A novel functional role for the serine protease inhibitor SerpinA3N and its substrate leukocyte elastase in neuropathic pain
ABSTRACT: Two out-bred rat selection lines were separated to produce different hypersensitivity phenotypes following nerve injury. These lines were termed High Pain and Low Pain (HP or LP). Each sub-strain was either subject to a Sham surgery or a Spinal Nerve Ligation (SNL) surgery to the L4 and L5 spinal nerves. Three days following surgery L4/L5 Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) were dissected from these animals. For the rat line separation protocol see: Devor M, Raber P (1990) Heritability of symptoms in an experimental model of neuropathic pain. Pain 42:51-67. 12 Hybridizations, 3 per condition; Sham HP DRG; 3 day SNL HP DRG; Sham LP DRG; 3 day SNL LP DRG.
Project description:Expression profiling of L4 and L5 Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. The goal of the study was to identify genes involved in neuropathic pain This series of samples comprises of contralateral and ipsilateral L4 and L5 DRG tissue collected 4 weeks after rats underwent a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) or a sham operation with no L5 spinal nerve ligation. This defines 8 groups (i) contralateral L4 DRG from the sham cohort (n=5), (ii) ipsilateral L4 DRG from sham cohort (n=5), (iii) contralateral L4 DRG from SNL cohort (n=5), (iv) ipsilateral L4 DRG from the SNL chort (n=5), (v) contralateral L5 DRG from the sham cohort (n=5), (vi) ipsilateral L5 DRG from sham cohort (n=5), (vii) contralateral L5 DRG from SNL cohort (n=5), (viii) ipsilateral L5 DRG from the SNL cohort (n=5)
Project description:Expression profiling of L4 and L5 Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. The goal of the study was to identify genes involved in neuropathic pain Overall design: This series of samples comprises of contralateral and ipsilateral L4 and L5 DRG tissue collected 4 weeks after rats underwent a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) or a sham operation with no L5 spinal nerve ligation. This defines 8 groups (i) contralateral L4 DRG from the sham cohort (n=5), (ii) ipsilateral L4 DRG from sham cohort (n=5), (iii) contralateral L4 DRG from SNL cohort (n=5), (iv) ipsilateral L4 DRG from the SNL chort (n=5), (v) contralateral L5 DRG from the sham cohort (n=5), (vi) ipsilateral L5 DRG from sham cohort (n=5), (vii) contralateral L5 DRG from SNL cohort (n=5), (viii) ipsilateral L5 DRG from the SNL cohort (n=5)
Project description:Neuropathic pain is a complex chronic condition occurring post-nervous system damage. The transcriptional reprogramming of injured dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) drives neuropathic pain. However, few comparative analyses using high-throughput platforms have investigated uninjured DRG in neuropathic pain, and potential interactions among differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways were not taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to identify changes in genes and pathways associated with neuropathic pain in uninjured L4 DRG after L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) by using bioinformatic analysis.The microarray profile GSE24982 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to identify DEGs between DRGs in SNL and sham rats. The prioritization for these DEGs was performed using the Toppgene database followed by gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses. The relationships among DEGs from the protein interactive perspective were analyzed using protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting were used to confirm the expression of DEGs in the rodent neuropathic pain model.A total of 206 DEGs that might play a role in neuropathic pain were identified in L4 DRG, of which 75 were upregulated and 131 were downregulated. The upregulated DEGs were enriched in biological processes related to transcription regulation and molecular functions such as DNA binding, cell cycle, and the FoxO signaling pathway. Ctnnb1 protein had the highest connectivity degrees in the PPI network. The in vivo studies also validated that mRNA and protein levels of Ctnnb1 were upregulated in both L4 and L5 DRGs.This study provides insight into the functional gene sets and pathways associated with neuropathic pain in L4 uninjured DRG after L5 SNL, which might promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain.
