Dissecting the genetics of cutaneous miRNA in a mouse model of autoimmune bullous disease
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous, non-coding RNAs that control genes at post-transcriptional level. They are essential for development and tissue differentiation, and altered miRNA expression patterns are linked to the pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. There is evidence that miRNA expression is genetically controlled similar to the transcription of protein-coding genes and previous studies identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for miRNA expression in the liver. So far, little attention has been paid to miRNA expression in the skin. Moreover, there is no data on epistatic control of miRNA expression. In this study, we statistically linked cutaneous miRNA expression patterns to SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers in an advanced murine intercross line (AIL) of three strains (BxD2, NZM and MRL) that are known to be prone to develop autoimmune diseases as well as the wild-derived strain CAST/EiJ. In particular, we screened 100 murine samples for 609 different miRNAs and identified 42 eQTL controlling the expression of 38 cutaneous miRNAs. As a result, we identified two chromosomal hot-spots on chromosome 2 and 8 that control the expression of multiple miRNAs. Moreover, for eight miRNAs, an interacting effect of pairs of SNP was observed. Combining the constraints on genes from the statistical interaction of their loci and further using curated protein interaction networks narrowed down the number of candidate genes controlling miRNAs to a set of several genes. Among the resulting interaction pairs were the genes COMMD3 and COPS5 found to regulate the expression of miR-501-5p. Independently, a network analysis based on co-expression of miRNAs was performed using WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression analysis) to identify clusters (modules) of co-expressed miRNAs. One of these modules significantly correlated with the onset and severity of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, a cutaneous autoimmune skin blistering disease induced by autoantibodies to type VII collagen. The key miRNAs identified from this analysis were miR-379 and miR-223.This work shows strong evidence for a genetic control of cutaneous miRNA expression. 100 murine skin samples
Project description:Psoriasis is a systemic disease with cutaneous manifestations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules that are differentially expressed in psoriatic skin, however; only few miRNAs have been localized to specific cells or regions of psoriatic lesions. We used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and next-generation sequencing to study the specific miRNA expression profiles in the epidermis (Epi) and dermal inflammatory aggregates (RD/ICs) of psoriatic skin. We identified 24 deregulated miRNAs in the Epi and 37 deregulated miRNAs in the RD/ICs of lesional psoriatic skin compared with non-lesional psoriatic skin (FCH>2, FDR<0.05). Interestingly, 9 of the 37 miRNAs, including miR-193b and miR-223 that have recently been described as deregulated in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis. Using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR, miR-193b and miR-223 were found to be expressed in Th17 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that LCM combined with small RNA sequencing provides a robust strategy to explore the global miRNA expression in the epidermal and dermal compartments of psoriatic skin. Furthermore, our results indicate that the altered local miRNA changes seen in the RD/ICs is reflected in the circulating immune cells, altogether emphasizing that miRNAs may contribute to a systemic component in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Examination of the global miRNA expression in epidermis (Epi) and dermis (RD/ICs) of paired (non-lesional vs. lesional) psoriatic skin using a combination of laser-capture microdissection and barcoded small RNA sequencing
Project description:The study confirmed a batch of goat skin and hair follicles miRNA, by high-throughput sequencing methods.316 sequences miRNAs were obtained by the means of analysis and we confirmed the authenticity of 68 known miRNAs and discovered 248 novel miRNAs, as well as 22 miRNAs that haven’t been reported before. Through the miRNAs family analysis, we found the co-expressed miRNAs in goat and sheep located in the same region of chromosome, which may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. In addition, the prediction of novel target miRNAs followed by the analysis of target gene pathways indicated that MAPK pathway may have an important effect to the fast growth of skin follicle cell. We sequenced a mixed sample which contains three goat skin in anagen of cashmere
Project description:miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit translation and promote mRNA decay. The levels of mature miRNAs are the result of different rates of transcription, processing, and turnover. The non-canonical polymerase Gld2 has been implicated in the stabilization of miR-122 possibly by catalyzing 3’ monoadenylation, however, there is little evidence that this relationship is one of cause and effect. Here, we biochemically characterize Gld2 involvement in miRNA monoadenylation and its effect on miRNA stability. We find that Gld2 directly monoadenylates and stabilizes specific miRNA populations in human fibroblasts and that sensitivity to monoadenylation-induced stability depends on nucleotides in the miRNA 3‘ end. These results establish a novel mechanism of miRNA stability and resulting post-transcriptional gene regulation. Sequencing of miRNAs to assess amount and 3' end monoadenylation state upon Gld2 knock-down.
