Expression data from B220+ Hspa9+/+ and Hspa9+/- CFU-PreB colonies isolated on Day 7 of culture
ABSTRACT: CFU-PreB colonies are reduced in number and size in Hspa9+/- mice compared to wildtype littermates. We compared the expression profiles of these colonies to gain insight into the mechanism driving this difference. HSPA9 is located on chromosome 5q31.2 in humans, a region that is commonly deleted in patients with myeloid malignancies [del(5q)], including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). HSPA9 expression is reduced by 50% in patients with del(5q)-associated MDS, consistent with haploinsufficient levels. Zebrafish mutants and knockdown studies in human and mouse cells have implicated a role for HSPA9 in hematopoiesis. To comprehensively evaluate the effects of Hspa9 haploinsufficiency on hematopoiesis, we generated an Hspa9 knockout mouse model. While homozygous knockout of Hspa9 is embryonic lethal, mice with heterozygous deletion of Hspa9 (Hspa9+/-) are viable and have a 50% reduction in Hspa9 expression. Hspa9+/- mice have normal basal hematopoiesis and do not develop MDS. However, Hspa9+/- mice have a cell-intrinsic reduction in bone marrow CFU-PreB colony formation without alterations in the number of B-cell progenitors in vivo, consistent with a functional defect in Hspa9+/- B-cell progenitors. We further reduced Hspa9 expression (<50%) using RNAi and observe reduced B-cell progenitors in vivo, indicating that appropriate levels (≥50%) of Hspa9 are required for normal B-lymphopoiesis in vivo. Knockdown of Hspa9 in an IL-7 dependent mouse B-cell line reduced Stat5 phosphorylation following IL-7 receptor stimulation, supporting a role for Hspa9 in Stat5 signaling in B-cells. Collectively, these data implicate a role for Hspa9 in B-lymphopoiesis and Stat5 activation downstream of IL-7 signaling. Bone marrow cells from 5 Hspa9+/+ and 5 Hspa9+/- mice were independently cultured in CFU-PreB methylcellulose medium for 7 days. PreB colonies were isolated and B220+ cells were flow sorted for RNA isolation.
Project description:HSPA9 is located on chromosome 5q31.2 in humans, a region that is commonly deleted in patients with myeloid malignancies [del(5q)], including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). HSPA9 expression is reduced by 50% in patients with del(5q)-associated MDS, consistent with haploinsufficient levels. Zebrafish mutants and knockdown studies in human and mouse cells have implicated a role for HSPA9 in hematopoiesis. To comprehensively evaluate the effects of Hspa9 haploinsufficiency on hematopoiesis, we generated an Hspa9 knockout mouse model. Although homozygous knockout of Hspa9 is embryonically lethal, mice with heterozygous deletion of Hspa9 (Hspa9(+/-)) are viable and have a 50% reduction in Hspa9 expression. Hspa9(+/-) mice have normal basal hematopoiesis and do not develop MDS. However, Hspa9(+/-) mice have a cell-intrinsic reduction in bone marrow colony-forming unit-PreB colony formation without alterations in the number of B-cell progenitors in vivo, consistent with a functional defect in Hspa9(+/-) B-cell progenitors. We further reduced Hspa9 expression (<50%) using RNA interference and observed reduced B-cell progenitors in vivo, indicating that appropriate levels (?50%) of Hspa9 are required for normal B lymphopoiesis in vivo. Knockdown of Hspa9 in an interleukin 7 (IL-7)-dependent mouse B-cell line reduced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) phosphorylation following IL-7 receptor stimulation, supporting a role for Hspa9 in Stat5 signaling in B cells. Collectively, these data imply a role for Hspa9 in B lymphopoiesis and Stat5 activation downstream of IL-7 signaling.
