Genome-wide mapping of DNA hydroxymethylation in osteoarthritic chondrocytes [expression]
ABSTRACT: Examination of the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared to normal chondrocytes in order to elucidate the effect on OA-specific gene expression. 5hmC-sequencing was performed and data was compared with microarray gene expression data to identify genes with differential expression between normal and OA chondrocytes that are potentially under epigenetic regulation. Gene expression patterns were examined by comparing the 5 normal samples to the 2 OA samples to assess the changing expression profiles between normal and OA chondrocytes. We analyzed the changes in gene expression in OA; genes with a fold-change ≥ or ≤1.5 or 1.2, with a difference in intensity of >100 and within the lower 90% confidence bound, were selected.
Project description:Examination of the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared to normal chondrocytes in order to elucidate the effect on OA-specific gene expression. 5hmC-sequencing was performed and data was compared with microarray gene expression data to identify genes with differential expression between normal and OA chondrocytes that are potentially under epigenetic regulation. High-throughput sequencing of 5hmC in 4 normal and 4 OA chondrocyte samples.
Project description:Regeneration of human cartilage is inherently inefficient; an abundant autologous source like human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) is therefore attractive for engineering cartilage. Here, we report a defined growth factor based protocol for differentiating hiPSC into articular-like chondrocytes within two weeks with a high efficiency. The hiPSC-derived chondrocytes (hiChondrocytes) are stable and comparable to adult articular chondrocytes in global gene expression, extracellular matrix production and in their ability to generate cartilage tissue in vitro and in immune-deficient mice. Molecular characterization identified an early Sox9lowCD44lowCD140low pre-chondrogenic mesodermal population during hiPSC differentiation that eventually generates a homogenous population of Sox9highCD44highCD140high hiChondrocytes. Additionally, global gene expression analyses revealed two distinct Sox9-regulated gene networks in the Sox9low and Sox9high populations providing novel molecular insights into chondrogenic fate commitment and differentiation. Our findings present a favorable method for generation of hiPSC-derived articular chondrocytes in terms of safety and efficiency. 10 samples were analysed (duplicate sets of 5 time points) to assess changing gene expression over the course of differentiation from iPSC to hiChondrocyte. All samples were compared relative to the undifferentiated iPSC. Adult chondrocytes (2 samples) were also included for comparison. We analyzed the changes in gene expression with differentiation; genes with a fold-change ≥ or ≤1.5, with a difference in intensity of >100 and within the lower 90% confidence bound were selected.
Project description:Examination of the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared to normal chondrocytes in order to elucidate the effect on OA-specific gene expression. 5hmC-sequencing was performed and data was compared with microarray gene expression data to identify genes with differential expression between normal and OA chondrocytes that are potentially under epigenetic regulation. Overall design: High-throughput sequencing of 5hmC in 4 normal and 4 OA chondrocyte samples.
Project description:Endothelial cells from nine steady state tissues and two regenerating tissues (bone marrow and liver) were intravitally labeld, isolated via flow sorting, and immediately processed for RNA extraction. When of sufficient quality, the RNA was amplified and hybridized. For comparison, Human Emybryonic Stem Cell-derived Endothelial cells (hESC-ECs) were differentiated and isolated based on similarities to the adult mouse counterparts. Endothelial cells were labeled via intravitally labeling of the vascular bed 8 minutes prior to sacrifice with minimally three markers to identify endothelial cells followed by flow sorting.
