR-TKI-resistant HCC827-8-1 cells to be analyzed by microarray with their parental HCC827cells. gefitinib resistant HCC827-8-1 cells with three replications; gefitinib-sensitive HCC827 cells with three replications
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in young subjects is rare but more devastating. We hypothesize that genes and etiological pathways are unique to young HCC (yHCC; ≤40 years old at diagnosis) patients. We therefore compared the gene expression profiles between yHCCs and HCCs from elderly patients. Overall design: In this dataset, a total of 87 gene expression profiles of tissue samples were collected, which containing 48 primary HCC samples, as well as those of 39 non-cancerous tissues, from 61 patients. HCC tissues were collected from 16 young HCC and 32 elder HCC patients.
Project description:Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, is the only approved agent for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its benefits is modest, also because its mechanism of action remains elusive, therefore, a better understanding of its molecular action and molecular targets are needed. On the basis of our previous studies, here, we investigated the role of the nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) in HCC and its role in the context of sorafenib treatment. NUPR1 is a stress-inducible protein over-expressed in different malignancies, however, its role in HCC is not yet fully understood. We found that NUPR1, is over-expressed in 53% of primary human HCC samples. Knockdown of NUPR1 significantly increased cell sensitivity to sorafenib and inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, NUPR1 silencing influenced expression of target genes RelB and IER3. Unsurprisingly, RelB and IER3 knockdown also inhibited HCC cells viability, growth and migration. By gene expression profiling of HCC cells following stable NUPR1 knockdown, we found that genes functionally involved in cell death and survival, cellular response to therapies, lipid metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, molecular transport and cellular movement were mostly suppressed. Network analysis of dynamic gene expression identified NF-κB and ERK as down-regulated gene nodes, and several genes known to be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis were also suppressed. In addition, we identified Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene as a NUPR1 down-regulated gene. We also demonstrated that RUNX2 gene silencing inhibited HCC cells viability, growth, migration and increased cell sensitivity to sorafenib. Conclusion: We propose that NUPR1/RELB/IER3/RUNX2 pathway play pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. The identification of NUPR1/RELB/IER3/RUNX2 pathway as a potential therapeutic target may contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for HCC management. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of NUPR1 gene action in ovarian HCC cells, we employed the Agilent Whole Human Genome microarrays, containing ~ 44,000 genes to identify global gene expression changes upon NUPR1 suppression in HCC cells. We compared the gene expression of the previously selected shRNA-mediated NURP1-knockdown Hep3B clone against the corresponding control (ctrl) clone. The microarray experiments were performed in duplicates, as two hybridizations were carried out for the NUPR1-suppressing cell clone against the corresponding control, using a fluorescent dye reversal (dye-swap) technique.
Project description:RNA-seq is a powerful tool for comprehensive characterization of whole transcriptome at both gene and exon levels and with a unique ability of identifying novel splicing variants. To date, RNA-seq analysis of HBV-related HCC has not been reported. In this study, we performed transcriptome analyses for 10 matched pairs of cancer and non-cancerous tissues from Chinese HBV-related hepatocelluar carcinoma patients using 36bp single-end sequencing approach on Solexa/Illumina GAII platform. On average, about 21.6 million sequencing reads and 10.6 million aligned reads were obtained for samples sequenced on each lane, which was able to identify > 50% of all the annotated genes for each sample. Furthermore, from by far the largest database of transcripts expressed in HCC tissues, we identified 1,378 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) and 24, 338 differentially expressed exons (DEEs). Comprehensive function analyses indicated that cell growth-related, metabolism-related and immune-related pathways were most significantly enriched by DEGs, pointing to a complex mechanism for HCC carcinogenesis. Positional gene enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were most significantly enriched at chromosome 8q21.3-24.3. The most interesting findings were from the analysis at exon levels where we characterized three major patterns of expression changes between gene levels and exon levels, implying a much complex landscape of transcript-specific differential expressions in HCC. Finally, we identified a novel highly up-regulated exon-exon junction in ATAD2 (ATPase family, AAA domain containing 2) gene in HCC tissues. Overall, to our best knowledge, our study represents the most comprehensive characterization of the HBV-related HCC transcriptome including exon level expression changes and novel splicing variants, which illustrated the power of RNA-seq and provided important clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of HCC pathogenesis at system-wide levels. A comprehensive analysis of transcriptome for 10 match-paired HBV-related Chinese HCC and non-cancerous adjacent tissues. Processed data files: Exon-level results, gene-level results, differentially expressed exons, and differently expressed genes (DEGs).