Project description:MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an important negative regulator of tumor suppressor p53. In turn the Mdm2 gene is a transcriptional target of p53, forming a negative feedback loop that is important in cell cycle control. It has recently become apparent that the ubiquitination of p53 by MDM2 can be inhibited when certain ribosomal proteins, including RPL5 and RPL11, bind to MDM2. This inhibition, and the resulting increase in p53 levels has been proposed to be responsible for the red cell aplasia seen in Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). DBA and 5q- MDS are associated with inherited (DBA) or acquired (5q- MDS) haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins. A mutation in Mdm2 causing a C305F amino acid substitution blocks the binding of ribosomal proteins. Mice harboring this mutation (Mdm2C305F), retain a normal p53 response to DNA damage, but lack the p53 response to perturbations in ribosome biogenesis. While studying the interaction between RP haploinsufficiency and the Mdm2C305F mutation we noticed that Mdm2C305F homozygous mice had altered hematopoiesis. These mice developed a mild macrocytic anemia with reticulocytosis. In the bone marrow (BM), these mice showed a significant decrease in Ter119hi cells compared to wild type (WT) littermates, while no decrease in the number of mature erythroid cells (Ter119hiCD71low) was found in the spleen, which showed compensated bone marrow hematopoiesis. In methylcellulose cultures, BFU-E colonies from the mutant mice were slightly reduced in number and there was a significant reduction in CFU-E colony numbers in mutant mice compared with WT controls (p < 0.01). This erythropoietic defect was abrogated by concomitant p53 deficiency (Trp53ko/ko). Further investigation revealed that in Mdm2C305F animals, there was a decrease in Lin-Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK) cells, accompanied by significant decreases in multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells (p < 0.01). Competitive BM repopulation experiments showed that donor BM harboring the Mdm2C305F mutation possessed decreased repopulation capacity compared to WT BM, suggesting a functional stem cell deficit. These results suggest that there is a fine tuned balance in the interaction of ribosomal proteins with the MDM2/p53 axis which is important in normal hematopoiesis.
Project description:TRAF-interacting protein with forkhead-associated domain B (TIFAB) is a haploinsufficient gene in del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Deletion of Tifab results in progressive bone marrow (BM) and blood defects, including skewed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) proportions and altered myeloid differentiation. A subset of mice transplanted with Tifab knockout (KO) HSPCs develop a BM failure with neutrophil dysplasia and cytopenia. In competitive transplants, Tifab KO HSPCs are out-competed by wild-type (WT) cells, suggesting a cell-intrinsic defect. Gene expression analysis of Tifab KO HSPCs identified dysregulation of immune-related signatures, and hypersensitivity to TLR4 stimulation. TIFAB forms a complex with TRAF6, a mediator of immune signaling, and reduces TRAF6 protein stability by a lysosome-dependent mechanism. In contrast, TIFAB loss increases TRAF6 protein and the dynamic range of TLR4 signaling, contributing to ineffective hematopoiesis. Moreover, combined deletion of TIFAB and miR-146a, two genes associated with del(5q) MDS/AML, results in a cooperative increase in TRAF6 expression and hematopoietic dysfunction. Re-expression of TIFAB in del(5q) MDS/AML cells results in attenuated TLR4 signaling and reduced viability. These findings underscore the importance of efficient regulation of innate immune/TRAF6 signaling within HSPCs by TIFAB, and its cooperation with miR-146a as it relates to the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies, such as del(5q) MDS/AML.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic disorders. MDS is frequently associated with deletions on chromosome 5q as well as aberrant DNA methylation patterns including hypermethylation of key tumor suppressors. We have previously shown that hypermethylation and silencing of the non-coding RNA VTRNA2-1 are correlated with poor outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia patients. In this study, we find that VTRNA1-2 and VTRNA1-3, both located on chromosome 5q, can be regulated and silenced by promoter DNA methylation, and that the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine causes reactivation these genes. In normal hematopoiesis, we find that vault RNAs (vtRNAs) show differential methylation between various hematopoietic cell populations, indicating that allele-specific methylation events may occur during hematopoiesis. In addition, we show that VTRNA1-3 promoter hypermethylation is frequent in lower risk MDS patients and is associated with a decreased overall survival.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common adult myeloid blood cancers in the US. Patients have increased apoptosis in their bone marrow cells leading to low peripheral blood counts. The full complement of gene mutations that contribute to increased apoptosis in MDS remains unknown. Up to 25% of MDS patients harbor and acquired interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q)], creating haploinsufficiency for a large set of genes including HSPA9. Knockdown of HSPA9 in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells significantly inhibits growth and increases apoptosis. We show here that HSPA9 knockdown is associated with increased TP53 expression and activity, resulting in increased expression of target genes BAX and p21. HSPA9 protein interacts with TP53 in CD34+ cells and knockdown of HSPA9 increases nuclear TP53 levels, providing a possible mechanism for regulation of TP53 by HSPA9 haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells. Concurrent knockdown of TP53 and HSPA9 rescued the increased apoptosis observed in CD34+ cells following knockdown of HSPA9. Reduction of HSPA9 below 50% results in severe inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that del(5q) cells may be preferentially sensitive to further reductions of HSPA9 below 50%, thus providing a genetic vulnerability to del(5q) cells. Treatment of bone marrow cells with MKT-077, an HSPA9 inhibitor, induced apoptosis in a higher percentage of cells from MDS patients with del(5q) compared to non-del(5q) MDS patients and normal donor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that reduced levels of HSPA9 may contribute to TP53 activation and increased apoptosis observed in del(5q)-associated MDS.
