From glacier to sauna: RNAseq of the human pathogen Exophiala dermatitidis
ABSTRACT: We report the transcriptome response of Exophiala dermatitidis submitted to different temperature conditions 2 Temperature conditions (45C, 1C), 2 exposition length (1 hour, 1 week) compared to optimal condition (37C)
Project description:PR-SET7-mediated histone-4 lysine-20 methylation has been implicated in mitotic condensation, DNA damage response and replication licencing. Here we show that PR-SET7 function in the liver is pivotal for maintaining genome integrity. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of PR-SET7 in mouse embryos resulted in G2 arrest followed by massive cell death and defect in liver organogenesis. Inactivation at postnatal stages caused cell duplication-dependent hepatocyte necrosis with unusual features of autophagy, termed "endonucleosis". Necrotic death was accompanied by inflammation, fibrosis and compensatory growth induction of neighboring hepatocytes and resident ductal progenitor cells. Prolonged necrotic-regenerative cycles coupled with oncogenic STAT3 activation replaced pre-existing hepatocytes with hepatocellular carcinoma derived entirely from ductal progenitor cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma in these mice displays a cancer stem cell gene signature specified by the co-expression of ductal progenitor markers and oncofetal genes. Mice carrying hepatocyte specific inactivation of PR-SET7 were generated in order to investigate the function of PR-SET7 histone methyl transferase in liver organogenesis, hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. P15 WT mice were injected intra-peritoneally (ip) with 25ml per kg DEN (diethyl nitrosamine). Mice were examined for RNA expression at 8 months old.
Project description:Smyd3 is a histone methyltransferase implicated in tumorigenesis. Here we show that Smyd3 expression in mice is required but not sufficient for chemically induced liver and colon cancer formation. In these organs Smyd3 is functioning in the nucleus as a direct transcriptional activator of several key genes involved in cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, JAK/Stat3 oncogenic pathways, as well as of the c-myc and b-catenin oncogenes. Smyd3 specifically interacts with H3K4Me3-modified histone tails and is recruited to the core promoter regions of many but not all active genes. Smyd3 binding density on target genes positively correlates with increased RNA Pol-II density and transcriptional outputs. The results suggest that Smyd3 is an essential transcriptional potentiator of a multitude of cancer-related genes. Standard Smyd3-deficient (Smyd3-KO) mice were generated using gene-trap ES cell clones (AS0527 from International Gene Trap Consortium), in which a selection cassette, containing the splice acceptor site from mouse EN2 exon 2 followed by the beta-galactosidase and neomycin resistance gene fusion gene and the SV40 polyadenylation sequence was inserted into the 5th intron of the Smyd3 gene. The resulting mice were devoid of Smyd3 mRNA and protein in all tissues, including liver and colon. For the generation of Smyd3-Tg mice the open reading frame of the mouse Smyd3 cDNA, which contained 3 Flag epitopes at the 3’ end was inserted into the StuI site of the pTTR1-ExV3 plasmid (Yan et al, 1990). The 6.8 kb HindIII fragment containing the mouse transthyretin enhancer/promoter, intron 1, Smyd3 cDNA, three Flag epitopes and SV40 poly-A site was used to microinject C57Bl/6 fertilized oocytes. Founder animals were identified by Southern blotting and crossed with F1 mice to generate lines. Specific overexpression in the liver was tested by RT-PCR analysis in different tissues.
