Genome-wide mapping of DNA hydroxymethylation in osteoarthritic chondrocytes [methylation]
ABSTRACT: Examination of the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared to normal chondrocytes in order to elucidate the effect on OA-specific gene expression. 5hmC-sequencing was performed and data was compared with microarray gene expression data to identify genes with differential expression between normal and OA chondrocytes that are potentially under epigenetic regulation. High-throughput sequencing of 5hmC in 4 normal and 4 OA chondrocyte samples.
Project description:Examination of the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared to normal chondrocytes in order to elucidate the effect on OA-specific gene expression. 5hmC-sequencing was performed and data was compared with microarray gene expression data to identify genes with differential expression between normal and OA chondrocytes that are potentially under epigenetic regulation. Gene expression patterns were examined by comparing the 5 normal samples to the 2 OA samples to assess the changing expression profiles between normal and OA chondrocytes. We analyzed the changes in gene expression in OA; genes with a fold-change ≥ or ≤1.5 or 1.2, with a difference in intensity of >100 and within the lower 90% confidence bound, were selected.
Project description:To examine the genome-wide distribution of hydroxymethylated cytosine (5hmC) in osteoarthritic (OA) and normal chondrocytes in order to investigate the effect on OA-specific gene expression.Cartilage was obtained from OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty or from control patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Genome-wide sequencing of 5hmC-enriched DNA was performed in a small cohort of normal and OA chondrocytes to identify differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) in OA chondrocytes. Data from the genome-wide sequencing of 5hmC-enriched DNA were intersected with global OA gene expression data to define subsets of genes and pathways potentially affected by increased 5hmC levels in OA chondrocytes.A total of 70,591 DhMRs were identified in OA chondrocytes as compared to normal chondrocytes, 44,288 (63%) of which were increased in OA chondrocytes. The majority of DhMRs (66%) were gained in gene bodies. Increased DhMRs were observed in ?50% of genes previously implicated in OA pathology including MMP3, LRP5, GDF5, and COL11A1. Furthermore, analyses of gene expression data revealed gene body gain of 5hmC appears to be preferentially associated with activated, but not repressed, genes in OA chondrocytes.This study provides the first genome-wide profiling of 5hmC distribution in OA chondrocytes. We had previously reported a global increase in 5hmC levels in OA chondrocytes. Gain of 5hmC in the gene body is found to be characteristic of activated genes in OA chondrocytes, highlighting the influence of 5hmC as an epigenetic mark in OA. In addition, this study identifies multiple OA-associated genes that are potentially regulated either singularly by gain of DNA hydroxymethylation or in combination with loss of DNA methylation.
Project description:Examination of the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared to normal chondrocytes in order to elucidate the effect on OA-specific gene expression. 5hmC-sequencing was performed and data was compared with microarray gene expression data to identify genes with differential expression between normal and OA chondrocytes that are potentially under epigenetic regulation. Overall design: High-throughput sequencing of 5hmC in 4 normal and 4 OA chondrocyte samples.
Project description:The objective was to investigate the levels of TWIST1 in normal and OA cartilage and examine its role in regulating gene expression in chondrocytes. Human cartilage tissues and chondrocytes were obtained at autopsy from normal knee joints and from OA-affected joints at the time of total knee arthroplasty. TWIST1 expression was increased in human OA knee cartilage compared to normal knee cartilage. TWIST1 induced matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) expression without direct binding to MMP3 promoter and increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level at the MMP3 promoter. The effect of TWIST1 on expression of TET family (TET1, 2 and 3) was measured in stable TWIST1 transfected TC28 cells, and TET1 expression was up-regulated. TWIST1 dependent upregulation of Mmp3 expression was suppressed in Tet triple KO fibroblast derived from mouse ES cells. Increased TWIST1 expression is a feature of OA-affected cartilage. We identified a novel mechanism of catabolic reaction where TWIST1 up-regulates MMP3 expression by enriching 5hmC levels at the MMP3 promoter via TET1 induction. These findings implicate TWIST1 as an important factor regulating OA related gene expression. Clarifying epigenetic mechanisms of 5hmC induced by TWIST1 is a critical molecule to understanding OA pathogenesis.