Project description:Although information on the molecular pathogenesis of Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia (WM) has greatly improved in recent years, the exact cellular origin and the mechanisms behind WM transformation from IgM MGUS remain undetermined. Here, we undertook an integrative phenotypic, molecular and genomic approach to study clonal B-cells from newly-diagnosed patients with IgM MGUS (n=22), smoldering (n=17), and symptomatic WM (n=10). Through principal-component-analysis of multidimensional flow cytometry data, we demonstrated overlapping phenotypic profiles between clonal B-cells from IgM MGUS, smoldering and symptomatic WM patients. Similarly, virtually no genes were significantly deregulated between FACS-sorted clonal B-cells from the three disease stages. Interestingly, while the transcriptome of the Waldenström’s clone was highly deregulated as compared to CD25-CD22+ normal B-cells, significantly less genes were differentially expressed and specific WM pathways down-regulated while comparing the transcriptome of the Waldenström’s clone vs. its normal phenotypic counterpart: CD25+CD22+dim B-cells. The frequency of specific copy number abnormalities [+4, del(6q23.3-6q25.3), +12, and +18q11-18q23] progressively increased from IgM MGUS and smoldering WM vs. symptomatic WM (18% vs. 20% and 73%, respectively; P =.008), suggesting a multistep transformation of clonal B-cells that albeit benign (i.e.: IgM MGUS and smoldering WM), already harbor the phenotypic and molecular signatures of the malignant Waldenström’s clone. Normal bone marrow CD25+ B-cells, Clonal B-Cells from IgM Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, and Clonal B-Cells from Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia
Project description:Immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare clonal plasma cell (PC) disorder that remains largely incurable. AL and multiple myeloma (MM) share the same cellular origin, but while knowledge about MM PC biology has improved significantly, the same does not apply for AL. Here, we undertook an integrative phenotypic, molecular, and genomic approach to study clonal PCs from 22 newly-diagnosed AL patients. Through principal-component-analysis, we demonstrated highly overlapping phenotypic profiles between AL and MGUS or MM patients. However, in contrast to MM, highly-purified FACSs-sorted clonal PCs in AL (n=9/22) show virtually normal transcriptomes with only 68 deregulated genes as compared to normal PCs, including a few tumor suppressor (CDH1, RCAN) and pro-apoptotic (GLIPR1, FAS) genes. Notwithstanding, clonal PCs in AL (n=11/22) were genomically unstable with a median of 9 copy-number-abnormities (CNAs) per case; many of which similar to those found in MM. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in three AL patients and revealed a median of 10 non-recurrent mutations per case. Altogether, we showed that although clonal PCs in AL display phenotypic and CNA profiles similar to MM, their transcriptome is remarkably similar to that of normal PCs. First-ever WES revealed the lack of a unifying mutation in AL A total of 22 patients with confirmed diagnosis of AL based on the presence of amyloid-related systemic syndrome, positive amyloid tissue staining with Congo red, and evidence of PC clonality were studied. Samples were collected after informed consent was given, in accordance with local ethical committee guidelines and the Helsinki Declaration. GEP was performed in 9/22 AL cases with adequate RNA extracted from FACS-purified clonal PCs according to patient-specific aberrant phenotypes, and compared to that of normal PCs from 5 healthy individuals (FACSAriaIIb, BDB; ≥95% purity). RNA was hybridized to the Human Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and normalization was carried using the expression console (Affymetrix) with the RMA algorithm which includes background correction, normalization and calculation of expression values (log2). Differentially expressed genes between classes were identified using the Significant Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) algorithm (http://www-stat.standford.edu/-tibs/SAM), and significant genes were selected based on the lowest q-value (<10-5).
Project description:DNA hypomethylation could lead to activation of alternate promoters in GBM. We profiled DNA methylation and H3K4me3 genome-wide, and also performed expression and copy number analysis on the same samples In this dataset, we include all expression data obtained for five GBMs and one normal brain. We identified loci with concurrent DNA hypomethylation and H3K4me3 in GBM, and analyzed expression of the nearest gene in the same sample using these data Six total samples were analyzed. Each GBM sample was compared to normal brain to obtain expression changes
Project description:The supply of red blood cells (RBCs) is not sufficient in many developing countries or in developed countries for patients who need chronic transfusion from best-matched donors. Ex vivo expansion and maturation of human erythroid precursor cells (erythroblasts) could represent a potential solution. Proliferating erythroblasts can be expanded from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CB MNCs) ex vivo for 10^6-10^7 fold (in ~50 days) before undergoing senescence. Here, we report that ectopic expression of three to four genetic factors that have been used for iPS cell derivation enables CB-derived erythroblasts to undergo extended ex vivo expansion (≥10^51 fold in ~9 months) in a defined suspension culture condition without change of cell identity or function. These vastly expanding erythroblasts maintain homogeneously immature erythroblast phenotypes, a normal diploid karyotype and dependence on specific combination of cytokines and hormone for survival and proliferation throughout the continuous expansion period. When switched to a culture condition for terminal maturation, these immortalized erythroblasts gradually exit cell cycle, decrease cell size, accumulate hemoglobin, condense nuclei and eventually give rise to enucleated hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Our result may ultimately lead to the development of unlimited sources of cultured RBCs for optimally-matched or personalized transfusion medicine. We compared the global gene expression profiles of different human cell types: iE: immortalized erythroblasts generated by genetic reprogramming from pCBE; pCBE: primary cord blood-derived erythroblasts; CD34+: CD34+ purified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from adult blood or fetal liver; TF-1: a human erythroleukemia cell line; ESC: human embryonic stem cells; iPSCs: human induced pluripotent stem cells. We want to see the relationship among these cell types. We included multiple samples (biological replicates) for most cell types.
Project description:A collection of 100 ovarian cancer sample gene expression data from Singapore. Frozen archival epithelial ovarian cancer tumors samples from Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, National University of Singapore dated from 2006 to 2014 were collected and subjected to microarray analysis.