MicroRNA expression profiling of different T cell subset in human tonsils
ABSTRACT: Tight control of follicular helper T(Tfh) cells is required for optimal maturation of the germinal center (GC) response. The molecular mechansims controlling Tfh cell differentiation remain incompletely understood. Here we sought to to identfiy miRNAs that might regulate Tfh cell development and/or function. To identfiy miRNAs that are differentially expressed in Tfh cells, we performed Agilent microRNA microarray analysis comparing Tfh cells with the other main T cell subsets (naive T cells, non-Tfh effector or non-Tfh memory T cells, CD57+ Tfh cells and CD57- Tfh cells). RNA was extracted from 4 separate human tonsils (biological replicates) using mirVANA RNA isolation kit (Ambion) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Each biological sample was analysed individually. Live lymphocytes were sorted based on negative 7AAD staining, and thefollowing four subsets were purified: Naive T cells (CD4+ CD45RO-); CD57+ Tfh cells (CD4+ CD45RO+ PD-1_high CXCR5_high CD57+); CD57- Tfh cells (CD4+ CD45RO+ PD-1_high CXCR5_high CD57-) and non-Tfh effector or memory T cells (CD4+ CD45RO+ PD-1_neg CXCR5_neg). RNA quantity and quality was determined using a Nanodrop 1000 and an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer respectively. Hybridization on Agilent Human miRNA Microarray (V1) Kit, 8x15K and was performed at The Ramaciotti Center for Genomics (University of New South Wales, Australia). The mean of 3-4 biological replicates from each population of each population were calculated and values were plotted using Prism.
Project description:Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are one of the regulatory T cell subsets that are characterized by the production of high amount of IL-10 and lack of FOXP3 expression. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) is a CD4 homologue molecule and we have previously reported that LAG3 is expressed on IL-10 producing regulatory T cells. However, naturally occurring Tr1 cells in human secondary lymphoid tissue have not been detected. We identified CD4+CD25-LAG3+ T cells in human tonsil. We compared mRNA expression of five CD4+ T cell subsets in tonsil using microarray analysis (CD4+CD25-LAG3+ T cells, CD4+CD25-CXCR5+PD-1+ follicular helper T cells (TFH), CD4+CD25+ T cells, CD4+CD25-LAG3-CD45RO+ cells and CD4+CD25-LAG3-CD45RO- cells). A human tonsil was obtained from a patient undergoing routine tonsillectomy, and five tonsillar CD4+ T cell subsets were sorted (each 1 x 10^5 cells). There is no biological replication.
Project description:Follicular helper CD4 T (Tfh) cells provide B cells with signals that are important for the generation of high-affinity Abs and immunological memory and, therefore, are critical for the protective immunity elicited by most human vaccines. In this study we sought to define the gene expression signature of bona fide GC Tfh and Tfh cells. The CD4+ T cell subsets CD45RO+CXCR5-, CD45RO+CXCR5int (Tfh cells), and CD45RO+CXCR5hi (GC Tfh cells) were isolated from 6 tonsil samples for gene expression analysis.
Project description:T follicular helper cells (TFH) are heterogenic population of CD4+ T cells, expressing CXCR5+ and PD-1+ on their surface. Their role is linked to supporting formation of germinal centres (GC) and these cells are thought to express high levels of PD-1 marker. Two models of immunisation were used to investigate the role of PD-1 low TFH. In Salmonella enterica infection high frequency of T follicular helper cells expressing low levels of PD-1 surface molecule are observed within first week of infection but GC do not appear until much a later stage (week 7-8). Sheep red blood cell immunisation (SRBC) gives rise to both TFH and GC B cells within first week of response and these TFH express low to high level of PD-1 molecule. Microarray analysis was applied in order to investigate the relationship between and characteristics of different TFH populations in order to elucidate their role in GC support, developmental stage and contributions to memory T cell pool. Overall design: Extensive FACS sorting was undertaken to separate populations of TFH from S. enterica or SRBC immunised mice (day 6 p.i.) form the effector cells. In SRBC model TFH cells were further separated into PD-1 high and PD-1 low TFH, based on the expression of PD-1 surface molecule. As a control population, effector cells were isolated from immunised mice and naive CD4+ T cells from naive mice.
Project description:Comparison of the transcriptome between control Tfh and Tcf1 long isoform-deficient Tfh cells Overall design: SMARTA CD4+ T cells (control or Tcf1 long isoform deficient) were adoptively transferred into B6.SJL recipient mice and then infected with LCMV-Arm. On day 8 after infection, the splenocytes were isolated, and CD45.2+CD4+CXCR5+PD-1 negative cells were sorted as Tfh cells and used in RNAseq analysis.
Project description:Autoimmune T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have different properties from B6/J nonautoimmune tfh cells. To compare differences in Tfh cells due to ongoing SLE disease, spontaneous splenic Tfh (CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+) were cell sorted from a pre-enriched population of negatively isolated total CD4 cells by autoMACS. New zealand derived triple congenic lupus strain was compared with B6/J. RNA was immediately extracted with no culturing or treatment of cells. Overall design: 5 pooled samples of Tfh cells from Triple Congenic Mice and 3 pooled samples from B6/J mice.
