Genome-wide analysis of MCF-7 cells expressing or not MMP-14 (MT1-MMP) growing in monolayer cell culture conditions
ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the impact of MMP-14 (MT1-MMP) on the transcriptomes of a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, we performed a microarray analysis from RNAs isolated from MCF-7 cells expressing either an empty vector (VEC) or human MMP-14 cDNA (MT1) in monolayer growth conditions. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with either an empty vector (pcDNA3.1/Zeo) or human MMP-14 cDNA (pcDNA3.1-MMP-14/Zeo). Cells were grown for 48 hours in monolayer culture. Cells were then lysed in TRIzol and total RNA was isolated. For each experimental condition, total RNAs isolated from 3 independant biological replicates were pooled.
Project description:In order to investigate the impact of MMP-14 (MT1-MMP) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions on the transcriptomes of a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, we performed a microarray analysis from RNAs isolated from MCF-7 cells expressing either an empty vector (CTRL) or human MMP-14 cDNA (MT1) in monolayer (2D) and 3D collagen (3D Col) growth conditions. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with either an empty vector (pcDNA3.1/Zeo) or human MMP-14 cDNA (pcDNA3.1-MMP-14/Zeo). Cells were grown for 24, 48 and 72 hours in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen gels or in monolayer culture conditions. Cells were then lysed in TRIzol and total RNA was isolated. For each experimental condition, total RNAs isolated from 4 independant biological replicates were pooled.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1-MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function of cellular MT1-MMP alone, rather than the general proteolytic activity and the pro-migratory function of MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the antibody does not interact in any detectable manner with other members of the membrane type (MT)-MMP family. The mechanism of this selectivity remained unknown. Using mutagenesis, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT-MMPs and that is distant from the MT1-MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) association with MT1-MMP. As a result, the 9E8 antibody incapacitates the TIMP-2-dependent MMP-2-activating function alone rather than the general enzymatic activity of human MT1-MMP. The specific function of the 9E8 antibody we determined directly supports an essential, albeit paradoxical, role of the protein inhibitor (TIMP-2) in MMP-2 activation via a unique membrane-tethered mechanism. In this mechanism, the formation of a tri-molecular MT1-MMPTIMP-2MMP-2 complex is required for both the capture of the soluble MMP-2 proenzyme by cells and then its well-controlled conversion into the mature MMP-2 enzyme. In sum, understanding of the structural requirements for the 9E8 antibody specificity may pave the way for the focused design of the inhibitory antibodies against other individual MMPs.
Project description:Genome-wide expression profiling of MT1-MMP–overexpressing versus MT1-MMP–silenced cancer cells and a further data mining analysis of the preexisting expression database of 190 human tumors of 14 cancer types led us to identify 11 genes, the expression of which correlated firmly and universally with that of MT1-MMP (P < 0.00001). Overall design: We specifically selected HT1080 cells (HT cells)for our studies because these cells express MT1-MMP naturally. To increase the MT1-MMP expression, we transfected HT cells with MT1-MMP-WT and isolated a pool of the stably transfected HT-MT cells. As a control, we used HT-neo cells transfected with the original plasmid. To silence MT1-MMP, we transfected HT cells with the siRNA construct and isolated HT-siRNA cells. As a second control, we isolated HT-siRNAscr cells which were selected after stable transfection of HT cells with the scrambled siRNA.
