Expression data to investigate Costello syndrome using human iPSCs differentiated into astroglial progenitors and astrocytes
ABSTRACT: We used microarrays to compare gene expression between three HRAS-wild type lines (13, 162d, 165d) and three HRAS-G12S mutant lines (7, 8, 16). Arrays were conducted in all lines from iPSC-derived astroglial progenitors at 8 weeks of differentiation, and in wild-type astrocyte lines at 28 weeks of differentiation. Cells of the astroglial lineage were generated for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix Human 1.0 ST microarrays. At each stage, cells were plated as a monolayer and treated with 10ng/ml of CNTF for one week before extraction.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis of mouse embryonic stem cell lines derived from embryos cultured in optimal and suboptimal conditions compared to cell lines derived from control embryos. The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) has resulted in the birth of more than 5 million children. While children conceived by these technologies are generally healthy, there is conflicting evidence suggesting an increase in adult-onset complications like glucose intolerance and high blood pressure in IVF children. Animal models indicate similar potential risks. It remains unclear what molecular mechanisms may be operating during in vitro culture to predispose the embryo to these diseases. One of the limitations faced by investigators is the paucity of the material in the preimplantation embryo to test for molecular analysis. To address this problem, we generated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) from blastocysts conceived after natural mating (mESCFB) or after IVF, using optimal (KSOM + 5% O2; mESCKAA) and suboptimal (Whitten’s Medium, + 20% O2, mESCWM) conditions. We analyzed three female cell lines per group for a total of nine mouse embryonic stem cells on Affymetrix MoGene 1.0 ST Arrays.
Project description:We have conducted a screen for factors that downregulate expression of the genes encoding the V(D)J recombinase (RAG1 and RAG2) during B cell development. We have identified the transcription factor Gfi1B as being one of the proteins capable of decreasing RAG transcription when overexpressed in Ableson transormed ProB cell lines. We have yet to determine whether the overexpression of Gfi1B downregulates the RAGs directly, or whether it initiates a signalling programme that results in RAG downregulation. We hypothesize that by comparing global gene expression patterns in cells that overexpress Gfi1B and those that do not, we can distinguish between these possibilities and additionally gain insight into the broader genetic program that may be influenced by Gfi1B during hematopoiesis. Abelson pro-B cells were infected with a retrovirus encoding Gfi1b fused to the estrogen receptor domain. Gfi1b expression was induced by adding tamoxifen to the culture medium for 12h. Three biological replicates of untreated and treated cells were analyzed.
Project description:We used microarrays to study the effect of Chd1 loss of function in mouse ES cells. We used ChIP-chip to analyze genome-wide binding of Chd1 in normal ES cells. Mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells were infected with a lentiviral vector (pSicoR-mCherry) for expression of a shRNA against Chd1 and GFP (as a control). mCherry-sorted ES cells were plated and individual clones were selected and grown under normal ES cell conditions. 6 ES cell clonal lines were isolated and analyzed along with the parental E14 cell line. The final analysis consisted in 3 control cell lines (E14, E1 and G8) and 4 Chd1-deficient cells (3 different clones using a shRNA sequence #1- C1i5, C1i6 and C1i9; 1 clone using a different shRNA (#4) sequence targeting Chd1- C4i2). RNA samples were isolated from these Chd1-deficient ES cells and control ES cells, and hybridized on Affymetrix chip. For ChIP-chip, parental E14 ES cell line was used.
Project description:Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the embryonic precursors of eggs and sperm, are a unique model for identifying and studying regulatory mechanisms in singly migrating cells. From their time of specification to eventual colonization of the gonad, mouse PGCs traverse through and interact with many different cell types, including epithelial cells and mesenchymal tissues. Work in drosophila and zebrafish have identified many genes and signaling pathways involved in PGC migration, but little is known about this process in mammals. We have generated a point mutation in the Ror2 gene that we know disrupts primordial germ cell migration in the developing mouse embryo. We used microarray analysis to determine if this defect is mediated through genome-wide or pathway-specific transcriptional changes. We analyzed primordial germ cells (PGCs) from 4 wild-type (WT) and 4 Ror2Y324C/Y324C mutant embryos using Oct4-DPE-EGFP. PGCs were collected during their active migratory state at embryonic day 9.5 (somite range 20-25).
Project description:Epidemiological studies indicate that progestin-containing contraceptives may increase susceptibility to HIV and other infections; however, underlying mechanisms involving the upper female reproductive tract are undefined. To determine the effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on gene expression and physiology of the human endometrial and cervical transformation zone (TZ), microarray analyses were performed on whole tissue biopsies. In endometrium, activated pathways included leukocyte chemotaxis, attachment, and inflammation in DMPA (z>2.5) and LNG-IUS (z>3.5) users, and regulation of pattern recognition receptors and other immune mediators. In cervical TZ, progestin treatment altered expression of tissue remodeling and viability genes, but not those of immune functions. Together, these results indicate that progestins influence expression of immune-related genes in endometrium that would be expected to result in the local recruitment of HIV target cells, and thus may increase HIV susceptibility. It is important to consider the upper reproductive tract in the assessment of effects of contraceptives that may influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as HIV. Cross-sectional study conducted at an academic medical center. Cervical transformation zone and endometrial biopsies were obtained from 3 groups of volunteers: those using no hormonal contraceptives (controls, mid-secretory phase, n=20 cervix, 11 endometrium), DMPA users (150mg, n=15, 8), or LNG-IUS users (n=17, 13). DMPA and LNG-IUS groups had used these contraceptives for at least 6 months.