Project description:We recently reported that the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), defined as CD33+HLA-DR-Lin-, has a direct role in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In particular, CD33 is strongly expressed in MDSC isolated from patients with MDS where it has an important role in MDSC-mediated hematopoietic suppressive function through its activation by S100A9. Therefore, we tested whether blocking this interaction with a fully human, Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody against CD33 (BI 836858) suppresses CD33-mediated signal transduction and improves the bone marrow microenvironment in MDS. We observed that BI 836858 can reduce MDSC by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which correlated with increases in granule mobilization and cell death. BI 836858 can also block CD33 downstream signaling preventing immune-suppressive cytokine secretion, which correlates with a significant increase in the formation of CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies. Activation of the CD33 pathway can cause reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced genomic instability but BI 836858 reduced both ROS and the levels of double strand breaks and adducts (measured by comet assay and ?H2AX). This work provides the ground for the development of a novel group of therapies for MDS aimed at MDSC and their disease-promoting properties with the goal of improving hematopoiesis in patients.
Project description:Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with isolated del(5q) are severe macrocytic anemias; although both are associated with impaired ribosome assembly, why the anemia occurs is not known. We cultured marrow cells from DBA (n = 3) and del(5q) MDS (n = 6) patients and determined how heme (a toxic chemical) and globin (a protein) are coordinated. We show that globin translation initiates slowly, whereas heme synthesis proceeds normally. This results in insufficient globin protein, excess heme and excess reactive oxygen species in early erythroid precursors, and CFU-E (colony-forming unit-erythroid)/proerythroblast cell death. The cells that can more rapidly and effectively export heme or can slow heme synthesis preferentially survive and appropriately mature. Consistent with these observations, treatment with 10 ?M succinylacetone, a specific inhibitor of heme synthesis, improved the erythroid cell output of DBA and del(5q) MDS marrow cultures by 68 to 95% (P = 0.03 to 0.05), whereas the erythroid cell output of concurrent control marrow cultures decreased by 4 to 13%. Our studies demonstrate that erythropoiesis fails when heme exceeds globin. Our data further suggest that therapies that decrease heme synthesis (or facilitate heme export) could improve the red blood cell production of persons with DBA, del(5q) MDS, and perhaps other macrocytic anemias.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and peripheral blood cytopenias. Lenalidomide has dramatic therapeutic effects in patients with low-risk MDS and a chromosome 5q31 deletion, resulting in complete cytogenetic remission in >60% of patients. The molecular basis of this remarkable drug response is unknown. To gain insight into the molecular targets of lenalidomide we investigated its in vitro effects on growth, maturation, and global gene expression in isolated erythroblast cultures from MDS patients with del(5)(q31). Lenalidomide inhibited growth of differentiating del(5q) erythroblasts but did not affect cytogenetically normal cells. Moreover, lenalidomide significantly influenced the pattern of gene expression in del(5q) intermediate erythroblasts, with the VSIG4, PPIC, TPBG, activin A, and SPARC genes up-regulated by >2-fold in all samples and many genes involved in erythropoiesis, including HBA2, GYPA, and KLF1, down-regulated in most samples. Activin A, one of the most significant differentially expressed genes between lenalidomide-treated cells from MDS patients and healthy controls, has pleiotropic functions, including apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. Up-regulation and increased protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene SPARC is of particular interest because it is antiproliferative, antiadhesive, and antiangiogenic and is located at 5q31-q32, within the commonly deleted region in MDS 5q- syndrome. We conclude that lenalidomide inhibits growth of del(5q) erythroid progenitors and that the up-regulation of SPARC and activin A may underlie the potent effects of lenalidomide in MDS with del(5)(q31). SPARC may play a role in the pathogenesis of the 5q- syndrome.
Project description:Corticosteroids and lenalidomide decrease red blood cell transfusion dependence in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), respectively. We explored the effects of dexamethasone and lenalidomide, individually and in combination, on the differentiation of primary human bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro. Both agents promote erythropoiesis, increasing the absolute number of erythroid cells produced from normal CD34(+) cells and from CD34(+) cells with the types of ribosome dysfunction found in DBA and del(5q) MDS. However, the drugs had distinct effects on the production of erythroid progenitor colonies; dexamethasone selectively increased the number of burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E), whereas lenalidomide specifically increased colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E). Use of the drugs in combination demonstrated that their effects are not redundant. In addition, dexamethasone and lenalidomide induced distinct gene-expression profiles. In coculture experiments, we examined the role of the microenvironment in response to both drugs and found that the presence of macrophages, the central cells in erythroblastic islands, accentuated the effects of both agents. Our findings indicate that dexamethasone and lenalidomide promote different stages of erythropoiesis and support the potential clinical utility of combination therapy for patients with bone marrow failure.