Expression Data from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Cell Lines
ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA are present in approximately 90% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Although treatment with the KIT and PDGFR inhibitor imatinib can control advanced disease in about 80% of GIST patients, the beneficial effect is not durable. Here, we report that ligands from the FGF family reduced the effectiveness of imatinib in GIST cells, and FGF2 and FGFR1 are highly expressed in all primary GIST samples examined. The combination of KIT and FGFR inhibition showed increased growth inhibition in imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines in the presence or absence of added FGF2 in vitro, and delayed tumor regrowth in vivo. In addition, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by imatinib was not sustained in GIST cells. An extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) rebound occurred through activation of FGF signaling, and was repressed by FGFR1 inhibition. Downregultation of Sprouty proteins played a role in the imatinib-induced feedback activation of FGF signaling in GIST cells. We used micorarrays to quantify the gene expression levels in GIST cell lines. Four GIST cell lines were split and cultured overnight. Cells were harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix U133plus2 microarrays.
Project description:Kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have dramatically improved outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but many patients develop resistance to these treatments. Although in some patients this event corresponds with mutations in the GIST driver oncogenic kinase KIT, other patients develop resistance without KIT mutations. In this study, we address this patient subset in reporting a functional dependence of GIST on the FGF receptor FGFR3 and its crosstalk with KIT in GIST cells. Addition of the FGFR3 ligand FGF2 to GIST cells restored KIT phosphorylation during imatinib treatment, allowing sensitive cells to proliferate in the presence of the drug. FGF2 expression was increased in imatinib-resistant GIST cells, the growth of which was blocked by RNAi-mediated silencing of FGFR3. Moreover, combining KIT and FGFR3 inhibitors synergized to block the growth of imatinib-resistant cells. Signaling crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 activated the MAPK pathway to promote resistance to imatinib. Clinically, an IHC analysis of tumor specimens from imatinib-resistant GIST patients revealed a relative increase in FGF2 levels, with a trend toward increased expression in imatinib-naïve samples consistent with possible involvement in drug resistance. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale to evaluate existing FGFR inhibitors and multikinase inhibitors that target FGFR3 as promising strategies to improve treatment of patients with GIST with de novo or acquired resistance to imatinib.
Project description:The majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are characterized by activating mutations of KIT, an HSP90 client protein. Further secondary resistance mutations within KIT limit clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. The dependence of KIT and its mutated forms on HSP90 suggests that HSP90 inhibition might be a valuable treatment option for GIST, which would be equally effective on imatinib-sensitive and -resistant clones. We investigated the activity of AT13387, a potent HSP90 inhibitor currently being evaluated in clinical trials, in both in vitro and in vivo GIST models. AT13387 inhibited the proliferation of imatinib-sensitive (GIST882, GIST-T1) and -resistant (GIST430, GIST48) cell lines, including those resistant to the geldanamycin analogue HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG. Treatment with AT13387 resulted in depletion of HSP90 client proteins, KIT and AKT, along with their phospho-forms in imatinib-sensitive and -resistant cell lines, irrespective of KIT mutation. KIT signaling was ablated, whereas HSP70, a marker of HSP90 inhibition, was induced. In vivo, antitumor activity of AT13387 was showed in both the imatinib-sensitive, GIST-PSW, xenograft model and a newly characterized imatinib-resistant, GIST430, xenograft model. Induction of HSP70, depletion of phospho-KIT and inhibition of KIT signaling were seen in tumors from both models after treatment with AT13387. A combination of imatinib and AT13387 treatment in the imatinib-resistant GIST430 model significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition over either of the monotherapies. Importantly, the combination of AT13387 and imatinib was well tolerated. These results suggest AT13387 is an excellent candidate for clinical testing in GIST in combination with imatinib.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common human sarcoma and a model of targeted molecular therapy. GIST depends on oncogenic KIT signaling and responds to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. However, imatinib is rarely curative. We hypothesized that PLX3397, which inhibits KIT and colony-stimulating-factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), would be more efficacious than imatinib in GIST by also depleting tumor-associated macrophages, which are generally thought to support tumor growth.We treated Kit(V558del/+) mice that develop GIST or mice with subcutaneous human GIST xenografts with imatinib or PLX3397 and analyzed tumor weight, cellular composition, histology, molecular signaling, and fibrosis. In vitro assays on human GIST cell lines were also performed.PLX3397 was more effective than imatinib in reducing tumor weight and cellularity in both Kit(V558del)(/+) murine GIST and human GIST xenografts. The superiority of PLX3397 did not depend on depletion of tumor-associated macrophages, because adding CSF1R inhibition did not improve the effects of imatinib. Instead, PLX3397 was a more potent KIT inhibitor than imatinib in vitro. PLX3397 therapy also induced substantial intratumoral fibrosis, which impaired the subsequent delivery of small molecules.PLX3397 therapy has greater efficacy than imatinib in preclinical GIST models and warrants study in patients with GIST. The resultant intratumoral fibrosis may represent one of the barriers to achieving complete tumor eradication.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are caused by activating mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinase genes. Although >85% of GIST patients treated with the small-molecule inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) achieve disease stabilization, complete remissions are rare and a substantial proportion of patients develop resistance to imatinib over time. Upregulation of soluble, non-chromatin-bound histone H2AX has an important role in imatinib-induced apoptosis of GIST cells. Additionally, H2AX levels in untreated GIST are maintained at low levels by a pathway that involves KIT, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this study, we asked whether bortezomib-mediated inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery could lead to upregulation of histone H2AX and GIST cell death. We show that bortezomib rapidly triggers apoptosis in GIST cells through a combination of mechanisms involving H2AX upregulation and loss of KIT protein expression. Downregulation of KIT transcription was an underlying mechanism for bortezomib-mediated inhibition of KIT expression. In contrast, the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway did not seem to play a major role in bortezomib-induced GIST cell death. Significantly, we found that bortezomib would induce apoptosis in two imatinib-resistant GIST cell lines as well as a short-term culture established from a primary imatinib-resistant GIST. Collectively, our results provide a rationale to test the efficacy of bortezomib in GIST patients with imatinib-sensitive or -resistant tumors.