Project description:Background:Sympathetic sprouting in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following nerve injuries had been proved to induce adult neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether the abnormal sprouting occurs in infant nerve injury. Methods:L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) or sham surgery was performed on adult rats and 10-day-old pups, and mechanical thresholds and heat hyperalgesia were analyzed on 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 postoperative days. Tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled sympathetic fibers were observed at each time point, and 2 neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR and TrkA) were identified to explore the mechanisms of sympathetic sprouting. Results:Adult rats rapidly developed mechanical and heat hyperalgesia from postoperative day 3, with concurrent sympathetic sprouting in DRG. In contrast, the pup rats did not show a significantly lower mechanical threshold until postoperative day 28, at which time the sympathetic sprouting became evident in the DRG. No heat hyperalgesia was presented in pup rats at any time point. There was a late expression of glial p75NTR in DRG of pups from postoperative day 28, which was parallel to the occurrence of sympathetic sprouting. The expression of TrkA did not show such a postoperative syncing change. Conclusion:The delayed-onset mechanical allodynia in the infant nerve lesion was accompanied with parallel sympathetic sprouting in DRG. The late parallel expression of glial p75NTR injury may play an essential role in this process, which provides novel insight into the treatment of delayed adolescent neuropathic pain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) is believed to play a major role in nerve fiber hyperexcitability associated with neuropathic pain. A complete transcriptional characterization of the different isoforms of Na(v)s under normal and pathological conditions had never been performed on mice, despite their widespread use in pain research. Na(v)s mRNA levels in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied in the spared nerve injury (SNI) and spinal nerve ligation (SNL) models of neuropathic pain. In the SNI model, injured and non-injured neurons were intermingled in lumbar DRG, which were pooled to increase the tissue available for experiments. RESULTS: A strong downregulation was observed for every Na(v)s isoform expressed except for Na(v)1.2; even Na(v)1.3, known to be upregulated in rat neuropathic pain models, was lower in the SNI mouse model. This suggests differences between these two species. In the SNL model, where the cell bodies of injured and non-injured fibers are anatomically separated between different DRG, most Na(v)s were observed to be downregulated in the L5 DRG receiving axotomized fibers. Transcription was then investigated independently in the L3, L4 and L5 DRG in the SNI model, and an important downregulation of many Na(v)s isoforms was observed in the L3 DRG, suggesting the presence of numerous injured neurons there after SNI. Consequently, the proportion of axotomized neurons in the L3, L4 and L5 DRG after SNI was characterized by studying the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Using this marker of nerve injury confirmed that most injured fibers find their cell bodies in the L3 and L4 DRG after SNI in C57BL/6 J mice; this contrasts with their L4 and L5 DRG localization in rats. The spared sural nerve, through which pain hypersensitivity is measured in behavioral studies, mostly projects into the L4 and L5 DRG. CONCLUSIONS: The complex regulation of Na(v)s, together with the anatomical rostral shift of the DRG harboring injured fibers in C57BL/6 J mice, emphasize that caution is necessary and preliminary anatomical experiments should be carried out for gene and protein expression studies after SNI in mouse strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rapid and effective treatment of cancer-induced bone pain remains a clinical challenge and patients with bone metastasis are more likely to experience severe pain. The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a critical role in many aspects of nociceptor function. Therefore, we characterized a rat model of cancer pain and investigated the potential role of Nav1.8. METHODS: Adult female Wistar rats were used for the study. Cancer pain was induced by inoculation of Walker 256 breast carcinosarcoma cells into the tibia. After surgery, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ambulation scores were evaluated to identify pain-related behavior. We used real-time RT-PCR to determine Nav1.8 mRNA expression in bilateral L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at 16-19 days after surgery. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to compare the expression and distribution of Nav1.8 in L4/L5 DRG between tumor-bearing and sham rats. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against Nav1.8 were administered intrathecally at 14-16 days after surgery to knock down Nav1.8 protein expression and changes in pain-related behavior were observed. RESULTS: Tumor-bearing rats exhibited mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain from day 7 after inoculation of Walker 256 cells. In the advanced stage of cancer pain (days 16-19 after surgery), normalized Nav1.8 mRNA levels assessed by real-time RT-PCR were significantly lower in ipsilateral L4/L5 DRG of tumor-bearing rats compared with the sham group. Western-blot showed that the total expression of Nav1.8 protein significantly decreased bilaterally in DRG of tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, as revealed by immunofluorescence, only the expression of Nav1.8 protein in small neurons down regulated significantly in bilateral DRG of cancer pain rats. After administration of antisense ODNs against Nav1.8, Nav1.8 protein expression decreased significantly and tumor-bearing rats showed alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and ambulatory-evoked pain. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Nav1.8 plays a role in the development and maintenance of bone cancer pain.
Project description:The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein, is widely distributed and regulates numerous intracellular processes in neurons. Nerve injury alters the structure and function of axotomized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, contributing to the development of pain. The σ1R is enriched in the spinal cord and modulates pain after peripheral nerve injury. However, σ1R expression in the DRG has not been studied. We therefore characterized σ1R expression in DRGs at baseline and following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats.Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies in DRG sections show σ1R in both neuronal somata and satellite glial cells. The punctate distribution of σ1R in the neuronal cytoplasm suggests expression in the endoplasmic reticulum. When classified by neuronal size, large neurons (>1300 μm) showed higher levels of σ1R staining than other groups (700-1300 μm, <700 μm). Comparing σ1R expression in neuronal groups characterized by expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), isolectin-B4 (IB4) and neurofilament-200 (NF-200), we found σ1R expression in all three neuronal subpopulations, with highest levels of σ1R expression in the NF-200 group. After SNL, lysates from L5 DRGs that contains axotomized neurons showed decreased σ1R protein but unaffected transcript level, compared with Control DRGs. IHC images also showed decreased σ1R protein expression, in SNL L5 DRGs, and to a lesser extent in the neighboring SNL L4 DRGs. Neurons labeled by CGRP and NF-200 showed decreased σ1R expression in L5 and, to a lesser extent, L4 DRGs. In IB4-labeled neurons, σ1R expression decreased only in axotomized L5 DRGs. Satellite cells also showed decreased σ1R expression in L5 DRGs after SNL.Our data show that σ1R is present in both sensory neurons and satellite cells in rat DRGs. Expression of σ1R is down-regulated in axotomized neurons as well as in their accompanying satellite glial cells, while neighboring uninjured neurons show a lesser down-regulation. Therefore, elevated σ1R expression in neuropathic pain is not an explanation for pain relief after σ1R blockade. This implies that increased levels of endogenous σ1R agonists may play a role, and diminished neuroprotection from loss of glial σ1R may be a contributing factor.