Project description:Membrane type 1 (MT1) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-14) is a membrane-tethered MMP considered to be a major mediator of pericellular proteolysis. MT1-MMP is regulated by a complex array of mechanisms, including processing and endocytosis that determine the pool of active proteases on the plasma membrane. Autocatalytic processing of active MT1-MMP generates an inactive membrane-tethered 44-kDa product (44-MT1) lacking the catalytic domain. This form preserves all other enzyme domains and is retained at the cell surface. Paradoxically, accumulation of the 44-kDa form has been associated with increased enzymatic activity. Here we report that expression of a recombinant 44-MT1 (Gly(285)-Val(582)) in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells results in enhanced pro-MMP-2 activation, proliferation within a three-dimensional collagen I matrix, and tumor growth and lung metastasis in mice. Stimulation of pro-MMP-2 activation and growth in collagen I was also observed in other cell systems. Expression of 44-MT1 in HT1080 cells is associated with a delay in the rate of active MT1-MMP endocytosis resulting in higher levels of active enzyme at the cell surface. Consistently, deletion of the cytosolic domain obliterates the stimulatory effects of 44-MT1 on MT1-MMP activity. In contrast, deletion of the hinge turns the 44-MT1 form into a negative regulator of enzyme function in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role for the hinge region in the functional relationship between active and processed MT1-MMP. Together, these results suggest a novel role for the 44-kDa form of MT1-MMP generated during autocatalytic processing in maintaining the pool of active enzyme at the cell surface.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is associated with a pronounced fibrotic reaction that was recently shown to limit delivery of chemotherapy. To identify potential therapeutic targets to overcome this fibrosis, we examined the interplay between fibrosis and the key proteinase membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), which is required for growth and invasion in the collagen-rich microenvironment. In this article, we show that compared with control mice (Kras(+)/MT1-MMP(-)) that express an activating Kras(G12D) mutation necessary for pancreatic cancer development, littermate mice that express both MT1-MMP and Kras(G12D) (Kras(+)/MT1-MMP(+)) developed a greater number of large, dysplastic mucin-containing papillary lesions. These lesions were associated with a significant amount of surrounding fibrosis, increased ?-smooth muscle actin (+) cells in the stroma, indicative of activated myofibroblasts, and increased Smad2 phosphorylation. To further understand how MT1-MMP promotes fibrosis, we established an in vitro model to examine the effect of expressing MT1-MMP in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells on stellate cell collagen deposition. Conditioned media from MT1-MMP-expressing PDAC cells grown in three-dimensional collagen enhanced Smad2 nuclear translocation, promoted Smad2 phosphorylation, and increased collagen production by stellate cells. Inhibiting the activity or expression of the TGF-? type I receptor in stellate cells attenuated MT1-MMP conditioned medium-induced collagen expression by stellate cells. In addition, a function-blocking anti-TGF-? antibody also inhibited MT1-MMP conditioned medium-induced collagen expression in stellate cells. Overall, we show that the bona fide collagenase MT1-MMP paradoxically contributes to fibrosis by increasing TGF-? signaling and that targeting MT1-MMP may thus help to mitigate fibrosis.
Project description:Metastatic melanoma is the deadliest of all skin cancers. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for metastatic patients remains poor. We previously showed that Membrane-type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of the drivers of melanoma metastasis. Classically, MT1-MMP regulates a verity of cellular functions including cell-to-cell interaction and cell-to-matrix communication. Recently, MT1-MMP has been found to also modulate gene expression. To specifically assess MT1-MMP dependent gene regulation in melanoma, microarray gene expression analysis was performed in a melanoma cell line whose metastatic properties depend on the activity of MT1-MMP. We identified the tumor suppressor gene SPRY4 as a new transcriptional target of MT1-MMP that is negatively regulated by the protease. Knockdown of MT1-MMP enhances SPRY4 expression at the mRNA and protein level. SPRY4 expression inversely correlates with that of MT1-MMP in melanoma samples and importantly, correlates with melanoma patient survival. SPRY4 modulates MT1-MMP dependent cell migration such that inhibition of SPRY4 rescues cell migration that has been impaired by MT1-MMP knock down. MT1-MMP decreases SPRY4 in part through an MMP2/RAC1 axis we previously show promotes cell motility downstream of MT1-MMP. These results identify the tumor suppressor SPRY4 as a novel molecular effector of MT1-MMP affecting melanoma cell motility.
Project description:The recent detection of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression in human articular cartilage [Büttner, Chubinskaya, Margerie, Huch, Flechtenmacher, Cole, Kuettner, and Bartnik (1997) Arthritis Rheum. 40, 704-709] prompted our investigation of MT1-MMP's catabolic activity within the interglobular domain of aggrecan. For these studies we used rAgg1mut, a mutated form of the recombinant fusion protein (rAgg1) that has been used as a substrate to monitor 'aggrecanase' catabolism in vitro [Hughes, Büttner, Eidenmüller, Caterson and Bartnik (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20269-20274]. The rAgg1 was mutated (G332 to A) to avoid the generation of a splice variant seen with the original genetic construct, which gave rise to heterogeneous glycoprotein products. This mutation yielded a homogeneous recombinant product. Studies in vitro with retinoic acid-stimulated rat chondrosarcoma cells indicated that the rAgg1mut substrate was cleaved at the 'aggrecanase' site equivalent to Glu373-Ala374 (human aggrecan sequence enumeration) in its interglobular domain sequence segment. The differential catabolic activities of the recombinant catalytic domain (cd) of MT1-MMP and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 3 and 8 were then compared by using this rAgg1mut as a substrate. Coomassie staining of rAgg1mut catabolites separated by SDS/PAGE showed similar patterns of degradation with all three recombinant enzymes. However, comparative immunodetection analysis, with neoepitope antibodies BC-3 (anti-ARGS...) and BC-14 (anti-FFGV...) to distinguish between 'aggrecanase' and MMP-generated catabolites, indicated that the catalytic domain of MT1-MMP exhibited strong 'aggrecanase' activity, cdMMP-8 weak activity and cdMMP-3 no activity. In contrast, cdMMP-3 and cdMMP-8 led to strongly BC-14-reactive catabolic fragments, whereas cdMT1-MMP resulted in weak BC-14 reactivity. N-terminal sequence analyses of the catabolites confirmed these results and also identified other potential minor cleavage sites within the interglobular domain of aggrecan. These results indicate that MT1-MMP is yet another candidate for 'aggrecanase' activity in vivo.