Project description:Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is frequently used for visualizing gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), which are highly glucose-avid tumors. Dramatic metabolic responses following imatinib treatment indicate a high, KIT-dependent glucose turnover which has been particularly helpful for predicting tumor response to imatinib. The glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) inhibits glucose metabolism in cancer cells that depend on aerobic glycolysis for ATP production. We show that 2DG inhibits proliferation in both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST cell lines at levels that can be achieved clinically. KIT-negative GIST48B have 3-14-fold higher IC50 levels than KIT-positive GIST cells indicating that oncogenic KIT may sensitize cells to 2DG. GIST sensitivity to 2DG is increased in low-glucose media (110 mg/dl). 2DG leads to dose- and glucose dependent inhibition of KIT glycosylation with resultant reduction of membrane-bound KIT, inhibition of KIT-phosphorylation and inactivation of KIT-dependent signaling intermediates. In contrast to imatinib, 2DG caused ER-stress and elicited the unfolded protein response (UPR). Mannose but not pyruvate rescued GIST cells from 2DG-induced growth arrest, suggesting that loss of KIT integrity is the predominant effect of 2DG in GIST. Additive anti-tumoral effects were seen with imatinib and BH3-mimetics. Our data provide the first evidence that modulation of the glucose-metabolism by 2DG may have a disease-specific effect and may be therapeutically useful in GIST.
Project description:Oncogenic KIT or PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) mutations are compelling therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and the KIT/PDGFRA kinase inhibitor, imatinib, is the standard of care for patients with metastatic GIST. However, approximately 10% of KIT-positive GIST metastases lose KIT expression at the time of clinical progression during imatinib therapy. In the present report, we performed TK-activation screens, using phosphotyrosine-TK double immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry, in GIST in vitro models lacking KIT expression. These studies demonstrated tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR, AXL, and EPHA2 in four of six KIT-negative GIST lines (GIST62, GIST522, GIST54, GIST226, GIST48B, and GIST430B), and tyrosine-phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in each of the six KIT-negative lines. AXL expression was strong in KIT-negative or -weak clinical GIST samples that were obtained from progressing metastases during imatinib therapy. AXL knockdown inhibited viability in three KIT-negative GIST cell lines (GIST62, GIST54, and GIST522), but not in an AXL-negative, KIT-positive GIST control cell line (GIST430). AXL inhibition by R428, a specific AXL kinase inhibitor, reduced viability in AXL-activated GIST54. AXL knockdown in GIST62, GIST522, and GIST54 was accompanied by an increase in p21, p27, and p53 expression. By contrast, gefitinib-mediated EGFR inhibition, PF562271-mediated FAK inactivation, and shRNA-mediated knockdowns of EPHA2 and FAK had no effect on viability or colony formation of the KIT-negative GISTs. These findings highlight the potential relevance of AXL/p53 signaling as a therapeutic target in a subset of GISTs that have lost KIT oncoprotein expression.
