Base-resolution detection of N4-methylcytosine in genomic DNA using 4mC-TAB-seq
ABSTRACT: N4-methylcytosine is a major DNA modification integral to restriction-modification (R-M) systems in bacterial genomes. Here we describe 4mC-Tet-Assisted Bisulfite-sequencing (4mC-TAB-seq), a method that accurately and rapidly reveals the genome-wide locations of N4-methylcytosines at single-base resolution. By coupling Tet-mediated oxidation with a modified sodium bisulfite conversion reaction, unmodified cytosines and 5-methylcytosines are read out as thymines, whereas N4-methylcytosines are read out as cytosines revealing their positions throughout the genome. 4mC-TAB-seq
Project description:Stochastic changes in cytosine methylation are a source of heritable epigenetic and phenotypic diversity in plants. Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we derive robust estimates of the rate at which methylation is spontaneously gained (forward epimutation) or lost (backward epimutation) at individual cytosines and construct a comprehensive picture of the epimutation landscape in this species. We demonstrate that the dynamic interplay between forward and backward epimutations is modulated by genomic context and show that subtle contextual differences have profoundly shaped patterns of methylation diversity in A. thaliana natural populations over evolutionary timescales. Theoretical arguments indicate that the epimutation rates reported here are high enough to rapidly uncouple genetic from epigenetic variation, but low enough for new epialleles to sustain long-term selection responses. Our results provide new insights into methylome evolution and its population-level consequences. MethylC-seq of Arabidopsis thaliana
Project description:5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC) is particularly abundant in mammalian brain with little-known functions. Here we present the first genome-wide and single-base-resolution maps of 5hmC and 5mC in human brain by combined application of TAB-Seq and MethylC-Seq. We report that the majority of modified cytosines are hydroxymethylated in adult human brain, a significant proportion of which are highly-hydroxymethylated with enrichment in active genic regions and distal-regulatory elements. 5hmC is more enriched in poised than active enhancers, and CpG island shores and enhancers show comparable 5hmC profiles. Notably, 5hmC spikes were identified at the 5’ splicing sites, suggesting a link between 5hmC and splicing. Additionally, we identified a transcription-correlated 5hmC bias towards to sense strand and a 5mC bias towards antisense strand of gene bodies, and a bias towards C-rich sequences surrounding the 5hmC sites. Our data imply multiple roles for 5hmC in alternative splicing and gene regulation in addition to be an intermediate of DNA demethylation in human brain. Examination of hydroxymethylomes of 1 adult and 1 fetal brain tissue of frontal lobe, as well as 1 methylome of the same adult.
Project description:The development of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has led to a number of exciting discoveries about how genomes utilize DNA methylation and has led to a plethora of novel testable hypotheses. Methods for constructing sodium bisulfite-converted and amplified libraries have recently excelled to the point that the bottleneck for experiments that use WGBS has shifted to data analysis and interpretation. Here we present empirical evidence for an over-representation of methylated DNA from WGBS. This enrichment for methylated DNA is exacerbated by higher cycles of PCR and is influenced by the type of uracil-insensitive DNA polymerase used for amplifying the sequencing library. Future efforts to computationally correct for this enrichment bias will be essential to increasing the accuracy of determining methylation levels for individual cytosines. MethylC-Seq of Arabidopsis thaliana
Project description:5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an oxidized derivative of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), has been implicated as an important epigenetic regulator of mammalian development. Current procedures use cost-prohibitive DNA sequencing methods to discriminate 5hmC from 5mC, limiting their accessibility to the scientific community. Here we report a method that combines TET-assisted bisulfite conversion with Illumina 450K DNA methylation arrays for a low-cost high-throughput approach that distinguishes 5hmC and 5mC signals. Implementing this approach, termed TAB-array, we assessed DNA methylation dynamics in the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into cardiovascular and neural progenitors. With the ability to discriminate 5mC and 5hmC, we found a much larger number of dynamically methylated genomic regions implicated in the development of these lineages than we could detect by 5mC analysis alone. The increased resolution and accuracy afforded by this approach provides a powerful means to investigate the distinct contributions of 5mC and 5hmC in human development and disease. We generated illumina 450k DNA methylation data for a total of 9 sample groups with two biological replicates for each group. Data for 4/9 groups were generated from glucosylated and bisulfite converted DNA, from human induced plurupotent stem cells (hIPSCs), differentiated cardiovascular progenitors (CVPs), differentiated neural progenitors (NPCs), and fibroblasts. Data for the next 4/9 groups were generated from glucosylated, TET-oxidized and bisulfite converted DNA, from and included replicates of hIPSCs, CVPs, NPCs, and fibroblasts. Data for the last group was generated from standard bisulfite converted DNA (not glucosylated) from fibroblasts.
