Changes in liver gene expression profiles during sexual maturation of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) males.
ABSTRACT: Gene expression analyses have been performed on liver tissue of sexually mature and immature males using microarrays. 60 eels were transferred to two independent temperature controlled recirculation water units connected to two 500 L cylindro-conical tanks (30 fish per tank) where the fish were acclimated to seawater (35 PSU salinity) over a 2 week period.Eel males in one of the seawater units were injected intramuscularly every week over a 140 day period with 2000 IU hCG/kg (human chorionic gonadotropin, Sigma–Aldrich Chemical) dissolved in 0.9% saline to induce sexual maturation. Eel males in the other recirculation unit were injected weekly over the same period with 0.9% NaCl (vehicle).At the end of the experiment, eels were anesthetized in a solution of 0.1mg/L tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, Sigma Aldrich) and blood samples collected into heparinized syringes. Tissues (brain, liver and gonads) were collected from sexually immature (n=12) and sexually mature males (n=12).RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) was used to extract RNA from the livers. Tissue samples were pooled and, therefore, each of the biological replicates (n= 4 sexually immature, n=4 sexually mature) contains tissue from three fish. Total RNA concentration was determined using the Nanodrop ND-100 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies) and sample integrity was assessed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies). Microarray analysis was conducted using an European eel-specific array consisting of a total of 14,913 probes based on a large collection of high-throughput transcriptomic sequences (Pujolar et al. 2012). Probe sequences and further details on the microarray platform can be found on the GEO database under accession number GPL15124. Data was normalized using a quantile normalization procedure using R (http://www.r-project.org) A comparative analysis of gene expression was conducted between sexually mature and immature males. Sample labelling and hybridization were conducted following the details in Pujolar et al. (2012). Hybridized slides were scanned at 5 µm resolution using an Agilent DNA microarray scanner. Slides were scanned at two different sensitivity levels (XDR Hi 100% and XDR Lo 10%) and the two linked images generated were analysed together. Data were extracted and background subtracted using the standard procedure in Agilent Feature Extraction (FE) software v. 9.5.1. Hybridization success was evaluated using flag values, excluding those intensities not equal to 1.
Project description:Gene expression analyses have been performed on brain tissue of sexually mature and immature males using microarrays. 60 eels were transferred to two independent temperature controlled recirculation water units connected to two 500 L cylindro-conical tanks (30 fish per tank) where the fish were acclimated to seawater (35 PSU salinity) over a 2 week period.Eel males in one of the seawater units were injected intramuscularly every week over a 140 day period with 2000 IU hCG/kg (human chorionic gonadotropin, Sigma–Aldrich Chemical) dissolved in 0.9% saline to induce sexual maturation. Eel males in the other recirculation unit were injected weekly over the same period with 0.9% NaCl (vehicle).At the end of the experiment, eels were anesthetized in a solution of 0.1mg/L tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, Sigma Aldrich) and blood samples collected into heparinized syringes. Tissues (brain, including the olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon, and gonads) were collected from sexually immature (n=12) and sexually mature males (n=12).RNA was extracted from brain tissue of a total of 24 (12 mature and 12 immature) males. For each individual, RNA was extracted separately for olfactory bulb, telencephalon and diencephalon. Because RNA concentrations of olfactory bulb, telencephalon and diencephalon were below the amount needed for microarray analysis, a separate experiment for each part of the brain was not possible. Therefore, we combined equal concentrations of olfactory bulb, telencephalon and diencephalon as a single brain sample for each individual.Microarray analysis was conducted using an European eel-specific array consisting of a total of 14,913 probes based on a large collection of high-throughput transcriptomic sequences (Pujolar et al. 2012). Probe sequences and further details on the microarray platform can be found on the GEO database under accession number GPL15124. Data was normalized using a quantile normalization procedure using R (http://www.r-project.org) A comparative analysis of gene expression was conducted between sexually mature and immature males. Sample labelling and hybridization were conducted following the details in Pujolar et al. (2012). Hybridized slides were scanned at 5 µm resolution using an Agilent DNA microarray scanner. Slides were scanned at two different sensitivity levels (XDR Hi 100% and XDR Lo 10%) and the two linked images generated were analysed together. Data were extracted and background subtracted using the standard procedure in Agilent Feature Extraction (FE) software v. 9.5.1. Hybridization success was evaluated using flag values, excluding those intensities not equal to 1.