Project description:Two small RNA libraries and 2 degradome libraries were constructed from potato tubers stored at room temperature or exposed to cold stress for deep sequencing. Through small RNA sequencing, 53 known miRNAs and 59 novel miRNAs were identified. Seventy genes were identified as miRNA targets by degradome sequencing. Small RNA sequencing and degradome sequencing of control and cold treated Solanum tuberosum tubers
Project description:Schmitz2014 - RNA triplex formation
The model is parameterized using the
parameters for gene CCDC3 from Supplementary Table S1. The two
miRNAs which form the triplex together with CCDC3 are miR-551b and
This model is described in the article:
Cooperative gene regulation
by microRNA pairs and their identification using a
Schmitz U, Lai X, Winter F,
Wolkenhauer O, Vera J, Gupta SK.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jul; 42(12):
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an integral part of gene regulation
at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, it has been shown
that pairs of miRNAs can repress the translation of a target
mRNA in a cooperative manner, which leads to an enhanced
effectiveness and specificity in target repression. However, it
remains unclear which miRNA pairs can synergize and which genes
are target of cooperative miRNA regulation. In this paper, we
present a computational workflow for the prediction and
analysis of cooperating miRNAs and their mutual target genes,
which we refer to as RNA triplexes. The workflow integrates
methods of miRNA target prediction; triplex structure analysis;
molecular dynamics simulations and mathematical modeling for a
reliable prediction of functional RNA triplexes and target
repression efficiency. In a case study we analyzed the human
genome and identified several thousand targets of cooperative
gene regulation. Our results suggest that miRNA cooperativity
is a frequent mechanism for an enhanced target repression by
pairs of miRNAs facilitating distinctive and fine-tuned target
gene expression patterns. Human RNA triplexes predicted and
characterized in this study are organized in a web resource at
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Project description:Deficiencies in the ATM gene are the underlying cause for ataxia telangiectasia, a congenital syndrome characterized by neurological, motor and immunological defects, as well as a predisposition to cancer risks. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression and a useful tool for cancer diagnosis, staging, and prediction of therapeutic responses to clinical regimens. In particular, miRNAs have been used to develop signatures for breast cancer profiling. We are interested in the consequences of ATM deficiency on miRNA expression in breast epithelial cells and the potential contribution to cancer predisposition. In this study we investigate the effects of ATM loss on the miRNA expression and related gene expression changes in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HME-CC). We have identified 81 significantly differently expressed miRNAs in the ATM-deficient HME-CCs using small RNA sequencing. Many of these differentially expressed miRNAs have been described and implicated in tumorigenesis and proliferation. These changes include down-regulation of tumor suppressor miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-29c and hsa-miR-16, as well as the over-expression of pro-oncogenic miRNAs hsa-miR-93 and hsa-mir-221. All 81 miRNAs were combined with genome wide gene expression profiles to investigate possible targets of miRNA regulation. We identified messenger RNA (mRNA) targets of these miRNAs that were also significantly regulated after the depletion of ATM. Predicted targets included many genes implicated in cancer formation and progression, including SOCS1 and the proto-oncogene MAF. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression allows us to build a more complete understanding of the pathways and networks involved in the breast cancer predisposition observed in individuals deficient in ATM. This study highlights miRNA and predicted mRNA target expression changes in ATM-deficient HME-CCs and suggests a mechanism for the breast cancer-prone phenotype seen in ATM deficient cells and patients. Additionally, this study provides preliminary data for defining miRNA profiles that may be used prognostic biomarkers for breast cancer predisposition. Examination of small RNA population in human mammary epithelial cell lines. Each condition was preformed in triplicate. This submission represents the transcriptome component of study.