Project description:We describe a case of severe neonatal anemia with kernicterus due to compound heterozygosity for null mutations in KLF1, each inherited from asymptomatic parents. One of the mutations is novel. This is the first described case of a KLF1 null human. The phenotype of severe DAT-negative non-spherocytic hemolytic anaemia (NSHA), jaundice, hepato-splenomegaly, and marked erythroblastosis is more severe than that present in CDA type IV due to dominant mutations in the second zinc-finger of KLF1. There was a very high level of HbF expression into childhood (>70%), consistent with a key role for KLF1 in human hemoglobin switching. We performed RNA-seq on circulating erythroblasts and found human KLF1 acts like mouse Klf1 to coordinate expression of many genes required to build a red cell including those encoding globins, cytoskeletal components, AHSP, heme synthesis enzymes, cell cycle regulators, and blood group antigens. We identify novel KLF1 target genes including KIF23 and KIF11 which are required for proper cytokinesis. We also identify new roles for KLF1 in autophagy, global transcriptional control and RNA splicing. We suggest loss of KLF1 should be considered in otherwise unexplained cases of severe neonatal NSHA or hydrops fetalis. mRNA sequencing on peripheral blood from a family trio (mother, father and proband) where parents were asymptomatic and proband had severe neonatal anemia.
Project description:p-Hydroxycinnamates, such as p-coumarate and ferulate, are components of plant cell walls and have a number of commercial applications. Previously, we had shown that the soil Actinobacterium Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (RHA1) grows on ferulate, catabolizing it via vanillate and the β-ketoadipate pathway. We used transcriptomics to identify genes in RHA1 that were specifically up-regulated during growth on ferulate. These include three operons predicted to encode the uptake and β-oxidative deacetylation of ferulate and p-coumarate: couHLT, couMNO and couR. A couL mutant did not grow on p-coumarate, ferulate or their dihydro derivatives, but grew on vanillate. Purified CouL catalyzed the thioesterification of several p-hydroxycinnamates. Among the tested substrates, the best were p-coumarate and caffeate (kcat/KM ~400 mM-1s-1), and sinapate was not transformed. Of these, p-coumarate was also RHA1’s preferred growth substrate. Although the data indicate that p-hydroxycinnamates are catabolized via β-oxidation, the pathway lacks a typical β-ketothiolase. The data further suggest the involvement of two formaldehyde detoxification pathways in vanillate catabolism. This study augments our understanding of the bacterial catabolism of biomass and facilitates the production of aromatics from renewable feedstocks. Transcriptomes of R. jostii RHA1 from ferulate and benzoate cultures were analysed using Ion PGMTM system.
Project description:Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-α inhibitors are clinically active in squamous carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck (H&N) bearing mutations or amplification of PIK3CA. We aimed to identify potential mechanism of resistance and have observed that SCCs cells overcome the antitumor effects of the PI3Kα inhibitor BYL719 by maintaining PI3K-independent activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The persistent mTOR activation is mediated by the tyrosine kinase receptor AXL. We found that AXL is overexpressed in resistant tumors, dimerizes with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphorylates EGFR tyrosine 1173, resulting in activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)- protein kinase C (PKC) that, in turn, activates mTOR. Finally, simultaneous treatment with PI3Kα and either EGFR, AXL or PKC inhibitors reverts this resistance. RNAseq from acquired resistant cells CAL33B, K180B were compared to their parental counterpart CAL33 and K180, respectively. K180 is a shortcut of KYSE180, and B stands for BYL719. Duplicate of parental sensitive cells and K180B, and triplicate for CAL33B.
Project description:miRNAs has an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. we aimed to profile dysregulation of miRNAs in ALS blood and neuromuscular junction as well as healthy blood control by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The expression of three up-regulated miRNAs, as miR-338-3p, miR-223-3p and miR-326, in the ALS samples compared to healthy controls, has been validated by qRT-PCR in a cohort of 45 samples collected previously. Bioinformatics tools were used to perform ALS microRNAs target analysis and to predict novel miRNAs secondary structure. The analysis of the NGS data identified 696 and 44 novel miRNAs which were differentially expressed in ALS tissues.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently characterized players that are involved in the regulatory circuitry of self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, the specific roles of lncRNAs in this circuitry are poorly understood. Here, we determined that growth-arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5), which is a known tumor suppressor and growth arrest gene, is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of hESCs and essential for hESC self-renewal. GAS5 depletion in hESCs significantly impaired their pluripotency and self-renewal ability, whereas GAS5 overexpression in hESCs accelerated the cell cycle, enhanced their colony formation ability and increased pluripotency marker expression. By RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we determined that GAS5 activates NODAL-SMAD2/3 signaling by sustaining the expression of NODAL, which plays a key role in hESC self-renewal but not in somatic cell growth. Further studies indicated that GAS5 functions as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to protect NODAL mRNA against degradation and that GAS5 transcription is directly controlled by the core pluripotency transcriptional factors (TFs). Taken together, we suggest that the core TFs, GAS5 and NODAL-SMAD2/3 form a feed-forward loop to maintain the hESC self-renewal process. These findings are specific to ESCs and did not occur in the somatic cell lines we tested; therefore, our findings also provide evidence that the functions of lncRNAs vary in different biological contexts. We analyzed long non-coding RNAs in two hESC cell lines (X-01 and H1), and found GAS5 is highly expressed and functional in maintaining hESC self-renewal. We generate stable overexpressed or knockdown hESC cell lines using lentiviral approach. We transfected cells initialy after passage, and lentiviruses are added with daily medium change for three days (at a final concentration of 10^5 IU/ml). Puromycin is added for selection and supplied with daily medium change. Stable cell lines are established after two passages and verified under fluorescence scope. Total RNAs and miRNAs are extracted separately of all three cell lines (LV-NC, LV-GAS5 and LV-shGAS5) and put to sequencing.
Project description:Sma- and Mad-related protein 4 (SMAD4) is closely associated with the development of ovarian follicular. However, current knowledge of the genome-wide view on the role of SMAD4 gene in mammalian follicular granulosa cells (GCs) is still largely unknown. In the present study, RNA-Seq was performed to investigate the effects of SMAD4 knockdown by RNA interference (SMAD4-siRNA) in porcine follicular GCs. A total of 1025 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 530 upregulated genes and 495 downregulated genes, were identified in SMAD4-siRNA treated GCs compared with that treated with NC-siRNA. Furthermore, functional enrichment analysis indicated that upregulated DEGs in SMAD4-siRNA treated cells were mainly enriched in cell-cycle related processes, interferon signaling pathway, and immune system process, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in extracellular matrix organization/disassembly, pathogenesis, and cell adhesion. In particular, cell cycle and TGF-β signaling pathway were discovered as the canonical pathways changed under the SMAD4 silencing. Taken together, our data reveals SMAD4 knockdown alters the expression of numerous genes involved in key biological processes of the development of follicular GCs and provides a novel global clue of the role of SMAD4 gene in porcine follicular GCs. mRNA profiles of NC-siRNA treated and SMAD4-siRNA treated porcine GCs were generated by RNA sequencing using Ion Torren Proton
Project description:Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is formed by heterogeneous ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. The patho-mechanism of OPLL is still largely unknown. Recently, disorders of metabolism are thought to be the center of many diseases such as OPLL. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) are accumulated in many extracellular matrixes such as ligament fibers, and it can functions as cellular signal through its receptor (RAGE), contributing to various events such as atherosclerosis or oxidative stress. However, its role in OPLL formation is not yet known. Therefore, we performed high-through-put RNA sequencing on primary posterior longitudinal ligament cells treated with different doses of AGEs (1µM, 5µM and negative control), with or without BMP2 (1µM). mRNA profiles of Primary human posterior longitudinal ligament cells stimulated with various stimuli (Control, 1µM AGE-BSA, 5µM AGE-BSA, 1µM AGE-BSA with BMP2, 5µM AGE-BSA with BMP2) were generated by deep sequencing on Ion Proton
Project description:Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is formed by heterogeneous ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. The patho-mechanism of OPLL is still largely unknown. MicroRNAs are small nucleatides that function as regulators of gene expression in almost any biological process. However, few microRNAs are reported to have a role in the pathological process of OPLL. Therefore, we performed high-throughput microRNA sequencing and transcriptome sequencing of primary OPLL and PLL cells in order to decipher the interacting network of microRNAs in OPLL. MRNA and microRNA profiles were done using primary culture cells of human ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) tissue and normal posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) tissue.