Project description:TET/JBP enzymes oxidize 5-methylpyrimidines in DNA. In mammals, the oxidized methylcytosines (oxi-mC) function as epigenetic marks and likely intermediates in DNA demethylation. Here we present a novel diglucosylation-based method to simultaneously map 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC at near base-pair resolution, and verify the results using independent methods. We have used the method to map the distribution of oxi-mC across the genome of Coprinopsis cinerea, a basidiomycete that encodes 47 TET/JBP paralogs in a new class of DNA transposons. Like 5-methylcytosine (5mC) residues from which they are derived, oxi-mC modifications are enriched at centromeres, TET/JBP transposons, and multicopy paralogous genes that are not expressed, but rarely mark genes whose expression changes between two developmental stages. Our study provides evidence for the emergence of an epigenetic regulatory system through recruitment of selfish elements in a eukaryotic lineage, and describes a method to map all three different species of oxi-mC simultaneously. Overall design: Anti-CMS data has been generated for two biological replicates where one biological replicate has three technical replicates and the other biological replicate has two technical replicaltes. For each biologial replicate one Input replicate has been generated. based on sodium bisulfite-mediated conversion of 5hmC to cytosine-5-methylenesulfonate (CMS); CMS-containing DNA fragments are then immunoprecipitated using a CMS-specific antiserum.
Project description:DNA methylation is a complex epigenetic marker that can be analysed using a wide variety of methods. Interpretation and visualisation of DNA methylation data can mask complexity in terms of methylation status at each CpG site, cellular heterogeneity of samples and allelic DNA methylation patterns within a given DNA strand. Bisulfite sequencing is considered the gold standard, however visualisation of massively parallel sequencing results remains a significant challenge. We created a program called Methpat that facilitates visualisation and interpretation of bisulfite sequencing data generated by massively parallel sequencing. To demonstrate this, we performed multiplex PCR that targeted 48 regions of interest across 95 human samples. The regions selected included known gene promoters associated with cancer, repetitive elements, known imprinted regions and mitochondrial genomic sequences. We interrogated a range of samples including human cell lines, primary tumours and primary tissue samples. Methpat generates two forms of output: a tab delimited text file for each sample that summarises DNA methylation patterns and their read counts for each amplicon and a HTML file that summarises this data visually. Methpat can be used with publicly available whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) datasets with sufficient read depths. Using Methpat, complex DNA methylation data derived from massively parallel sequencing can be summarised and visualised for biological interpretation. By accounting for allelic DNA methylation states and their abundance in a sample, Methpat can unmask the complexity of DNA methylation and reveal further biological insight in existing datasets. Multiplex bisulfite PCR and Next Generation sequencing of primary human samples and breast cancer cell lines.
Project description:The non-methylable cytosine analogs, 5-azacytidine and zebularine, are widely used to disrupt DNA methyltransferase activity and reduce genomic DNA methylation. In this study, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing is used to construct maps of DNA methylation with single base pair resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with each demethylating agent. We find that 5-azacytidine and zebularine-treated seedlings have nearly indistinguishable patterns of DNA methylation genome-wide and that 5-azacytidine, despite being more unstable in aqueous solution, has a slightly greater demethylating effect at higher concentrations across the genome. Transcriptome analyses revealed a substantial number of up-regulated genes and transposable element genes, particularly CACTA-like elements, demonstrating that chemical demethylating agents have a disproportionately large effect on loci that are silenced by DNA methylation. Bisulfite-Seq and RNA-Seq
Project description:The reprogramming of parental methylomes is essential for embryonic development. In mammals, paternal 5-methylcytosines (5mCs) have been proposed to be actively converted to oxidized bases. These paternal oxidized bases and maternal 5mCs are believed to be passively diluted by cell divisions. By generating single-base resolution, allele-specific DNA methylomes from mouse gametes, early embryos, and primordial germ cell (PGC), as well as single-base-resolution maps of oxidized cytosine bases for early embryos, we report the existence of 5hmC and 5fC in both maternal and paternal genomes and find that 5mC or its oxidized derivatives, at the majority of demethylated CpGs, are converted to unmodified cytosines independent of passive dilution from gametes to four-cell embryos. Therefore, we conclude that paternal methylome and at least a significant proportion of maternal methylome go through active demethylation during embryonic development. Additionally, all the known imprinting control regions (ICRs) were classified into germ-line or somatic ICRs. The cross of two mouse strains was performed using DBA/2J as the paternal strain and C57BL/6J as the maternal strain. The hybrid embryos were collected at 2-cell, 4-cell, ICM, E6.5, E7.5 stages. Female and male E13.5 PGC samples (B6; 129S4-Pou5f1tm2Jae/J) were collected from timed mating of C57BL/6J female mice. MethylC-Seq: oocytes (C57BL/6J), sperm (DBA/2J), 2-cell embryos, 4-cell embryos, ICM, E6.5 embryos, E7.5 embryos, E13.5 female PGCs and E13.5 male PGCs. TAB-Seq: 2-cell embryos. fCAB-Seq: 2-cell embryos. RNA-Seq: oocytes (C57BL/6J).
Project description:The vertebrate body plan and organs are shaped during a conserved embryonic phase called the phylotypic stage, however the mechanisms that guide the epigenome through this transition and their evolutionary conservation remain elusive. Here we report widespread DNA demethylation of enhancers during the phylotypic period in zebrafish, Xenopus and mouse. These enhancers are linked to developmental genes that display coordinated transcriptional and epigenomic changes in the diverse vertebrates during embryogenesis. Binding of Tet proteins to (hydroxy)methylated DNA, and enrichment of hydroxymethylcytosine on these regions, implicated active DNA demethylation in this process. Furthermore, loss of function of Tet1/2/3 in zebrafish caused reduced chromatin accessibility and increased methylation levels specifically on these enhancers, indicative of DNA methylation being an upstream regulator of phylotypic enhancer function. Overall, our study reveals a novel regulatory module associated with the most conserved phase of vertebrate embryogenesis and uncovers an ancient developmental role for the Tet dioxygenases. Overall design: MethylC-Seq in zebrafish embryos, MethylC-seq in Xenopus tropicalis embryos, MethylC-seq in mouse embryos, MethylC-seq in zebrafish tissues, MethylC-seq in Xenopus tropicalis tissues, TAB-seq in zebrafish embryos, TAB-seq in Xenopus tropicalis embryos, TAB-seq in mouse embryos, RNA-seq in zebrafish embryos, RNA-seq in mouse embryos
Project description:In mammals, cytosine methylation (5mC) is widely distributed throughout the genome but is notably depleted from active promoters and enhancers. While the role of DNA methylation in promoter silencing has been well documented, the function of this epigenetic mark at enhancers remains unclear. Recent experiments have demonstrated that enhancers are enriched for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an oxidization product of the Tet family of 5mC dioxygenases and an intermediate of DNA demethylation. These results support the involvement of Tet proteins in the regulation of dynamic DNA methylation at enhancers. By mapping DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at base resolution, we find that deletion of Tet2 causes extensive loss of 5hmC at enhancers, accompanied by enhancer hypermethylation, reduction of enhancer activity, and delayed gene induction in the early steps of differentiation. Our results reveal that DNA demethylation modulates enhancer activity, and its disruption influences the timing of transcriptome reprogramming during cellular differentiation. We performed traditional bisulfite sequencing, TAB-Seq, RNA-Seq, and ChIP-Seq for 6 histone modifications in two biological replicates of wild-type, Tet1-/-, and Tet2-/- mouse ES cells. We also performed RNA-Seq analysis during a timecourse of differentiation to neural progenitor cells.