Project description:An European eel-specific microarray platform was developed to identify genes involved in response to pollutants A comparative analysis of gene expression was conducted between European eel Anguilla anguilla individuals from high (Tiber river, Italy) and low pollution (Bolsena lake, Italy) environments. Gene expression profiling was performed using an European eel-specific oligo-DNA microarray of 14,913 probes based on single-colour detection (Cyanine-3 only). Microarrays were scanned with Agilent scanner G2565BA (barcode on the left, DNA on the back surface, scanned through the glass) at a resolution of 5 microns; all slides were scanned twice at two different sensitivity settings (XDRHi 100% and XDRLo 10%); the scanner software created a unique ID for each pair of XDR scans and saved it to both scan image files. Feature Extraction (FE) 9.5 used XDR ID to link the pairs of scans together automatically when extracting data. The signal left after all the FE processing steps have been completed is ProcessedSignal that contains the Multiplicatively Detrended, Background-Subtracted Signal.
Project description:Many enigmas surround different aspects of freshwater eel biology and life cycle. In the same way different hypothesis about why eels are disappearing from European continental waters have been proposed. One such proposal defends that poor fat accumulation of eels, due to pollution in continental waters, might be stopping eels from reproductive migration to the Sargasso Sea. Thus, habitat deterioration could be blamed for the decline in the catchment potential of the European rivers. In this context, and with the aim to study the mode of action of environmentally relevant chemicals in eels, the multi tissue transcriptome was sequenced (454 Titanium Roche) in order to design a high density custom oligonucleotide microarray (eArray, Agilent). To validate this tool a laboratory experiment was carried to analyze the gene trasncrition profiles related to chemical compounds released from pulp and paper mills; 100 μg/L mercury and 150 μg/L β-sitosterol (only Hg data is presented here). 20 yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla) elvers (11.7±5.35 g) obtained from a local farm (Acuivas SL, Usurbil, Gipuzkoa) were exposed for 3, 6 and 9 days. Pyrosequencing allowed the design and construction of a 60K microarray platform containing 3923 gene signatures identified through BlastN analysis and 7212 sequences annotated through BlastX coupled to Blast2Go analysis. Additional 226 sequences were incorporated from NCBI databases and 3551 from the information available in EeelBase in 2011. Two probes were generated per sequence and they were spotted twice in the array. Hepatic gene expression profiling of the exposed eels indicated that Hg significantly down-regulated (LIMMA, adj. p<0.005) only gene signatures related to selenoprotein W-1 (SeW), something typically described in mammals exposed to methyl-mercury. Increasing the adj. p value to <0.05, 116 genes were significantly regulated (38 down-regulated and 79 up-regulated). Among them, we found additional selenoproteins such as ROS metabolism related genes; glutathione peroxidases (gpx1 & gpx4b) and thioredoxine which were up-regulated. In addition, complement system genes (C3 & C4b) were also up-regulated. Studying enriched Go pathways (p<0.005) and in relation with lipid homeostasis we observed that the following pathways were enriched after exposure to Hg: fatty acids degradation and metabolism of arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, ether lipids, alpha linolenic acid, and glycerophospholipids. In addition, among the top 10 significantly enriched KEGG pathways, p53 signalling, apoptosis, and MAPK signalling were present, suggesting possible effects on cell cycle regulation. In summary, transcriptome pyrosequencing and subsequently designed microarray provided the molecular tools to successfully study the gene transcription profiles of toxic chemical compounds such as Hg in European eel tissues. In addition to study the molecular modes of action of specific chemical compounds, the developed gene expression microarray will be useful in active monitoring of the quality of freshwater environments using caged sentinel eels. This study was funded by Basque Government (SAIOTEK S-PE09UN32; Consolidated Research Groups IT810-13) and UPV/EHU (UFI 11/37). Technical and human support provided by SGIker (UPV/EHU) is acknowledged. An exposure laboratory experiment was performed in the “Ur Biologia eta Experimentazio Zerbitzua” (UBEZ) of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) A total of 84 eels, 20.23 ± 2.84 cm in length, were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 2 weeks in a 10 L water glass tanks under controlled conditions: 12 h light/dark cycle at 18oC, conductivity 600 μS. During this period animals were fed with commercial flakes. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates kits (Sera GmbH) were used to systematically asses the levels of nitrogenous compounds which were maintained at 0-0.5mg/l; 0-0.5 mg/l, and 5-10 mg/l, respectively. When highest concentrations within those ranges were achieved seawater was partially replaced. A day before exposure experiment, animals were placed in 4 aquaria with 8 L of water at 600 μS. In each aquarium 21 eels were randomly distributed and exposed to: metal-mercury (Hg) (Fluka-Sigma-Aldrich) at a concentration of 100μg/L; and to a phitosterol, β-sitosterol (Sigma) at a concentration of 150 μg/ L. The last compound needed ethanol (0.01%) as vehicle. In addition to an ethanol control group, a water control (600μS) without contaminant was also prepared. Water used during the experiment was filtered at 0.5mm and treated with UV light. Toxic metabolites were measured everyday during experiment using ammonium, nitrites and nitrates test (Sera GmbH), and water was partially replaced every day. Eels were fed everyday with 10mg of commercial food per eel. After 3, 6 and 9 days exposure (T1, T2 and T3 respectively) 7 eels were anaesthetized with 3-aminobenzoate methylsulfonate salt (Sigma-Aldrich). Size and weight were measured for Fulton´s conditioning index assessments, and liver was dissected and frozen with RNA later® in liquid nitrogen for molecular studies.
Project description:The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of the genetic background of gonadal maturation of the European eel and to use gene expression profiles to identify predictive markers for broodstock selection that can be measured in blood samples. Three-year-old farmed silver female European eels were injected with 20 mg salmon pituitary extract (SPE) once per week and sampled after 4 weekly hormone injections. Four responders (gonadosomatic index > 1.5) and two non-responders (gonadosomatic index < 1.0) were selected for Illumina RNAseq analysis to identify early markers of responsiveness to gonadotropin treatment. Deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of ovarian samples derived from four responsive and two non-responsive eels after four weekly injections with gonadotropins.
Project description:We investigated the transition from juvenile yellow to the adult sexually maturing, migrating silver eel (Anguilla anguilla) by examining the hypothesis that: The brain is the central organ for the co-ordination of environmental cues (day length, photoperiod, temperature and environmental salinity) with the anatomical and physiological adaptations which accompany pre-migrational morphogenesis and the osmoregulatory plasticity seen in post-migrational, salinity-adapted fish. We have characertised the mRNA expression profiles for the brains of fresh water, yellow and silver eel using a highly representative brain cDNA microarray. The array comprises 5760 cDNA clones from A.anguilla ranging from 0.5 -10 kb and an estimated redundancy of > 5 %.
Project description:Our main objectives were: 1) to test whether the caudal fin may be used to detect the effects of pollutant exposure by means of DNA microarray; 2) to test whether the fin may be used to detect the effects of pollutants in wild contaminated fish; 3) to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity for Cd metal. Detecting and unraveling specific effects of contaminants in a multi-stress field context remain a major challenge in ecotoxicology. The aim of this study was to apply a previously developed DNA microarray comprising 1000 candidate genes on caudal fin clips in order to assess the usefulness of a non-invasive method in ecotoxicogenomic studies in the European eel. Fin gene expression patterns of eels exposed in laboratory to Cd or a PCBs mixture were compared to test whether fin clips may be used to detect effects of these contaminants. Then, gene transcription profiles of wild fish from 3 sampling sites with differing contamination levels were compared to experimental exposures to test whether fin could detect and unravel the in situ effects of these contaminants. Also, transcriptomic profiles from liver and caudal fin of eels experimentally exposed to Cd were compared to test whether fins may be used to investigate the toxicity mechanisms of this metal. Our results showed distinct fin transcription profiles in response to Cd or PCBs exposure. In addition, the transcription profiles of eels from the most contaminated site clustered with the laboratory-exposed fish. Finally, gene transcription patterns from caudal fin and liver in Cd-exposed eels showed significant differences between the two organs and only 16 common genes were identified. Many of these genes were found to be involved in tissue development and in epigenetic mechanisms. This study thus demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of performing gene transcription assays on non-invasive tissue sampling in order to assess the effect of Cd and PCBs on the transcriptome of fish. Overall design: Comparison between laboratory-controls and fish laboratory-exposed to PCBs contamination at 50 and 300ng.g-1 and Cd at 4µg.L-1 were performed using a common reference (named in raw data reference, colored with cyanine 5) on microarray; cluster analysis between eels from laboratory and wild fish from Garonne-Gironde continuum using the same reference were also performed, comparison between fish exposed to Cd and control fish from caudal fin and liver microarrays using also the common reference described earlier was then performed.