Project description:It is known that exosomes (endosome derived vesicles) play important roles in the formation of the tumor microenvironment. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant cancer, whose malignancy is largely influenced by the tumor microenvironment. The possible role and the specific content of the HCC derived exosomes are however largely unknown. We performed super-SILAC-based mass spectrometry (MS) analyses to interrogate the differential proteins in the exosome of three human HCC cell lines, MHCC97H, MHCCLM3 and Hep3B cells. Exosomal proteins were systematically compared with multi-omics strategies, considering both proteomics and translatomics. With stringent data quality control (quantified unique peptides ≥ 2, FDR ≤ 0.01 at both protein and peptide level), 1907 exosomal proteins were confidently identified from the three HCC cell lines, out of which 469 and 443 exosomal proteins significantly altered in the highly malignant cell lines (MHCC97H/Hep3B and MHCCLM3/Hep3B), respectively. ClueGo and IPA analyses on the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) revealed that translation and ubiquitination biological processes pathways were significantly more encapsulated in the exosome of higher malignant cell lines. We further observed significantly negative correlation of exosomal protein to cellular protein and translating mRNA in terms of relative abundances comparing the higher malignant cell lines with the low malignant cell line. The negatively correlated genes are also translation regulation-centric. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the exosomal enrichment of translation regulatory proteins is related to the malignant level of HCC cells.
Project description:Hep3B and Huh7 are two types of human hepatoma cell lines (HCC). In our laboratory, we cultured their stem-like cancer cells (HCSCs), Hep3B-C and Huh7-C. And we have demonstrated that these cells had enhanced stem cell properties, drug resistance, properties of EMT, and stronger tumor-initiating capabilities. To explore functionally crucial mRNAs in HCSCs, 2 samples of HCSCs and 2 samples of HCCs were sequenced by the Illumina Genome Analyzer II. Through differential expression analysis, we finally identified 115 up- and 402 down-regulated miRNAs which were consistently up- and down-regulated in two stem cells compared to the cancer cells. Expression analysis using total RNAs extracted from 2 HCSC cell lines (Hep3B-C and Huh7-C), and 2 HCC cell lines (Hep3B and Huh7).
Project description:Hep3B and Huh7 are two types of human hepatoma cell lines (HCC). In our laboratory, we cultured their stem-like cancer cells (HCSCs), Hep3B-C and Huh7-C. And we have demonstrated that these cells had enhanced stem cell properties, drug resistance, properties of EMT, and stronger tumor-initiating capabilities. To explore functionally crucial miRNAs in HCSCs, 2 samples of HCSCs and 2 samples of HCCs were sequenced by the Illumina Genome Analyzer II. Through differential expression analysis, we finally identified 9 up- and 9 down-regulated miRNAs which were consistently up- and down-regulated in two stem cells compared to the cancer cells. Expression analysis using total RNAs extracted from 2 HCSC cell lines (Hep3B-C and Huh7-C), and 2 HCC cell lines (Hep3B and Huh7).
Project description:MicroRNAs is a rapidly expanding area expected to change the way in which diseases will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows a rising incidence with high mortality but lack of effective targeted therapies. We identified the aberrantly expressed miRNAs involved in HCC through the comparison of miRNA expression profiling in cancerous hepatocytes with that in normal primary human hepatocytes and found 37 dysregulated miRNAs in HCC. These aberrantly expressed miRNAs may provide insights into pathogenesis of HCC and thus may be used for diagnosis and therapy. Over the past few years, though several studies have uncovered aberrant miRNA expression profiles in HCC compared with matched nonmalignant tissues, the overlap of deregulated miRNAs from different platforms is limited. To solve this problem, we recommend a method that using primary cancer cells or cancer cell lines and nonmalignant primary cells to identify the specific aberrantly miRNA expression profiles in HCC and even in other types of cancer. Here, we identified the aberrantly expressed miRNAs involved in hepatoma through the comparison of miRNA expression profiling in cancerous hepatocytes with that in normal primary human hepatocytes and 37 dysregulated miRNAs were screened out by 2-fold change with a significant difference (P<0.05). Clustering analysis based on 13 miRNAs whose fold changes were over 15-fold change exhibited significantly differential expression pattern between the cancerous and normal hepatocytes.