Project description:We found that a number of Tfh cells downmodulated BCL6 protein after their development, and we sought to compare the gene expression between BCL6-hi Tfh cells and BCL6-low Tfh cells. CD4+ T cells were sorted from immunized and non-immunized mice for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Bcl6yfp/+ OT-II cells were transferred to congenic recipient mice, and immunized with NP-OVA in CFA subcutaneously. Seven or ten days after immunization, cells were collected from draining lymph nodes, and sorted on FACSAria by the expression of CXCR5, PD-1 and BCL6-YFP. Naive CD4+ T cells were CD4+ CD44lo CD62Lhi cells from unimmunized mice.
Project description:Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were isolated from a buffy coat (Australian Blood Bank) using Ficoll methodology. CD4+ T cells were isolated using Dynal Beads kit. Pure CD4+ T cells were then stained using a cocktail of monoclonal antobodies (mAbs), including: anti-CD4PE, CD45RO ECD, CD62L APC-Cy7, CD25 APC, CD127 Pacific Blue. After incubation, cells were washed twice in PBS/FCS (0.2%), and sorted into five different cell subsets: CD4+CD25+CD127low CD62L+CD45RO- (naive regulatory T cells), CD4+CD25+CD127low CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (activated regulatory T cells), CD4+CD25+CD127hi CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (memory T cells), CD4+CD25-CD127low CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (effector T cells) and CD4+CD25-CD127hi CD62L+ CD45RO- (naive T cells).
Project description:CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH) are critical for the formation and function of B cell responses to infection or immunization, but also play an important role in autoimmunity. The factors that contribute to the differentiation of this helper cell subset are incompletely understood, although several cytokines including IL-6, IL-21 and IL-12 can promote TFH cell formation. Yet, none of these factors, nor their downstream cognate STATs, have emerged as non-redundant, essential drivers of TFH cells. This suggests a model in which multiple factors can contribute to the phenotypic characteristics of TFH cells. As type I interferons (IFNs) are often generated in immune responses, we set out to investigate if these factors are relevant to TFH cell differentiation. Type I IFNs promote Th1 responses, thus one possibility was these factors antagonized TFH-expressed genes. However, we show that type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) induced Bcl6 expression, the master regulator transcription factor for TFH cells, and CXCR5 and PD-1 (encoded by Pdcd1), key surface molecules expressed by TFH cells. In contrast, type I IFNs failed to induce IL-21, the signature cytokine for TFH cells. The induction of Bcl6 was regulated directly by STAT1, which bound to the Bcl6, Cxcr5 and Pdcd1 loci. These data suggest that type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) and STAT1 can contribute to some features of TFH cells but are inadequate in inducing complete programming of this subset. The role of STAT1 in type I interferon treated CD4+ T cells was investigated by Chip-seq of STAT1.
Project description:We found that a number of Tfh cells downmodulated BCL6 protein after their development, and we sought to compare the gene expression between BCL6-hi Tfh cells and BCL6-low Tfh cells. Overall design: CD4+ T cells were sorted from immunized and non-immunized mice for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Bcl6yfp/+ OT-II cells were transferred to congenic recipient mice, and immunized with NP-OVA in CFA subcutaneously. Seven or ten days after immunization, cells were collected from draining lymph nodes, and sorted on FACSAria by the expression of CXCR5, PD-1 and BCL6-YFP. Naive CD4+ T cells were CD4+ CD44lo CD62Lhi cells from unimmunized mice.
Project description:Leber2016 - Expanded model of Tfh-Tfr
differentiation - Helicobacter pylori infection
The parameters used in the model were
obtained from experiments conducted by the authors, previous
parameter optimisation carried out in the paper using particle
swarm and genetic algorithms.
This model is described in the article:
Bistability analyses of CD4+
T follicular helper and regulatory cells during Helicobacter
Leber A, Abedi V, Hontecillas R,
Viladomiu M, Hoops S, Ciupe S, Caughman J, Andrew T,
J. Theor. Biol. 2016 Jun; 398:
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a highly plastic subset
of CD4+ T cells specialized in providing B cell help and
promoting inflammatory and effector responses during infectious
and immune-mediate diseases. Helicobacter pylori is the
dominant member of the gastric microbiota and exerts both
beneficial and harmful effects on the host. Chronic
inflammation in the context of H. pylori has been linked to an
upregulation in T helper (Th)1 and Th17 CD4+ T cell phenotypes,
controlled in part by the cytokine, interleukin-21. This study
investigates the differentiation and regulation of Tfh cells,
major producers of IL-21, in the immune response to H. pylori
challenge. To better understand the conditions influencing the
promotion and inhibition of a chronically elevated Tfh
population, we used top-down and bottom-up approaches to
develop computational models of Tfh and T follicular regulatory
(Tfr) cell differentiation. Stability analysis was used to
characterize the presence of two bi-stable steady states in the
calibrated Tfh/Tfr models. Stochastic simulation was used to
illustrate the ability of the parameter set to dictate two
distinct behavioral patterns. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis
helped identify the importance of various parameters on the
establishment of Tfh and Tfr cell populations. The core network
model was expanded into a more comprehensive and predictive
model by including cytokine production and signaling pathways.
From the expanded network, the interaction between TGFB-Induced
Factor Homeobox 1 (Tgif1) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) was
displayed to exert control over the determination of the Tfh
response. Model simulations predict that Tgif1 and RXR
respectively induce and curtail Tfh responses. This
computational hypothesis was validated experimentally by
assaying Tgif1, RXR and Tfh in stomachs of mice infected with
The impulse of RXR as shown in the paper
(figure 7C) can be implemented by creating an event in the curated
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