MiRNA-seq expression profiling of Huntington's Disease and neurologically normal human post-mortem prefrontal cortex (BA9) brain samples
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that recognize sites of complementarity of target messenger RNAs, resulting in transcriptional regulation and translational repression of target genes. In Huntington’s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion, miRNA dyregulation has been reported, which may impact gene expression and modify the progression and severity of HD. METHODS: We performed next-generation miRNA sequence analysis in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) from 26 HD, 2 asymptomatic HD, and 36 control brains. Neuropathological information was available for all HD brains, including age at disease onset, CAG-repeat size, Vonsattel grade, and Hadzi-Vonsattel striatal and cortical scores, a continuous measure of the extent of neurodegeneration. Linear models were performed to examine the relationship of miRNA expression to these clinical features, and messenger RNA targets of associated miRNAs were tested for gene ontology term enrichment. RESULTS: We identified 75 miRNAs differentially expressed in HD brain (FDR q-value <0.05). Among the HD brains, nine miRNAs were significantly associated with Vonsattel grade of neuropathological involvement and three of these, miR-10b-5p, miR-10b-3p, and miR-302a-3p, significantly related to the Hadzi-Vonsattel striatal score (a continuous measure of striatal involvement) after adjustment for CAG length. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-10b-3p, and miR-106a-5p) were identified as having a significant relationship to CAG length-adjusted age of onset including miR-10b-5p, the mostly strongly over-expressed miRNA in HD cases. Although prefrontal cortex was the source of tissue profiled in these studies, the relationship of miR-10b-5p expression to striatal involvement in the disease was independent of cortical involvement. Correlation of miRNAs to the clinical features clustered by direction of effect and the gene targets of the observed miRNAs showed association to processes relating to nervous system development and transcriptional regulation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that miRNA expression in cortical BA9 provides insight into striatal involvement and support a role for these miRNAs, particularly miR-10b-5p, in HD pathogenicity. The miRNAs identified in our studies of postmortem brain tissue may be detectable in peripheral fluids and thus warrant consideration as accessible biomarkers for disease stage, rate of progression, and other important clinical characteristics of HD. 26 Huntington's disease, 2 asymptomatic HD gene positive and 49 neurologically normal control prefrontal cortex samples
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that recognize sites of complementarity of target messenger RNAs, resulting in transcriptional regulation and translational repression of target genes. In Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion, miRNA dyregulation has been reported, which may impact gene expression and modify the progression and severity of HD.We performed next-generation miRNA sequence analysis in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) from 26 HD, 2 HD gene positive, and 36 control brains. Neuropathological information was available for all HD brains, including age at disease onset, CAG-repeat size, Vonsattel grade, and Hadzi-Vonsattel striatal and cortical scores, a continuous measure of the extent of neurodegeneration. Linear models were performed to examine the relationship of miRNA expression to these clinical features, and messenger RNA targets of associated miRNAs were tested for gene ontology term enrichment.We identified 75 miRNAs differentially expressed in HD brain (FDR q-value <0.05). Among the HD brains, nine miRNAs were significantly associated with Vonsattel grade of neuropathological involvement and three of these, miR-10b-5p, miR-10b-3p, and miR-302a-3p, significantly related to the Hadzi-Vonsattel striatal score (a continuous measure of striatal involvement) after adjustment for CAG length. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-10b-3p, and miR-106a-5p) were identified as having a significant relationship to CAG length-adjusted age of onset including miR-10b-5p, the mostly strongly over-expressed miRNA in HD cases. Although prefrontal cortex was the source of tissue profiled in these studies, the relationship of miR-10b-5p expression to striatal involvement in the disease was independent of cortical involvement. Correlation of miRNAs to the clinical features clustered by direction of effect and the gene targets of the observed miRNAs showed association to processes relating to nervous system development and transcriptional regulation.These results demonstrate that miRNA expression in cortical BA9 provides insight into striatal involvement and support a role for these miRNAs, particularly miR-10b-5p, in HD pathogenicity. The miRNAs identified in our studies of postmortem brain tissue may be detectable in peripheral fluids and thus warrant consideration as accessible biomarkers for disease stage, rate of progression, and other important clinical characteristics of HD.