Project description:To compare transcriptomic profiles between UCSF4 hESCs and their neural derivatives, neural precursor cells (NPCs), we performed microarray analysis using the Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 ST array platform. Six biological samples, three biological replicates for each developmental cell stage (in vitro)
Project description:Despite similarities between tumor initiating cells with stem-like properties (TICs) and normal neural stem cells, we hypothesized that there may be differences in their differentiation potentials. We now demonstrate that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-mediated Jak/STAT-dependent astroglial differentiation is impaired due to EZH2-dependent epigenetic silencing of BMP receptor 1B (BMPR1B) in a subset of glioblastoma TICs. Forced expression of BMPR1B either by transgene expression or demethylation of the promoter restores their differentiation capabilities and induces loss of their tumorigenicity. We propose that deregulation of the BMP developmental pathway in a subset of glioblastoma TICs contributes to their tumorigenicity both by desensitizing TICs to normal differentiation cues, and by converting otherwise cytostatic signals to pro-proliferative signals. Experiment Overall Design: DNA extracted from four glioma cell lines were hybridized to 50K mapping arrays (Xba only) to detect and summarize chromosomal aberrations in those samples.
Project description:Genome-wide RNAi screens in mice identified Ctnnb1 and Mllt6 as physiological regulators of HrasG12V-dependent epidermal hyperplasia. To probe the consequences of Ctnnb1 and Mllt6 on HrasG12V-dependent oncogenic growth, we examined how their depletion impacts gene expression in the HrasoncoX2 epidermis. We performed RNA-seq analysis of FACS-purified embryonic epidermal cells, followed by network analysis of differentially regulated transcripts. Whether Ctnnb1 or Mllt6, knockdown markedly enhanced activity of genes restricting growth, and decreased expression of genes promoting epidermal proliferation. This contrasted with known transcriptional changes that typically follow epidermal expression of oncogenic Hras. Moreover, there was a significant overlap in genes whose expression was affected by Mllt6 and β-catenin, further implying a level of shared function. Transcriptional profiles of epidermal progenitors of embryonic day 18.5 animals of wild-type, HrasG12V, and HrasG12V depleted of Ctnnb1 or Mllt6 backgrounds.
Project description:Integrated profiling of somatic molecular alterations present in tumors is necessary to further our understanding of the tumorigenic process. We investigated the potential relationships between gene copy number alterations and DNA methylation profiles in a case series of pleural mesotheliomas (n=23). Gene copy number (CN) alterations profiled with 500K SNP arrays and DNA methylation measured at over 750 cancer-related genes with methylation bead-arrays were examined concomitantly. Considering each probed locus, there were no instances of significantly correlated CN alteration and methylation (no loci with Q < 0.05) and averaging loci over their associated genes revealed only two genes with significantly correlated CN and methylation alterations (Q < 0.04). In contrast to the lack of discrete correlations, the overall extent of tumor CN alteration was significantly associated with DNA methylation profile when comparing CN alteration extent among methylation profile classes (P < 0.02), and there was evidence that this association was partially attributable to prevalent allele loss observed at the maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Taken together, this work indicates a strong association between global genetic and global epigenetic dysregulation in mesothelioma rather than a discrete, local coordination of gene inactivation, and further highlights the utility and necessity of integrative genomics approaches in cancer biology. Mesotheliomas were obtained following surgical resection at Brigham and Women’s Hospital through the International Mesothelioma Program from a pilot study conducted in 2002 and an incident case series beginning in 2005 as previously described (PMIDs: 19118007 and 19638575). All patients provided informed consent under the approval of the appropriate Institutional Review Boards. Clinical information, including histologic diagnosis was obtained from pathology reports. The study pathologist confirmed the histologic diagnoses and further assessed the percent tumor from resected specimens (mean >60%). DNA extraction and methylation analysis: DNA from fresh frozen tissue and matched whole blood was isolated with QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) following the manufacturer’s protocol. Tumor DNA was modified with sodium bisulfite using the EZ DNA Methylation Kit (Zymo Research, Orange, CA). Illumina GoldenGate® methylation bead arrays interrogated 1505 CpG loci associated with 803 cancer-related genes processed at the UCSF Institute for Human Genetics, Genomics Core Facility using methods described in (28). The GoldenGate methylation data used in the analysis has been previously described (PMIDs: 19118007 and 19638575).
Project description:Using paired tumor and non-tumor lung tissues from 47 individuals we identified common changes in DNA methylation associated with the development of non-small cell lung cancer. Pathologically normal lung tissue taken at the time of cancer resection was matched to tumorous lung tissue and together were probed for methylation status using Illumina GoldenGate arrays. For each matched pair the change in methylation at each CpG was calculated (the odds ratio), and these ratios were averaged across individuals and ranked by magnitude to identify the CpG’s with the greatest change in methylation associated with tumor development. Using paired tumor and non-tumor lung tissues from 47 individuals we identified common changes in DNA methylation associated with the development of non-small cell lung cancer. Pathologically normal lung tissue taken at the time of cancer resection was matched to tumorous lung tissue and together were probed for methylation status using Illumina GoldenGate arrays. For each matched pair the change in methylation at each CpG was calculated (the odds ratio), and these ratios were averaged across individuals and ranked by magnitude to identify the CpG’s with the greatest change in methylation associated with tumor development.