Project description:The enzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is associated with memory and its alpha isoform is critical for development of activity-induced synaptic changes. Therefore, we hypothesized that CaMKII is involved in altered function of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after neuronal injury. To test this hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were made hyperalgesic by L5 and L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and changes in total phosphorylated and unphosphorylated CaMKII (tCaMKII) and phosphorylated form of its alpha isoform (pCaMKIIalpha) were analyzed using immunochemistry in different subpopulations of DRG. SNL did not induce any changes in tCaMKII between experimental groups, while the overall percentage of pCaMKIIalpha-positive neurons in injured L5 DRG SNL (24.8%) decreased significantly when compared to control (41.7%). SNL did not change the percentage of pCaMKIIalpha/N52 colabeled neurons but decreased the percentage of N52-negative nonmyelinated neurons that expressed pCaMKIIalpha from 27% in control animals to 11% after axotomy. We also observed a significant decrease in the percentage of small nonpeptidergic neurons labeled with IB4 (37.6% in control vs. 4.0% in L5 SNL DRG), as well as a decrease in the percentage of pCaMKIIalpha/IB4 colabeled neurons in injured L5 DRGs (27% in control vs. 1% in L5 DRG of SNL group). Our results show that reduction in pCaMKIIalpha levels following peripheral injury is due to the loss of IB4-positive neurons. These results indicate that diminished afferent activity after axotomy may lead to decreased phosphorylation of CaMKIIalpha.
Project description:Neuropathic pain resulting from nerve lesions or dysfunction represents one of the most challenging neurological diseases to treat. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for causing these maladaptive responses can help develop novel therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neuropathic pain. We performed a miRNA expression profiling study of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissue from rats four weeks post spinal nerve ligation (SNL), a model of neuropathic pain. TaqMan low density arrays identified 63 miRNAs whose level of expression was significantly altered following SNL surgery. Of these, 59 were downregulated and the ipsilateral L4 DRG, not the injured L5 DRG, showed the most significant downregulation suggesting that miRNA changes in the uninjured afferents may underlie the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. TargetScan was used to predict mRNA targets for these miRNAs and it was found that the transcripts with multiple predicted target sites belong to neurologically important pathways. By employing different bioinformatic approaches we identified neurite remodeling as a significantly regulated biological pathway, and some of these predictions were confirmed by siRNA knockdown for genes that regulate neurite growth in differentiated Neuro2A cells. In vitro validation for predicted target sites in the 3'-UTR of voltage-gated sodium channel Scn11a, alpha 2/delta1 subunit of voltage-dependent Ca-channel, and purinergic receptor P2rx ligand-gated ion channel 4 using luciferase reporter assays showed that identified miRNAs modulated gene expression significantly. Our results suggest the potential for miRNAs to play a direct role in neuropathic pain.
Project description:For development of gene expression of L5 spinal tissue in SNL mice, L5 spinal nerve was first tightly ligated to construct the neuropathic pain model, and sham-operated group as a control. After chronic administrations of vehicle (distilled water, 10 mg/kg) or WTD (12.60 g/kg, p.o.), L5 spinal cord of dorsal horn were collected, and then, Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Microarray 4×44K expression profiling were employed as a discovery platform to identify genes with the potential to provide basis for the clinical application of WTD for neuropathic pain. A 579-gene consensus signature was identified that distinguished between sham and SNL samples, and a 456-gene consensus signature was identified that distinguished between WTD and SNL samples. Expression of 12 genes (Crk1, Fgf13, Fgfr1, Crk1, Adrbk1, Erbb3, Gnas, Vegfa, Crk1, Erbb3, Drd2, Gnas) were identified as the efficacy of differentially expressed genes. Overall design: Gene expression in lumber 5 dorsal horn of spinal cord of ICR mice was measured 21 days after chronic administration of vehicle (saline, 10 ml/kg, p.o.), vehicle (saline, 10 ml/kg, p.o.) and WTD (12.60 g/kg, p.o.) in sham group, SNL group and WTD group, respectively.