Project description:Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in human cancers and can have a causative role in tumorigenesis. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that YAP, the downstream target of the tumor-suppressive Hippo signaling pathway regulates miRNA biogenesis in a cell density-dependent manner. At low cell density, nuclear YAP binds and sequesters p72 (DDX17), a regulatory component of the miRNA processing machinery. At high cell density, Hippo-mediated cytoplasmic retention of YAP facilitates p72 association with Microprocessor and binding to a specific sequence motif in pri-miRNAs. Inactivation of the Hippo pathway or expression of constitutively active YAP causes widespread miRNA suppression in cells and tumors and a corresponding post-transcriptional induction of MYC expression. Thus, the Hippo pathway links contact-inhibition regulation to miRNA biogenesis and may be responsible for the widespread miRNA repression observed in cancer. Two conditions (normal epidermal cells and oncogenic epidermal cells expressing YAP S127A mutant) were analyzed in duplicate.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory noncoding RNAs that affect the production of a significant fraction of human mRNAs via post-transcriptional regulation. Interindividual variation of the miRNA expression levels is likely to influence the expression of miRNA target genes and may therefore contribute to phenotypic differences in humans, including susceptibility to common disorders. The extent to which miRNA levels are genetically controlled is largely unknown. In this report, we assayed the expression levels of miRNAs in primary fibroblasts from 180 European newborns of the GenCord project and performed association analysis to identify eQTLs (expression quantitative traits loci). We detected robust expression for 121 miRNAs out of 365 interrogated. We have identified significant cis- (10%) and trans- (11%) eQTLs. Furthermore, we detected one genomic locus (rs1522653) that influences the expression levels of five miRNAs, thus unraveling a novel mechanism for coregulation of miRNA expression
Project description:Understanding the function of individual miRNA species in mice would require the production of hundreds of loss-of-function strains. To accelerate analysis of miRNA biology in mammals, we combined recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors with miRNA ‘Tough Decoys’ (TuDs) to inhibit specific miRNAs. Intravenous injection of rAAV9 expressing anti-miR-122 or anti-let-7 TuD depleted the corresponding miRNA and increased its mRNA targets. rAAV producing anti-miR-122—but not anti-let-7—TuD reduced serum cholesterol by 40% for 18 weeks in wild-type mice and reduced serum LDL by 50% in LDL receptor-deficient mice. High throughput sequencing of liver miRNAs from the treated mice confirmed that the targeted miRNA, but no other miRNAs, were depleted and revealed that TuD RNAs induce miRNA tailing and trimming in vivo. rAAV-mediated miRNA inhibition thus provides a simple way to study miRNA function in adult mammals and a potential therapy for dyslipidemia and other diseases caused by miRNA deregulation. Examining the effect of Tough Decoy miRNA inhibitors on miRNA stability and integrity
Project description:Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) acting as negative regulators of gene expression are differentially expressed in intestinal tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Assessing the functional role of miRNAs in murine models of colitis facilitates elucidating the role of specific miRNAs in human IBD. The aim of this study was to determine the miRNA signature of murine models of colitis and to assess the influence of miR-21 on intestinal inflammation. Methods: miRNAs expression was accessed by microarray for acute and chronic murine model of colitis induced by DSS or TNBS. miR-21-deficient mouse and littermates controls were assessed in the standard DSS, TNBS and CD4+ T cell transfer models of colitis. RNAs of mouse colon and CD4+CD45RBHigh cells were analyzed by miRNA and mRNA microarray, and quantitative RT-PCR. Th1 polarization was accessed by flow-cytometry and ELISA. Results: Alterations of in miRNAs expression were identified for acute and chronic DSS colitis and TNBS colitis, receptively. The Expression of miRs-21, -142-3p and -223 was were distinct between DSS and TNBS models while overlap of numerous miRNAs was seen. Importantly, miRs-19b, -192 and -215, that are decreased in IBD, were significantly decreased in all 4 models of colitis. miR-21, which is increased in IBD, was increased in TNBS colitis but not the DSS colitis models. Further assessment of the miR-21-deficient 1-/- mice revealed that the deletion of miR-21 results in the exacerbation of both the TNBS and T cell-transfer models of colitis. Conclusions: miRNAs are differentially expressed in both human IBD and murine colitis, with overlap of several IBD-associated miRNAs. The demonstration that miR-21 deletion exacerbated CD4+ T cell-mediated models of colitis provides further evidence that miRNAs play significant roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. Gene expression profiles were established for normal miR-21-/- mice and wild type c57BL/6 mice (WT). Total of 6 samples with replicates were included in this study.