Project description:Background:Imatinib shows limited efficacy in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) carrying secondary KIT mutations. HQP1351, an orally bioavailable multikinase BCR-ABL inhibitor, is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of T315I mutant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but the potential application in imatinib-resistant GISTs carrying secondary KIT mutations has not been explored. Methods:The binding activities of HQP1351 with native or mutant KIT were first analyzed. Imatinib-sensitive GIST T1 and imatinib-resistant GIST 430 cells were employed to test the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Colony formation assay, cell migration assay and cell invasion assay were performed to evaluate the clonogenic, migration and invasion ability respectively. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to detect cell apoptosis, cell cycle and signaling pathway. In vivo antitumor activity was evaluated in mouse xenograft models derived from GIST cell lines. Results:HQP1351 potently inhibited both wild-type and mutant KIT kinases. In both imatinib-resistant and sensitive GIST cell lines, HQP1351 exhibited more potent or equivalent antiproliferative activity compared with ponatinib, a third generation BCR-ABL and KIT inhibitor. HQP1351 led to more profound inhibition of cell colony formation, cell migration and invasion, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis than ponatinib. Furthermore, HQP1351 also inhibited p-KIT, p-AKT, p-ERK1/2, and p-STAT3 to a higher extent than ponatinib. Finally, in xenograft tumor models derived from imatinib-resistant GIST cancer cell lines, HQP1351 exhibited antitumor activity superior to ponatinib. Conclusions:Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the therapeutic application of HQP1351 in imatinib-resistant GIST patients deserves further investigation in clinical trials.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and arises from the interstitial cells of Cajal. It is characterized by expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase CD117 (KIT). In 70-80% of GIST cases, oncogenic mutations in KIT are present, leading to constitutive activation of the receptor, which drives the proliferation of these tumors. Treatment of GIST with imatinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits KIT-mediated signaling and initially results in disease control in 70-85% of patients with KIT-positive GIST. However, the vast majority of patients eventually develop resistance to imatinib treatment, leading to disease progression and posing a significant challenge in the clinical management of these tumors. Here, we show that an anti-KIT monoclonal antibody (mAb), SR1, is able to slow the growth of three human GIST cell lines in vitro. Importantly, these reductions in cell growth were equivalent between imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines. Treatment of GIST cell lines with SR1 reduces cell-surface KIT expression, suggesting that mAb-induced KIT down-regulation may be a mechanism by which SR1 inhibits GIST growth. Furthermore, we also show that SR1 treatment enhances phagocytosis of GIST cells by macrophages, indicating that treatment with SR1 may enhance immune cell-mediated tumor clearance. Finally, using two xenotransplantation models of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST, we demonstrate that SR1 is able to strongly inhibit tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that treatment with mAbs targeting KIT may represent an alternative, or complementary, approach for treating GIST.
Project description:Dysregulation of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is frequently observed in multiple human malignancies, and thus, therapeutic strategies targeting FGFs and FGFRs in human cancer are being extensively explored. We observed the activation of the FGF/FGFR-signaling pathway in imatinib (IM)-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) cells. Furthermore, we found that the activation of FGFR signaling has a significant impact on IM resistance in GISTs in vitro. Next, we tested the efficacy of BGJ398, a potent and selective FGFR1⁻3 inhibitor, in xenograft models of GISTs exhibiting secondary IM resistance due to receptor-tyrosine kinase (RTK) switch (loss of c-KIT/gain of FGFR2a). Five to eight-week-old female nu/nu mice were subcutaneously inoculated into the flank areas with GIST T-1R cells. Mice were randomized as control (untreated), IM, BGJ398, or a combination and treated orally for 12 days. IM had a moderate effect on tumor size, thus revealing GIST resistance to IM. Similarly, a minor regression in tumor size was observed in BGJ398-treated mice. Strikingly, a 90% decrease in tumor size was observed in mice treated with a combination of IM and BGJ398. Treatment with BGJ398 and IM also induced major histopathologic changes according to a previously defined histopathologic response score and resulted in massive myxoid degeneration. This was associated with increased intratumoral apoptosis as detected by immunohistochemical staining for cleaved caspase-3 on day 5 of the treatment. Furthermore, treatment with BGJ398 and IM significantly reduced the proliferative activity of tumor cells as measured by positivity for Ki-67 staining. In conclusion, inhibition of FGFR signaling substantially inhibited the growth of IM-resistant GISTs in vitro and showed potent antitumor activity in an IM-resistant GIST model via the inhibition of proliferation, tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis, thereby suggesting that patients with advanced and metastatic GISTs exhibiting IM resistance might benefit from therapeutic inhibition of FGFR signaling.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling contributes to failure of remyelination in multiple sclerosis, but targeting this therapeutically is complicated by its functional pleiotropy. We now identify FGF2 as a factor up-regulated by astrocytes in active inflammatory lesions that disrupts myelination via FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) mediated activation of Wingless (Wnt) signaling; pharmacological inhibition of Wnt being sufficient to abrogate inhibition of myelination by FGF2 in tissue culture. Using a novel FGFR1-selective agonist (F2?V2) generated by deleting the N-terminal 26 amino acids of FGF2 we demonstrate polarizing signal transduction to favor FGFR1 abrogates FGF mediated inhibition of myelination but retains its ability to induce expression of pro-myelinating and immunomodulatory factors that include Cd93, Lif, Il11, Hbegf, Cxcl1 and Timp1. Our data provide new insights into the mechanistic basis of remyelination failure in MS and identify selective activation of FGFR1 as a novel strategy to induce a neuroprotective signaling environment in multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases.