ABSTRACT: Analysis of gene expression between WT and iNOS defecient M1 macrophage RNA microarray was performed using RNA isolated from M1 polarized macrophages from WT and iNOS deficient mice stimulated with LPS/IFNγ for 6 hours. Total RNA was extracted using a RNeasy plus kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA), and the array was performed on an Illumina MouseRef-8 v2.0 expression beadchip (Illumina, USA) by the Genomics Core Facility at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Project description:The global change of the miR expression profile during atherosclerosis is due to the infiltration of different types of leukocytes into the arterial vessel wall in addition to disease-specific regulation in vascular cells. Monocyte-derived macrophage accumulation in the subintimal region is critical in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. It is currently unknown which miRs are involved in the atherogenic macrophage response. The comparison of the miR expression profile in LPS/Interferon-gamma activated mouse macrophages with the miR expression in the unstimulated mouse macrophages was performed to detect M1-type macrophage-enriched miRs. This screening combined with our miR profiling in atherosclerotic vessels may help to identify M1-type macrophage-enriched miRs in atherosclerotic vessels that may play a role in the macrophage function during atherogenesis. Bone marrow cells were harvested from femura of 6- to 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice, re-suspended in DMEM-F12/10% FCS/10% L929-conditioned medium, and cultured for 7 days to differentiate into primary macrophages. F4/80 and CD11b expression was determined by flow cytometry to confirm the macrophage phenotype. Macrophages were stimulated with LPS (100ng/ml, 14 hours) and INF-g (10ng/ml, 6 hours), and the M1 polarization was verified by quantification of mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1), arginase II (ArgII), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase I (ArgI) by qRT-PCR. Total RNA (M1-type and unstimulated (MФ) macrophages) was isolated using the mirVana microRNA Isolation Kit.
Project description:The global change of the miR expression profile during atherosclerosis is due to the infiltration of different types of leukocytes into the arterail vessel wall in addition to disease-specific regulation in vascular cells. Monocyte-derived macrophage accumulation in the subintimal region is critical in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. It is currently unknown which miRs are involved in the atherogenic macrophage response. The comparison of the miR expression profile in LPS/Interferon-gamma activated mouse macrophages with the miR expression in the normal aortic vessel wall was performed to detect macrophage-enriched miRs. This screening may help to identify macrophage-enriched miRs in atherosclerotic vessels that may play a role in the macrophage function during atherogenesis. Bone marrow cells were harvested from femura of 6-8 week old female C57BL/6 mice, re-suspended in DMEM-F12/10% FCS/10% L929-conditioned medium, and cultured for 7 days to differentiate into primary macrophages. F4/80 and CD11b expression was determined by flow cytometry to confirm the macrophage phenotype. Macrophages were stimulated with LPS (100ng/ml, 14 hours) and INF-g (10ng/ml, 6 hours) and the M1 polarization was verified by quantification of mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1), arginase II (ArgII), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase I (ArgI) by qRT-PCR. Total RNA (M1-type macrophages and aorta tissue) was isolated using mirVana microRNA Isolation Kit.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study were to identify quantitative gene expression differences between macrophages derived from wild type and PI3Kgamma null macrophages Methods: mRNA profiles of MCSF, IL4 and IFNg/LPS stimulated macrophage wild-type (WT) and PI3Kinase gamma knockout (p110g-/-) mice were generated by single read deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq2000. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were aligned to mouse transcriptome using the bowtie2 aligner. Gene-level summaries were normalized and analyzed for differential expression using DESeq. qRT–PCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays. Conclusions: Our study represents the first detailed analysis of the role of p110g in the control of the macrophage immune response, with biological replicates, generated by RNA-seq technology. mRNA profiles of wild type (WT) and p110g-/- macrophages were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq2000.