Project description:Transcriptional dysregulation has long been recognized as central to the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a major system of post-transcriptional regulation, by either preventing translational initiation or by targeting transcripts for storage or for degradation. Using next-generation miRNA sequencing in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) of twelve HD and nine controls, we identified five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-615-3p and miR-1247-5p) up-regulated in HD at genome-wide significance (FDR q-value<0.05). Three of these, miR-196a-5p, miR-196b-5p and miR-615-3p, were expressed at near zero levels in control brains. Expression was verified for all five miRNAs using reverse transcription quantitative PCR and all but miR-1247-5p were replicated in an independent sample (8HD/8C). Ectopic miR-10b-5p expression in PC12 HTT-Q73 cells increased survival by MTT assay and cell viability staining suggesting increased expression may be a protective response. All of the miRNAs but miR-1247-5p are located in intergenic regions of Hox clusters. Total mRNA sequencing in the same samples identified fifteen of 55 genes within the Hox cluster gene regions as differentially expressed in HD, and the Hox genes immediately adjacent to the four Hox cluster miRNAs as up-regulated. Pathway analysis of mRNA targets of these miRNAs implicated functions for neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, cell death and survival. In regression models among the HD brains, huntingtin CAG repeat size, onset age and age at death were independently found to be inversely related to miR-10b-5p levels. CAG repeat size and onset age were independently inversely related to miR-196a-5p, onset age was inversely related to miR-196b-5p and age at death was inversely related to miR-615-3p expression. These results suggest these Hox-related miRNAs may be involved in neuroprotective response in HD. Recently, miRNAs have shown promise as biomarkers for human diseases and given their relationship to disease expression, these miRNAs are biomarker candidates in HD.
Project description:To evaluate the relationship of striatal involvement in Huntington disease (HD) to involvement in other brain regions, CAG repeat size, onset age, and other factors.We examined patterns of neuropathologic involvement in 664 HD brains submitted to the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center. Brains with concomitant Alzheimer or Parkinson changes (n = 82), more than 20% missing data (n = 46), incomplete sample submission (n = 12), or CAG repeat less than 36 (n = 1) were excluded, leaving 523 cases. Standardized ratings from 0 (absent) to 4 (severe) of gross and microscopic involvement were performed for 50 regions. Cluster analysis reduced the data to 2 main measures of involvement: striatal and cortical.The clusters were correlated with each other (r = 0.42) and with disease duration (striatal: r = 0.35; cortical: r = 0.31). The striatal cluster was correlated with HD repeat size (r = 0.50). The cortical cluster showed a stronger correlation with decreased brain weight (r = -0.52) than the striatal cluster (r = -0.33). The striatal cluster was correlated with younger death age (r = -0.31) and onset age (r = -0.46) while the cortical cluster was not (r = 0.09, r = -0.04, respectively).The 2 brain clusters had different relationships to the HD CAG repeat size, onset age, and brain weight, suggesting that neuropathologic involvement does not proceed in a strictly coupled fashion. The pattern and extent of involvement varies substantially from one brain to the next. These results suggest that regional involvement in HD brain is modified by factors which, if identified, may lend insight into novel routes to therapeutics.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels) were associated with regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in tumor cells. Our previous study proved that the Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in glioma. However, the precise mechanisms were not clear yet. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as key mediators in the progression of tumor, so the aim of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs in the apoptosis-promoting effect of 4-AP in glioma cells. Using a microRNA array, we found that 4-AP altered the miRNA expression in glioma cells, and the down-regulation of miR-10b-5p induced by 4-AP was verified by real-time PCR. Transfection of miR-10b-5p mimic significantly inhibited 4-AP-induced caspases activation and apoptosis. Moreover, we verified that apoptosis-related molecule Apaf-1 was the direct target of miR-10b-5p. Furthermore, miR-10b-5p mimic significantly inhibited 4-AP-induced up-regulation of Apaf-1 and its downstream apoptosis-related proteins, such as cleaved caspase-3. In conclusion, Kv channel blocker 4-AP may exert its anti-tumor effect by down-regulating the expression of miR-10b-5p and then raised expression of Apaf-1 and its downstream apoptosis-related proteins. Current data provide evidence that miRNAs play important roles in Kv channels-mediated cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Project description:Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene and various dysfunctions of biological processes in HD have been proposed. Although monogenic, the exact pathogenesis of HD currently remains unclear. To identify the synergistic microRNA (miRNA) pattern in HD, the miRNA expression profile dataset GSE64977 and the gene expression profile dataset GSE64810 were downloaded. Programming software R was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Target genes of DEMs were predicted using the TargetScan database. Gene ontology (GO) function of DEGs was generated using the FunRich and a miRNA‑mRNA interaction network was constructed using Cytoscape software. In total, 1,612 DEGs and 10 DEMs were identified. GO terms mainly included inflammatory response and immune response in DEGs. A total of 745 target genes were predicted from the DEMs and 33 overlaps were identified between these target genes and DEGs. The miRNA network demonstrated that hsa‑miR‑4488, hsa‑miR‑196a‑5p, and hsa‑miR‑549a had a high degree and may be involved with the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets of HD.