Project description:Herein we demonstrate for the first time that a fluorogenic probe can be used as an in vivo imaging agent for visualizing activities of membrane-tethered, membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). An MT-MMP fluorogenic probe that consisted of an MT1-MMP (MMP-14) substrate and near-infrared (NIR) dye-quencher pair exhibited rapid, efficient boosts in fluorescence upon cleavage by MT1-MMP in tumor-bearing mice. In particular, unlike similar fluorogenic probes designed to target extracellular, soluble-type MMPs (EC-MMPs)--which can be cleared from the bloodstream after activation--the fluorescence signals activated by MT1-MMP enable clear visualization of MT1-MMP-positive tumors in animal models for up to 24 h. The results indicate that a simple form of a fluorogenic probe that is less effective in EC-MMP imaging is an effective probe for imaging MT-MMP activities in vivo. These findings can be widely applied to designing probes and to applications targeting various membrane-anchored proteases in vivo.
Project description:Invasion-promoting MT1-MMP is directly linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Our studies led us to identify those genes, the expression of which is universally linked to MT1-MMP in multiple tumor types. Genome-wide expression profiling of MT1-MMP-overexpressing versus MT1-MMP-silenced cancer cells and a further data mining analysis of the preexisting expression database of 190 human tumors of 14 cancer types led us to identify 11 genes, the expression of which correlated firmly and universally with that of MT1-MMP (P < 0.00001). These genes included regulators of energy metabolism (NNT), trafficking and membrane fusion (SLCO2A1 and ANXA7), signaling and transcription (NR3C1, JAG1, PI3K delta, and CK2 alpha), chromatin rearrangement (SMARCA1), cell division (STK38/NDR1), apoptosis (DAPK1), and mRNA splicing (SNRPB2). Our subsequent extensive analysis of cultured cells, tumor xenografts, and cancer patient biopsies supported our data mining. Our results suggest that transcriptional reprogramming of the specific downstream genes, which themselves are associated with tumorigenesis, represents a distinctive "molecular signature" of the proteolytically active MT1-MMP. We suggest that the transactivation activity of MT1-MMP contributes to the promigratory cell phenotype, which is induced by this tumorigenic proteinase. The activated downstream gene network then begins functioning in unison with MT1-MMP to rework the signaling, transport, cell division, energy metabolism, and other critical cell functions and to commit the cell to migration, invasion, and, consequently, tumorigenesis.
Project description:Invasive cancers employ pericellular proteolysis to breach the extracellular matrix and basement membrane barriers and invade the surrounding tissue. Pro-invasive, pro-tumorigenic MT1-MMP is the primary mediator of proteolytic events on the cancer cell surface. Cellular MT1-MMP is synthesized as a latent zymogen. The latency of MT1-MMP is maintained by its N-terminal inhibitory prodomain. Our study reveals a critical mechanism underlying the activation pathway and subsequent execution of the tumor-promoting function of MT1-MMP. Evidence suggests that the prodomain undergoes intradomain cleavage at the PGD↓L50 cleavage site followed by the release of the degraded prodomain by furin cleavage of the R108RKR111↓Y112 site. These events, only if combined, cause the activation of MT1-MMP. The significance of these molecular events to the pro-tumorigenic function of MT1-MMP in malignancy remained, however, unidentified. To identify the functional importance of the PGD↓L50 intradomain cleavage in the activation and tumorigenic program of MT1-MMP, our current studies employed the cells which expressed the wild-type prodomain-based fluorescent biosensor and the mutant biosensor with the inactivated PGD↓L50 cleavage site (L50D mutant) and also the cells with the enforced expression the wild-type and mutant MT1-MMP. Using cell-based tests and orthotopic breast cancer xenografts in mice, we demonstrated that the intradomain cleavage of the PGD↓L50 sequence of the prodomain is essential for the pro-tumorigenic function of MT1-MMP. Our study contributes to the growing consensus for the design of selective, precisely focused MT1-MMP inhibitors in cancer. Analysis of global gene expression in orthotopic tumor and cultured breast cancer cells expressing wild-type and mutant Mt1-MMP forms