Project description:We investigated transcriptional changes caused by the nematode Anguillicola crassus within yellow and silver eels by comparing gas gland tissues of uninfected yellow with infected yellow eels, and uninfected silver with infected silver eels, respectively. In yellow eel gas gland, the infection caused a modification of steady state mRNA levels of 1675 genes, most of them being upregulated. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms was used to categorize identified genes with regard to swimbladder metabolism or response to the infection. In yellow eels, the most prominent category was ‘immune response’, including various inflammatory components, complement proteins, and immunoglobulins. The elevated expression of several glucose and monocarboxylate transporters indicated an attempt to maintain the level of glucose metabolism, even in due to the infection thickened gas gland tissue. In silver eel gas gland tissue, on the contrary, the mRNA levels of only 291 genes were affected. The reaction of the immune system was much less pronounced compared to infected yellow eels, but in the category ‘extracellular matrix’, the mRNA levels of several mucin genes were strongly elevated, suggesting increased mucus production as a defense reaction against the parasite. In summary, we found a strong reaction to an Anguillicola crassus infection on steady state mRNA levels in gas gland tissue of yellow eels, whereas in silver eels the changes ware almost negligible. Overall design: Using Illumina Sequencing to obtain RNA-Seq data and statistical Deseq analysis, the transcriptomes of European eel gas gland tissues of animals with different development stages and different infection states were compared.
Project description:Since the early 1980s, the population of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) has dramatically declined. Nowadays, the European eel is listed on the red list of threatened species (IUCN Red List) and is considered as critically endangered of extinction. Pollution is one of the explanations of the collapse of this species. Among their possible effects, pollutants gradually accumulated in eels during their somatic growth phase (yellow eel stage) would be remobilized during their reproductive migration leading to potential toxic events in gonads. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of pollution on the gonad development of wild female silver eels. Female silver eels from two sites with differing contamination levels were artificially matured. Transcriptomic analyses by means of a 1000 candidate gene cDNA microarray were performed on gonads after 11 weeks of maturation. The results showed that the transcription levels of several genes that were associated to the gonadosomatic index (GSI) were involved in mitotic cell division but also in spermatogenesis. Genes associated to pollution were mainly involved in the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress, in DNA repair, in the purinergic signaling pathway and in steroidogenesis, suggesting an impairment of gonad development in eels from the polluted site. This was in agreement with the fact that eels from the reference site showed a higher gonad growth in comparison to contaminated fish. Overall design: Comparison between wild european eels from a clean (Certes) and contaminated site (Gironde) were performed using a common reference (named in raw data reference, colored with cyanine 5) on microarray.
Project description:The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of the genetic background of gonadal maturation of the European eel and to use gene expression profiles to identify predictive markers for broodstock selection that can be measured in blood samples. To find leads for maturation markers we performed a pilot deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of ovarian tissue derived from a yellow eel, a prepubertal silver eel and a post-spawning matured eel. Among the best leads were two key players in steroidogenesis, namely pP450c17 and liver receptor homolog-1. Pilot deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of ovary from a yellow, a prepubertal silver and a post-spawning matured eel