Project description:Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in several pathologies including type 1 diabetes. In the present study, we aimed to identify circulating miRNAs affected by disease duration in children with recent onset type 1 diabetes. Forty children and adolescents from the Danish Remission Phase Cohort were followed with blood samples drawn at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after diagnosis. Pancreatic autoantibodies were measured at each visit. Cytokines were measured only the first year. miRNA expression profiling was performed by RT-qPCR. The effect of disease duration was analyzed by mixed models for repeated measurements adjusted for sex and age. Eight miRNAs (hsa-miR-10b-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p, and hsa-miR-497-5p) were found to significantly change in expression (adjusted p-value < 0.05) with disease progression. Three pancreatic autoantibodies, ICA, IA-2A, and GAD65A, and four cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, IL-21, and IL-22, were associated with the miRNAs at different time points. Pathway analysis revealed associations with various immune-mediated signaling pathways. Eight miRNAs that were involved in immunological pathways changed expression levels during the first five years after diagnosis and were associated with variations in cytokine and pancreatic antibodies, suggesting a possible effect on the immunological processes in the early phase of the disease.
Project description:Background:Nearly 10 years ago, the World Health Organization reported the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide as a challenge for public health due to the associated adverse consequences. Epidemiological studies established a firm relationship between an elevated body mass index and chronic conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, heart disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some types of cancer. Omic studies demonstrated that microRNA (miRNA) profile changes in tissues correlate with a number of diseases, including obesity. Recent studies showed a remarkable stability of miRNAs also in blood, emphasizing their potential as theranostic agents for a variety of disorders and conditions. A number of miRNAs enriched in homeostasis of obesity and metabolic disorders have been characterized in previous researches. Aim:This work was finalized to investigate the differential circulating miRNAs signature in early childhood obesity. Our cross-sectional study analyzed the signature of circulating miRNAs in plasma samples of normal weight (n = 159) and overweight/obese (n = 149) children and adolescents participating to the I.Family study, an EC-funded study finalized to investigate the etiology of overweight, obesity and related disorders and the determinants of food choice, lifestyle, and related health outcomes in children and adolescents of eight European countries (www.ifamilystudy.eu). Results:Differences in miRNA signature with respect to anthropometric and biochemical variables were analyzed. A high degree of variability in levels of circulating miRNAs was identified among children from different countries, in line with recent reports supporting the hypothesis that these molecules are likewise affected by environmental and lifestyle factors. A panel of miRNAs differentially expressed in overweight/low-grade obesity children was characterized (miR-551a and miR-501-5p resulted upregulated; miR-10b-5p, miR-191-3p, miR-215-5p, and miR-874-3p resulted downregulated). ROC curves were also constructed for experimentally confirmed miRNAs. Single miRNAs generally exhibited low AUC values with the highest values for miR-874-3p and miR-501-5p which in combination provided an interesting value (AUC = 0.782). Pearson's analysis confirmed that miR-10b-5p, miR-215-5p, miR-501-5p, miR-551a, and miR-874-3p significantly correlated with BMI z-score. Molecular interactions of obesity-associated miRNAs were also predicted by bioinformatics tools. Conclusions:Our work showed that several circulating miRNAs are differentially represented in overweight/low-grade obesity children and adolescents. Although causal pathways cannot be firmly inferred, it is conceivable that circulating miRNAs may be new biomarkers of early childhood obesity. Trial registration:ISRCTN, ISRCTN62310987. Registered 23/02/2018 - Retrospectively registered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested as novel biomarkers for various diseases, especially gastric cancer (GC). But circulating biomarkers for Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) which is defined as precancrerous lesions of GC remain largely elusive. To investigate serum exosomal miRNAs that are differently expressed in CAG patients and Chronic nonatrophic gastritis (CNAG) may be helpful for its diagnosis and therapy. METHODS:Patients were recruited according to the diagnosis and exclusioncriteria. RNA was extracted from serum exosomes of 30 CAG and 30 CNAG patients. The miRNA expression profiles were analyzed by next generation sequencing and were validated by qRT-PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has been used to evaluate the diagnostic value. RESULTS:30 CAG patients and 30 CNAG patients were recruited in our study. sRNA-seq results showed that hsa-miR-3591-3p, -?122-3p, and?