Tet1 is a tumor suppressor of hematopoietic malignancy
ABSTRACT: Epigenetic pathways that regulate DNA methylation and chromatin modifications are frequently found to be dysregulated in human cancers. The TET methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) enzyme is an important regulator of hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in embryonic stem cells, neural progenitors,adult cells and reprogrammed cells. Decreased expression of TET proteins and loss of 5hmC has been reported in many tumors, suggesting a critical role for the maintenance of this epigenetic modification in normal cellular function. However, loss of TET1 function in the etiology of cancer has not been directly investigated. Here, we show that deletion of the Tet1 gene promotes the development of B cell lymphoma. Tet1 is required for maintaining normal levels of 5hmC, preventing aberrant DNA hypermethylation and for the regulation of transcriptional programs involved in B-cell lineage specification, chromosome maintenance, and DNA repair. Progenitor B cells in the absence of Tet1 accumulate DNA damage and whole-exome sequencing of Tet1-deficient tumors revealed a high correlation of mutations with those most frequently found in Non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma (B-NHL) patients. In addition, we show that the TET1 gene is deleted, hypermethylated and transcriptionally silenced in B-NHL patients. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence of TET1 function as a tumor suppressor of hematopoietic malignancy. We did hydroxymethylation tests for two wild type mice and two Tet1 knockout mice.
Project description:The C57BL/6J mouse model develops obesity and pre-diabetes when fed a high-fat diet. In this experiment, DNA methylation was assessed globally at specific CpG sites in liver tissue from mice receiving high-fat diet (45E% from fat) for 13 weeks (Control) or high-fat diet supplemented with 20% (w/w) of freeze-dried lingonberries (n=4). Our findings show that lingonberries prevent development of high-fat induced obesity, hepatic steatosis and low-grade inflammation, and the DNA was hypermethylated in mice receiving lingonberries compared to control. Genome wide hepatic DNA methylation comparison between mice fed high-fat diet with or without a lingonberry supplement (n=4/group).
Project description:Background: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a recently discovered epigenetic modification that is altered in cancers. Genome wide assays for 5-hmC determination are needed as many of the techniques commonly used to assay 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), including conventional methyl-sensitive restriction digest and bisulfite sequencing, are incapable of distinguishing between 5-mC and 5-hmC. Results: Glycosylation of 5-hmC residues by beta-Glucosyl Transferase (beta-GT) can make CCGG residues insensitive to digestion by MspI. We used this premise to modify the HELP-tagging assay to identify both 5-mC and 5-hmC loci in the genome. Comparison of sequencing libraries after HpaII, MspI and MspI+ beta-GT conversion resulted in locus specific 5-mC and 5-hmC determination. A custom bioinformatics pipeline was created to identify 5-hmC sites that were validated at global level by LS-MS and the locus specific level by qRT-PCR of 5-hmC pulldown DNA. Hydroxymethylation at both promoter and intragenic locations correlated positively with gene expression. Analysis of pancreatic cancer samples revealed striking redistribution of 5-hmC sites in cancer cells and demonstrated enrichment of this modification at many oncogenic promoters such as GATA6. Conclusions: The HELP-GT assay allows a high resolution, simultaneous determination of 5-hmC and 5-mC loci from small amounts of DNA with the utilisation of modest sequencing resources. Redistribution of 5-hmC seen in cancer highlights the importance of examining this modification in conjugation with conventional methylome analysis. We did methylation and hydroxymethylation tests for one control and two pancreatic cancer cases
Project description:Obesity-associated asthma is recognized as a distinct entity with non-atopic T-helper 1 polarized systemic inflammation. DNA methylation is linked with T helper cell maturation and is associated with inflammatory patterns in asthma and obesity. However, it is unknown whether pathologic dysregulation of DNA methylation patterns occurs in obesity-associated asthma. Using HELP-tagging, we studied epigenome wide DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 8 urban minority obese asthmatic pre-adolescent children and compared it to methylation in groups of 8 children with asthma alone, obesity alone and healthy controls. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to identify biological pathways that were differentially targeted by methylation dysregulation. We found that obese asthmatics had distinct epigenome wide methylation patterns associated with decreased promoter methylation of a subset of genes, including RANTES, IL-12R and TBX21 and increased promoter methylation of CD23, a low affinity receptor for IgE and of TGFβ, inhibitor of Th cell activation. T cell signaling and macrophage activation were the two primary pathways that were selectively hypomethylated in obese asthmatics. These methylation patterns suggest that methylation is associated with non-atopic inflammation observed in obese asthmatic children compared to children with asthma alone and obesity alone. Our findings suggest a role of DNA methylation in the observed inflammatory patterns in pediatric obesity-associated asthma in minorities. 32 HpaII test
Project description:Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is the result of mutations in the MEN1 gene and results in tumor formation via mechanisms that are not well understood. Using a novel genome-wide methylation analysis, we studied tissues from patients with MEN1-parathyroid tumors, tissues from Men1 knockout (KO) mouse models, and mouse Men1 null mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines. Tissues from KO mice were used to confirm and assess the findings from the MEN1 clinical samples and further explore the molecular mechanisms of global epigenetic changes following the inactivation of menin. We demonstrated that the inactivation of menin results in enhanced activity of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by retinoblastoma-binding protein 5 (Rbbp5) activation in MEN1 tumor tissues. The increased activity of DNMT1 mediated global DNA hypermethylation, which in turn resulted in aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway through inactivation of Sox regulatory genes. Our study provides important insights into the possible regulatory role of menin in DNA methylation and its impact on the pathogenesis of MEN1 tumor development. Global DNA methylation in tissues from patients with MEN1-parathyroid tumors. Thirty-eight human parathyroid specimens were used: 13 sporadic (non-MEN1) parathyroid adenomas, 12 MEN1-parathyroid tumors, 4 parathyroid carcinomas, and 9 normal parathyroids.