Project description:Classically activated (M1) macrophages protect from infection but can cause inflammatory disease and tissue damage while alternatively activated (M2) macrophages reduce inflammation and promote tissue repair. Modulation of macrophage phenotype may be therapeutically beneficial and requires further understanding of the molecular programs that control macrophage differentiation. A potential mechanism by which macrophages differentiate may be through microRNA (miRNA), which bind to messenger RNA and post-transcriptionally modify gene expression, cell phenotype and function. The inflammation-associated miRNA, miR-155, was rapidly up-regulated over 100-fold in M1, but not M2, macrophages. Inflammatory M1 genes and proteins iNOS, IL-1b and TNF-a were reduced up to 72% in miR-155 knockout mouse macrophages, but miR-155 deficiency did not affect expression of genes associated with M2 macrophages (e.g., Arginase-1). Additionally, a miR-155 oligonucleotide inhibitor efficiently suppressed iNOS and TNF-a gene expression in wild-type M1 macrophages. Comparative transcriptional profiling of unactivated (M0) and M1 macrophages derived from wild-type and miR-155 knockout (KO) mice revealed an M1 signature of approximately 1300 genes, half of which were dependent on miR-155. Real-Time PCR of independent datasets validated miR-155's contribution to induction of iNOS, IL-1b, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-12, as well as suppression of miR-155 targets Inpp5d, Tspan14, Ptprj and Mafb. Overall, these data indicate that miR-155 plays an essential role in driving the differentiation and effector potential of inflammatory M1 macrophages. Total RNA was prepared from bone marrow-derived macrophages of miR-155 knockout mice (n=2 independent mice) treated in M0, M1 or M2 conditions (n=2 replicates per condition originating from different mice)
Project description:IL-10 regulates anti-inflammatory signaling via the activation of STAT3, which in turn controls the induction of a gene expression program whose products execute inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediator production. Here we show that IL-10 induces the expression of an ETS family transcriptional repressor, ETV3 and a helicase family co-repressor, SBNO2 (Strawberry notch homolog 2) in mouse and human macrophages. IL-10-mediated induction of ETV3 and SBNO2 expression was dependent upon both STAT3, and co-stimulus through the TLR pathway. We also observed that ETV3 expression was strongly induced by the STAT3 pathway induced by IL-10 but not STAT3 signaling activated by IL-6, which cannot activate the anti-inflammatory signaling pathway. ETV3 and SBNO2 specifically repressed NF-kB-mediated transcription and can physically interact. Collectively our data suggest that ETV3 and SBNO2 are components of the pathways that contribute to the downstream anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10. We compared expression profiles of macrophages isolated from IL-10 -/- mice. Macrophages were treated with either LPS or LPS plus IL-10. Treatment times were 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Experiment Overall Design: Mouse IL-10 -/- macrophages were isolated and purified and set up in culture medium containing LPS or LPS plus IL-10. A total of 18 samples were analyzed. This set contains three replicates of each treatment condition where treatment (LPS versus LPS plus IL-10) and time (10min, 20min and 30min) were varied.
Project description:Identification of the difference in responsiveness to interleukin-1alpha between M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes. To identify the difference in responsiveness to interleukin-1alpha between M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes, we performed micorarray analysis of gene expression in two phenotypes with or without the treatment of interleukin-1alpha.
Project description:p53 is critically important in preventing oncogenesis but its role in non-cancer biology remains unclear. Macrophages exist as two subtypes (M1 and M2). Nutlin-3a (p53 activator) inhibits M2 gene expression and phenotype. p53 acts by suppressing transcription of c-Myc and thence regulates expression of a subset of M2 markers. This work has implications for our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate plasticity of macrophages in health and disease. We used microarrays to study the global programme of gene expression in nutlin-3a and 10058F4 (C-myc inhibitor) treated polarised mouse macrophages 5 groups of cultured mouse macrophages: (i) M0 (untreated), (ii) M1, (iii) M2, (iv) M2+nutlin-3a, (v) M2+MYC inhibitor (10058F4). 3 biological replicates per treatment group.
Project description:The relative contribution of polarized macrophages to the maintenance of tolerance is unknown. We examined their roles by in vivo adoptive transfer immunotherapy of M0, M1 and M2a macrophages as pre-treatment of colitis. In other experiments, M2a macrophages were used as pre-treatment or treatment of established colitis followed by immunotherapy with nTreg cells. Survival, weight gain, tissue infiltration, iTreg and Th17 cell development, T cell activation, and the frequency of proinflammatory cytokines were used as outcome measurements. Pre-treatment with M2a but not M1 macrophages increased the development of iTreg and Th17 cells. M2a macrophages used as pre-treatment or in treatment of established colitis allowed for successful therapy with nTreg cells. M1 and M2a macrophages have distinct gene expression profiles. M0, M1 and M2a macrophages were cell sorted and were used to generate total RNA for each array set, which was labeled and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 GeneChips in accordance to the manufacturer’s protocol. Three sets of arrays were performed, and the results were averaged. The subset of probe sets whose expression increased or decreased by two-fold or more relative to M0 cells as a common standard was identified and used for further analysis.
Project description:Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 5 has a major role in defining inflammatory macrophage polarization, but the molecular mechanisms of its function as a transcriptional regulator of nflammatory genes are not fully understood. Here, we characterise the sites of IRF5 recruitment in inflammatory macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Samples in this experiment have also been used in Illumina BeadChip expression profling assay (see ArrayExpress experiment E-MTAB-2032, https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-MTAB-2032).