-?122-5p of the top 10 miRNAs (hsa-miR-148a-3p, -?122-3p, -?486-3p, -451a, -?122-5p, -?3591-3p, -?486-5p, -151a-3p, -92a-3p, -320a) were significantly upregulated in exosomes from CAG patients versus those from CNAG patients, but hsa-miR-451a, -151a-3p, and -92a-3p were significantly downregulated. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that hsa-miR-122-5p and hsa-miR-122-3p were significantly upregulated in CAG samples, but hsa-miR-122-3p hadnot a steable expression. ROC curves showed that the AUC for hsa-miR-122-5p was 0.67 (95% CI 0.52-0.82, SE 62%, SP 86%). A sum of the four miRNAs (panel 1, hsa-miR-122-5p, -451a, -151a-3p, and -92a-3p) did not significantly improve the diagnostic potential (AUC 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.78). Correlation analysis showed that the expression of hsa-miR-122-5p differed significantly between patients based on atrophic (Moderate atrophic vs. Absent, P value was 0.036.) and IM (compare moderate-severe, absent and mild P values were 0.001 and 0.014, respectively). However, there were no differences between groups based on age, gender, dysplasia, or chronic or active inflammation. CONCLUSION:These results suggested that hsa-miR-122-5p in serum exosomes might serve as a potential biomarker for CAG diagnosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registy ( ChiCTR-IOR-16008027 , Date of Registration:2016-03-01).
Project description:Dietary microRNAs (miRNAs), notably those found in milk, are currently being investigated for their potential to elicit biological effects via canonical binding to human messenger RNA targets once ingested. Besides milk, beef and other bovine tissue-derived ingredients could also be a relevant source of potentially bioactive dietary miRNAs. In this study, we characterized the human homologous miRNA profiles in food-grade, bovine-sourced sirloin, heart and adrenal tissue (raw, cooked, and pasteurized, freeze-dried extracts) via deep-sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). A total of 198 human homologous miRNAs were detected at 10 or more normalized reads in all replicates (n = 3) of at least one preparation method. Tissue origin rather than preparation method was the major differentiating factor of miRNA profiles, and adrenal-based miRNA profiles were the most distinct. The ten most prevalent miRNAs in each tissue represented 71-93% of the total normalized counts for all annotated miRNAs. In cooked sirloin, the most abundant miRNAs were miR-10b-5p, (48.8% of total annotated miRNA reads) along with the muscle-specific miR-1 (24.1%) and miR-206 (4.8%). In dried heart extracts, miR-1 (17.0%), miR-100-5p (16.1%) and miR-99a-5p (11.0%) gave the highest normalized read counts. In dried adrenal extracts, miR-10b-5p (71.2%) was the most prominent followed by miR-143-3p (7.1%) and 146b-5p (3.7%). Sequencing results for five detected and two undetected miRNAs were successfully validated by RT-qPCR. We conclude that edible, bovine tissues contain unique profiles of human homologous dietary miRNAs that survive heat-based preparation methods.
Project description:Exosomal miRNAs are proposed as excellent candidate biomarkers for clinical applications. However, little is known about their potential roles as prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer. In this study, we explored the prognostic value of plasma exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array panel, we analyzed 84 plasma exosomal miRNAs in 10 lung adenocarcinoma patients and 10 matched healthy controls. The qPCR array showed 30 aberrantly expressed exosomal miRNAs. Nine candidate miRNAs were selected based on differential expression and previous reports for further evaluating their prognostic roles in 196 NSCLC patients. Elevated levels of exosomal miR-23b-3p, miR-10b-5p and miR-21-5p were independently associated with poor overall survival (with hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.42 (1.45 - 4.04), P = 0.001; 2.22 (1.18 - 4.16), P = 0.013; 2.12 (1.28 - 3.49), P = 0.003, respectively). When compared to the clinical prognostic variables only model, adding the three exosomal miRNA signatures significantly improved survival predictive accuracy with an increase of time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from 0.88 to 0.91 (P=0.015). Our results indicated that plasma exosomal miR-23b-3p, miR-10b-5p and miR-21-5p are promising non-invasive prognostic biomarkers of NSCLC.