Project description:Background: To perform epigenome-wide association studies in human disease, assays need to be comprehensive and quantitative while remaining cost-effective. We explored how the strengths of prior tag-based cytosine methylation assays based on massively-parallel sequencing can be maximised analytically. Results: We find that the use of the EcoP15I restriction enzyme to generate long tags and the normalisation of methylation-sensitive by methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme representations greatly improve assay performance. When exploring sources of bias, we find that the length of the restriction fragment has moderate effects on EcoP15I digestion, while base composition exerts minimal effects. We detail the analytical workflow that maximises the quantitative capabilities of this modified assay. Also revealed are polymorphic sequences in the genome that could confound microarray, bisulphite sequencing or mass spectrometry-based assays, and a position effect causing hypomethylation of transposable elements near gene promoters. Conclusions: The new combined assay, referred to as HELP-tagging, interrogates over 1.8 million loci in the human genome quantitatively with a single lane of Illumina sequencing. When the goal is to study not only CG-dense sequence but also the CG-depleted majority of the genome, this assay system should be suitable. Three MspI reference, one HpaII test
Project description:DNA methylation can be abnormally regulated in human disease and associated with effects on gene transcription that appear to be causally related to pathogenesis. The potential to use pharmacological agents that reverse this dysregulation is therefore an attractive possibility. To test how 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) influences the genome therapeutically, we exposed non-malignant cells in culture to the agent and used genome-wide assays to assess the cellular response. We found that cells allowed to recover from 5-aza-CdR treatment only partially recover DNA methylation levels, retaining an epigenetic “imprint” of drug exposure. We show very limited transcriptional responses to demethylation of not only protein-coding genes but also loci encoding non-coding RNAs, with a limited proportion of the induced genes acquiring new promoter activation within gene bodies. The data revealed an uncoupling of DNA methylation effects at promoters, with demethylation mostly unaccompanied by transcriptional changes. The limited panel of genes induced by 5-aza-CdR resembles those activated in other human cell types exposed to the drug, and represents loci targeted for Polycomb-mediated silencing in stem cells, suggesting a model for the therapeutic effects of the drug. Our results do not support the hypothesis of DNA methylation having a predominant role to regulate transcriptional noise in the genome, and indicate that DNA methylation acts only as part of a larger complex system of transcriptional regulation. The targeting of 5-aza-CdR effects with its clastogenic consequences to euchromatin raises concerns that the use of 5-aza-CdR has innate tumorigenic consequences, requiring its cautious use in diseases involving epigenetic dysregulation. Cytosine methylation profile of 4 different samples of HEK 293T treated with 5-aza-CdR
Project description:DNA methylation of C5-cytosine (5mC) in the mammalian genome is a key epigenetic event that is critical for various cellular processes. However, how the genome-wide 5mC pattern is dynamically regulated remains a fundamental question in epigenetic biology. The TET family of 5mC hydroxylases, which convert 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), have provided a new potential mechanism for the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation. The extent to which individual Tet family members contribute to the genome-wide 5mC and 5hmC patterns and associated gene network remains largely unknown. Here we report genome-wide mapping of Tet1 and 5hmC in mESCs and reveal a mechanism of action by which Tet1 controls 5hmC and 5mC levels in mESCs. In combination with microarray and mRNA-seq expression profiling, we identify a comprehensive yet intricate gene network influenced by Tet1. We propose a model whereby Tet1 controls DNA methylation both by binding to CpG-rich regions to prevent unwanted DNA methyltransferase activity, and by converting the existing 5mC to 5hmC through its enzymatic activity. This Tet1-mediated antagonism of CpG methylation imparts differential maintenance of DNA methylation status at Tet1 target loci, thereby providing a new regulatory mechanism for establishing the epigenetic landscape of mESCs, which ultimately contributes to mESC differentiation and the onset of embryonic development. To determine the genome-wide distribution of Tet1 and 5hmC in mouse ES cells, as well as identify the gene transcription changes after Tet1 depletion. GSM706669-GSM706671: We used GST pull-down followed by deep sequencing to map the DNA bound by the Tet1 CXXC domain in vitro. We made two mutants that have a single point mutation (Cys574 to Ala or Cys586 to Ala) in the core CXXC domain to ascertain the essential role of the CXXC domain in DNA binding by comparing the sequencing profile of DNA bound by wild type CXXC with the profiles of the CXXC mutants. GSM706672-GSM706673: Tet1 ChIP-seq was performed to identify the genome-wide distribution of Tet1 in mouse ES cells. GSM706674-GSM706679: We performed hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation (hMeDIP)-seq combined with a shRNA-mediated gene depletion strategy. To identify the loci specific 5hmC regulation by Tet1, we compared the 5hmC genome-wide distributions in control (Luc shRNA) and Tet1-depleted (Tet1 shRNA2863) mouse ES cells. GSM706680-GSM706682: To identify the gene regulation network by Tet1, we compared the gene expression profiles of control (scramble shRNA) and Tet1-depleted (Tet1 shRNA 2863 and Tet1 shRNA 3387) mouse ES cells determined by mRNA-seq.
