Identification of genes induced in P. aeruginosa biofilms by microarray analysis
ABSTRACT: Transcriptome analysis was applied to characterize the physiological activities of Psuedomonas aeruginosa cells grown for three days in drip flow biofilm reactors when compared to the activities of P. aeruginosa grown planktonically to exponential phase in the same media. Here, rather than examining the effect of an individual gene on biofilm antibiotic tolerance, we used a transcriptomics approach to identify regulons and groups of related genes that are induced during biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We then tested for statistically significant overlap between the biofilm-induced genes and independently compiled gene lists corresponding to stress responses and other putative antibiotic protective mechanisms. This data was evaluated and used to select strains that carry transposon mutations in genes that might play a role in antibiotic tolerance of biofilms. The strains were evaluated for defects in biofilm tolerance. One planktonic condition with four biological replicates; One drip flow biofilm condition grown for 72 hours with three biological replicates; One drip flow biofilm condition grown for 84 hours with three biological replicates.
Project description:Abstract: Transcriptome analysis was applied to characterize the physiological activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown for three days in drip-flow biofilm reactors. Conventional applications of transcriptional profiling often compare two paired data sets that differ in a single experimentally controlled variable. In contrast this study obtained the transcriptome of a single biofilm state, ranked transcript signals to make the priorities of the population manifest, and compared rankings for a priori identified physiological marker genes between the biofilm and published data sets. Two drip flow biofilm conditions with three replicates each: (1) baseline control at 72hrs, (2) no treatment for 12 hours past baseline. Data from these two conditions were pooled
Project description:Microarray analysis was used to identify changes in the level of transcription of genes in P. aeruginosa drip flow biofilms in response to ciprofloxacin and tobramycin exposure. This data was evaluated and used to select strains that carry transposon mutations in genes that might play a role in antibiotic tolerance of biofilms. The strains were evaluated for defects in biofilm tolerance. Four drip flow biofilm conditions with three replicates each: (1) baseline controls at 72 hours, (2) tobramycin treated for 12 hours past baseline, (3) ciprofloxacin treated for 12 hrs past baseline, and (4) no treatment for 12 hrs past baseline.
Project description:The physiological and transcriptional response of Nitrosomonas europaea biofilms to phenol and toluene was examined and compared to suspended cells. Biofilms were grown in Drip Flow Biofilm Reactors under continuous flow conditions of growth medium containing ammonia as growth substrate. The responses of N. europaea biofilms to the aromatic hydrocarbons phenol and toluene were determined during short-term (3 h) additions of each compound to the biofilms. Ammonia oxidation in the biofilms was inhibited 50% by 60 uM phenol and 100 uM toluene. These concentrations were chosen for microarray analysis of phenol- and toluene-exposed N. europaea biofilms. Liquid batch cultures of exponentially growing N. europaea cells were harvested alongside the biofilms to determine differential gene expression between attached and suspended growth of N. europaea. Four sample groups of N. europaea cells were used in this study, with biological triplicates of each group. Groups were: Control (untreated) biofilms, phenol-exposed biofilms, toluene-exposed biofilms, and exponentially growing suspended cells. Biofilms were grown in Drip Flow Biofilm Reactors containing 4 independent growth channels and subject to 2 hour inhibition tests. During each experiment, 2 biofilm channels served as control with no inhibitor present and the other 2 biofilm channels were exposed to either 60 uM phenol or 100 uM toluene. Nitrite production was monitored throughout the experiment, and the given concentrations of phenol and toluene resulted in 50% inhibition of ammonia oxidation by the biofilms. Suspended cells were grown in batch reactors. Three 4-plex NimbleGen microarray chips were used, and each chip contained one sample from each experimental group. QC of samples was determined by spectrophotometric methods and using Agilent bioanalyzer traces to determine purity and integrity of RNA and cDNA. A sample tracking report was used to verify the correct hybridization of each sample to the intended array.
Project description:Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we study protein distributions in bacterial biofilms using shotgun proteomics. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections.
Project description:LD13 mutant was considered for this analysis since it generated mushroom-type mature biofilm. This strain looses 17.6% of parental chromosome and lacks of several bacterial surface structures/genes but still has some novel autoaggregation genes. The global gene-expression profiles of LD13 flow-cell biofilm were compared after 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hr, respectively, as well as with those of LD13 planktonic cultures.
Project description:Transcriptomic, metabolomic, physiological, and computational modeling approaches were integrated to gain insight into the mechanisms of antibiotic tolerance in an in vitro biofilm system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were grown in drip-flow reactors on a medium composed to mimic the exudate from a chronic wound (CWE). After 72 hours, the biofilms were treated with CWE (control biofilms) or CWE containing ciprofloxacin (treated biofilms) for an additional 24 hours. Planktonic samples were cultivated to early logarithmic phase in CWE. The biofilm specific growth rate was estimated via elemental balances to be approximately 0.37 h-1, or one-third of the planktonic maximum specific growth rate. Global analysis of gene expression indicated decreased anabolic activity in biofilms compared to planktonic cells. A focused transcriptomic analysis revealed the induction of multiple stress responses in biofilm cells, including those associated with growth arrest, zinc limitation, hypoxia, and acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing. Overall design: Three biological replicates were prepared and analyzed for the following three growth conditions: (1)Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown planktonically to early log phase. (2) Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown in drip flow biofilm reactors on hydroxyapetite-coated glass slides for four days. (3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown in drip flow biofilm reactors on hydroxyapetite-coated glass slides for three days and then treated with 1 mg/ml ciprofloxacin for an additional day.
Project description:Biofilm formation and type III secretion have been shown to be reciprocally regulated in P. aeruginosa, and it has been suggested that factors related to acute infection may be incompatible; with biofilm formation. We investigated how growth conditions influence the production of virulence factors by studying the inter-relationships between colonies, biofilms and planktonic cells. We found that biofilms in our growth conditions express the type III secretion and these lifestyles are therefore not mutually exclusive in P. aeruginosa. Experiment Overall Design: Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells grown in five different conditions were analysed with three biological replicates for each sample. The five different conditions were planktonic cells in exponential phase, planktonic cells in stationary phase, colonies on agar plates incubated for 15 or 40 hours and biofilms in a continuous flow system after three days of growth.
Project description:Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptional responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNAs for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective GFP labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNAs levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia induced regulator, Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-termanoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were primarily associated with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (rmf and PA4463) at the bottom of the biofilms. A P. aeruginosa ∆rmf strain had increased uptake of the membrane integrity stain, propidium iodide. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we showed that the dividing cells were more susceptible to tobramycin and ciprofloxacin than the dormant subpopulation. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. 52-hour Pseudomonas aeruginosa TSA colony biofilms were cryoembedded, thin sectioned, and laser dissected (LCM) to obtain samples from the top and bottom 50 µm of the biofilms. 9 sections per biofilm were pooled. RNA was extracted with the RNeasy Micro kit, Turbo DNase treated, poly(A) tailed, and amplified using the Quantitect WTA kit. After clean up, the resulting product was fragmented and end labeled before hybridization.