Project description:Messenger RNA (mRNA) decay rates control not only gene expression levels, but also responsiveness to altered transcriptional input. We undertook this study to examine transcriptome-wide posttranscriptional regulation in both normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human articular chondrocytes.Human articular chondrocytes were isolated from normal or OA tissue. Equine articular chondrocytes were isolated from young or old horses at a commercial abattoir. RNA decay was measured across the transcriptome in human cells by microarray analysis following an actinomycin D chase. Messenger RNA levels in samples were confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Examination of total mRNA expression levels demonstrated significant differences in the expression of transcripts between normal and OA chondrocytes. Interestingly, almost no difference was observed in total mRNA expression between chondrocytes from intact OA cartilage and those from fibrillated OA cartilage. Decay analysis revealed a set of rapidly turned over transcripts associated with transcriptional control and programmed cell death that were common to all chondrocytes and contained binding sites for abundant cartilage microRNAs. Many transcripts exhibited altered mRNA half-lives in human OA chondrocytes compared to normal cells. Specific transcripts whose decay rates were altered were generally less stable in these pathologic cells. Examination of selected genes in chondrocytes from young and old healthy horses did not identify any change in mRNA turnover.This is the first investigation into the "posttranscriptome" of the chondrocyte. It identifies a set of short-lived chondrocyte mRNAs likely to be highly responsive to altered transcriptional input as well as mRNAs whose decay rates are affected in OA chondrocytes.
Project description:Studies of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on cartilaginous cells show a broad range of outcomes. However EMFs are not yet clinically applied as standard treatment of osteoarthritis, as EMF effects are showing varying outcomes in the literature. The aim of this study was to examine effects of EMFs (5 mT or 8 mT) on osteoarthritic (OA) and non-OA chondrocytes in order to investigate whether EMF effects are related to chondrocyte and EMF quality.Pellets of human OA and non-OA chondrocytes were exposed to a sinusoidal 15 Hz EMF produced by a solenoid. Control groups were cultivated without EMF under standard conditions for 7 days. Cultures were examined by staining, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for RNA corresponding to cartilage specific proteins (COL2A1, ACAN, SOX9).OA chondrocytes increased the expression of COL2A1 and ACAN under 5 mT EMF compared to control. In contrast no changes in gene expression were observed in non-OA chondrocytes. OA and non-OA chondrocytes showed no significant changes in gene expression under 8 mT EMF.A 5 mT EMF increased the expression of cartilage specific genes in OA chondrocytes whereas in non-OA chondrocytes no changes in gene expression were observed. An 8 mT EMF however showed no effect altogether. This suggests that EMF effects are related to EMF but also to chondrocyte quality. Further studies about the clinical relevance of this effect are necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by destruction of the articular cartilage due to environmental, mechanical and genetic components. The genetics of OA is complex and is not completely understood. Recent works have demonstrated the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cartilage function. MiRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and are involved in different cellular process: apoptosis, proliferation, development, glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the expression profile of miRNAs in normal and OA chondrocytes and to determine their role in the OA. METHODS: Chondrocytes were moved to aggregate culture and evaluated using histological and qPCR techniques. miRNAs were isolated and analyzed using the Agilent Human miRNA Microarray. RESULTS: Of the 723 miRNAs analyzed, 7 miRNAs showed a statistically significant differential expression. Amongst these 7 human miRNAs, 1 was up-regulated in OA chondrocytes (hsa-miR-483-5p) and 6 were up-regulated in normal chondrocytes (hsa-miR-149*, hsa-miR-582-3p, hsa-miR-1227, hsa-miR-634, hsa-miR-576-5p and hsa-miR-641). These profiling results were validated by the detection of some selected miRNAs by qPCR. In silico analyses predicted that key molecular pathways potentially altered by the miRNAs differentially expressed in normal and OA chondrocytes include TGF-beta, Wnt, Erb and mTOR signalling; all of them implicated in the development, maintenance and destruction of articular cartilage. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 7 miRNAs differentially expressed in OA and normal chondrocytes. Our potential miRNA target predictions and the signalling cascades altered by the differentially expressed miRNAs supports the potential involvement of the detected miRNAs in OA pathology. Due to the importance of miRNA in mediating the translation of target mRNA into protein, the identification of these miRNAs differentially expressed in normal and OA chondrocyte micropellets could have important diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Further studies are needed to know the function of these miRNAs, including the search of their target mRNA genes, which could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the OA treatment.