Project description:Tet enzymes (Tet1/2/3) convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Tet1 and Tet2 mediate 5hmC generation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and various embryonic and adult tissues. To investigate the effects of combined deficiency of Tet1 and Tet2 on pluripotency and development, we have generated Tet1 and Tet2 double knockout (DKO) ESCs and mice. DKO ESCs were depleted of 5hmC, but remained pluripotent with subtle defects in differentiation and changes in gene expression. Double mutant embryos and chimeras exhibited mid-gestation defects and postnatal DKO mice displayed partially penetrant neonatal lethality and stochastic perturbation of imprinting. Viable DKO animals developed normally to adulthood but had reduced 5hmC level, increased 5mC level and lacked 5hmC in germ cells. Nevertheless, DKO mice of both sexes were fertile with females having smaller ovaries and reduced fertility. Our data suggest that both Tet1 and Tet2 contribute to 5hmC levels during development. Their combined loss does not block differentiation and embryogenesis, but leads to partially penetrant embryonic and perinatal abnormalities and compromised viability. Moreover, the presence of substantial levels of 5hmC in DKO embryos and adult mice suggests a significant contribution of Tet3 in hydroxylation of 5mC during development. Methylation patterns in tissue samples from a series of wt and Tet1/Tet2 DKO embryos, neonates and adults were generated using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with antibodies against 5mC (MeDIP) and 5hmC (hMeDIP) followed by deep sequencing.
Project description:TET1, the founding member of the TET family of enzymes (TET1/2/3) that convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), was first identified as a partner gene in MLL-rearranged leukemia, but its definitive pathological role in leukemia is unclear. The down-regulation of all three TET genes and loss-of-function mutations of TET2 have been frequently observed in various cancers, and it was thought that they all play tumor-suppressor roles in tumorigenesis. Here we show that TET1 is likely a direct target of MLL and significantly up-regulated in MLL-rearranged leukemia, associated with an increased level of 5hmC. Our further in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that Tet1 plays an indispensable oncogenic role in MLL-rearranged leukemia, through cooperating with MLL fusion proteins in regulating their co-targets including the Hoxa/Meis1/Pbx3/Flt3 genes. Our data delineate a MLL-fusion/Tet1/Hoxa/Meis1/Pbx3/Flt3 signaling axis in MLL-rearranged leukemia, and highlight TET1 as a potential therapeutic target in treating this presently therapy-resistant disease. We report genome-wide 5hmC enrichment profiles and RNA-Seq gene expression in MLL-AF9 transformed and control mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells. These 5hmC profiles are derived from selctive chemical labeling and enrichment of 5hmC containing genomic DNA fragments, while the RNA-Seq expression profiles are generated from polyA enriched RNA
Project description:Tet enzymes (Tet1/2/3) catalyze the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxy-methylcytosine (5hmC) and are dynamically expressed in various embryonic and adult cell types. While loss of individual Tet enzymes or combined deficiency of Tet1/2 allows for embryogenesis, the effect of complete loss of Tet activity and 5hmC marks in development has not been established. To define the role of Tet enzymes and 5hmC in development we have generated Tet1, Tet2 and Tet3 triple knockout (TKO) mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and examined their developmental potential in vitro and in vivo. Combined deficiency of all three Tet enzymes led to complete depletion of 5hmC and impaired ESC differentiation as seen in poorly differentiated TKO embryoid bodies and teratomas. Consistent with impaired differentiation, TKO ES cells exhibited limited contribution to the chimeric embryos and could not support embryonic development in tetraploid complementation assays. Gene expression profiles and genome wide methylome analyses of TKO embryoid bodies revealed promoter hypermethylation and deregulation of genes implicated in embryonic development and differentiation. These findings suggest a requirement for Tet and 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation in proper regulation of gene expression during differentiation of embryonic stem cells and development. Methylation patterns in tissue samples from a series of wt and Tet1/Tet2 DKO embryos, neonates and adults were generated using ethylated DNA immunoprecipitation with antibodies against 5mC (MeDIP) and 5hmC (hMeDIP) followed by deep sequencing.