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling degenerative joint disease that prompts pain and has limited treatment options. To permit early diagnosis and treatment of OA, a high resolution mechanistic understanding of human chondrocytes in normal and diseased states is necessary. In this study, we assessed the biological effects of OA-related changes in the synovial microenvironment on chondrocytes embedded within anatomically intact cartilage from joints with different pathological grades by next generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We determined the transcriptome of primary articular chondrocytes derived from anatomically unaffected knees and ankles, as well as from joints affected by OA. The GALAXY bioinformatics platform was used to facilitate biological interpretations. Comparisons of patient samples by k-means, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses together reveal that primary chondrocytes exhibit OA grade-related differences in gene expression, including genes involved in cell-adhesion, ECM production and immune response. We conclude that diseased synovial microenvironments in joints with different histopathological OA grades directly alter gene expression in chondrocytes. One ramification of this finding is that anatomically intact cartilage from OA joints is not an ideal source of healthy chondrocytes, nor should these specimens be used to generate a normal baseline for the molecular characterization of diseased joints.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Disorders that affect glucose metabolism, namely diabetes mellitus (DM), may favor the development and/or progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Thus far, little is known regarding the ability of chondrocytes to adjust to variations in the extracellular glucose concentration, resulting from hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia episodes, and so, to avoid deleterious effects resulting from deprivation or intracellular accumulation of glucose. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of normal and OA chondrocytes to regulate their glucose transport capacity in conditions of insufficient or excessive extracellular glucose and to identify the mechanisms involved and eventual deleterious consequences, namely the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). METHODS: Chondrocytes, isolated from normal and OA human cartilage, were maintained in high-density monolayer cultures, in media without or with 10 or 30 mM glucose. Glucose transport was measured as the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) mRNA and protein content were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. ROS production was measured with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. RESULTS: Basal and IL-1beta-induced 2-DG uptake, including the affinity (1.066 +/- 0.284 and 1.49 +/- 0.59 mM) and maximal velocity (0.27 +/- 0.08 and 0.33 +/- 0.08 nmol/microg protein/hour), and GLUT-1 content were identical in normal and OA chondrocytes. Glucose deprivation increased 2-DG uptake and GLUT-1 protein both in normal and OA chondrocytes. Exposure to high glucose (30 mM) for 18 or 48 hours decreased those parameters in normal but not in OA chondrocytes. GLUT-1 mRNA levels were unaffected by high glucose, either in normal or OA chondrocytes. The high glucose-induced reduction in GLUT-1 protein in normal chondrocytes was reversed by treatment with a lysosome inhibitor. High glucose induced ROS production, which lasted significantly longer in OA than in normal chondrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Normal human chondrocytes adjust to variations in the extracellular glucose concentration by modulating GLUT-1 synthesis and degradation which involves the lysosome pathway. Although capable of adjusting to glucose deprivation, OA chondrocytes exposed to high glucose were unable downregulate GLUT-1, accumulating more glucose and producing more ROS. Impaired GLUT-1 downregulation may constitute an important pathogenic mechanism by which conditions characterized by hyperglycemia, like DM, can promote degenerative changes in chondrocytes that can facilitate the progression of OA.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is a routine technique to regenerate focal cartilage lesions. However, patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are lacking an appropriate long-lasting treatment alternative, partly since it is not known if chondrocytes from OA patients have the same chondrogenic differentiation potential as chondrocytes from donors not affected by OA. METHODS: Articular chondrocytes from patients with OA undergoing total knee replacement (Mankin Score > 3, Ahlbäck Score > 2) and from patients undergoing ACT, here referred to as normal donors (ND), were isolated applying protocols used for ACT. Their chondrogenic differentiation potential was evaluated both in high-density pellet and scaffold (Hyaff-11) cultures by histological proteoglycan assessment (Bern Score) and immunohistochemistry for collagen types I and II. Chondrocytes cultured in monolayer and scaffolds were subjected to gene expression profiling using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays. Expression data were verified by using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Chondrocytes from ND and OA donors demonstrated accumulation of comparable amounts of cartilage matrix components, including sulphated proteoglycans and collagen types I and II. The mRNA expression of cartilage markers (ACAN, COL2A1, COMP, CRTL1, SOX9) and genes involved in matrix synthesis (BGN, CILP2, COL9A2, COL11A1, TIMP4) was highly induced in 3D cultures of chondrocytes from both donor groups. Genes associated with hypertrophic or OA cartilage (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL10A1, MMP13, POSTN, PTH1R, RUNX2) were not significantly regulated between the two groups of donors. The expression of 661 genes, including COMP, FN1, and SOX9, was differentially regulated between OA and ND chondrocytes cultured in monolayer. During scaffold culture, the differences diminished between the OA and ND chondrocytes, and only 184 genes were differentially regulated. CONCLUSIONS: Only few genes were differentially expressed between OA and ND chondrocytes in Hyaff-11 culture. The risk of differentiation into hypertrophic cartilage does not seem to be increased for OA chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that the chondrogenic capacity is not significantly affected by OA, and OA chondrocytes fulfill the requirements for matrix-associated ACT.