IFN-g Regulates mTORC1, Cellular Metabolism and mRNA Translation to Potentiate Inflammatory Macrophage Activation [miRNA-Seq]
ABSTRACT: IFN-g primes macrophages for enhanced inflammatory activation by TLRs and microbial killing, but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during priming. We found that IFN-g regulates macrophage metabolism and translation in an integrated manner by targeting mTORC1 and MNK pathways that converge on the selective regulator of translation initiation eIF4E. Physiological downregulation of the central metabolic regulator mTORC1 by IFN-g was associated with autophagy and translational suppression of repressors of inflammation such as HES1. Genome-wide ribosome profiling in TLR2-stimulated macrophages revealed that IFN-g selectively modulates the macrophage translatome to promote inflammation, further reprogram metabolic pathways, and modulate protein synthesis. These results add IFN-g-mediated metabolic reprogramming and translational regulation as key components of classical inflammatory macrophage activation. microRNA-seq libraries were generated from mock or IFN-g-primed human macrophages. Cells were stimulated with or without Pam3Cys and harvested at 4 hours Libraries were generated using Illumina Truseq small RNA technology.
Project description:IFN-g primes macrophages for enhanced inflammatory activation by TLRs and microbial killing, but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during priming. We found that IFN-g regulates macrophage metabolism and translation in an integrated manner by targeting mTORC1 and MNK pathways that converge on the selective regulator of translation initiation eIF4E. Physiological downregulation of the central metabolic regulator mTORC1 by IFN-g was associated with autophagy and translational suppression of repressors of inflammation such as HES1. Genome-wide ribosome profiling in TLR2-stimulated macrophages revealed that IFN-g selectively modulates the macrophage translatome to promote inflammation, further reprogram metabolic pathways, and modulate protein synthesis. These results add IFN-g-mediated metabolic reprogramming and translational regulation as key components of classical inflammatory macrophage activation. RPF and RNAseq libraries were generated from mock or IFN-g-primed human macrophages. Cells were stimulated with Pam3Cys and harvested at 4 hours. Libraries were generated using protocol modified from Illumina Truseq technology.
Project description:Interferon-? (IFN-?) primes macrophages for enhanced microbial killing and inflammatory activation by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during this priming. We found that IFN-? regulated the metabolism and mRNA translation of human macrophages by targeting the kinases mTORC1 and MNK, both of which converge on the selective regulator of translation initiation eIF4E. Physiological downregulation of mTORC1 by IFN-? was associated with autophagy and translational suppression of repressors of inflammation such as HES1. Genome-wide ribosome profiling in TLR2-stimulated macrophages showed that IFN-? selectively modulated the macrophage translatome to promote inflammation, further reprogram metabolic pathways and modulate protein synthesis. These results show that IFN-?-mediated metabolic reprogramming and translational regulation are key components of classical inflammatory macrophage activation.
Project description:We sequenced microRNAs from bone marrow derived macrophages derived from the control (WT) and RBP-J conditional knockout mice (RBP-J KO; Rbpjf/f; LysM Cre). Examination of differential microRNA expression levels induced by TNF as well as regulated by RBP-J in bone marrow derived macrophages.
Project description:The aggregation of hypertrophic macrophages constitutes the basis of all granulomatous diseases, such as tuberculosis or sarcoidosis, and is decisive for disease pathogenesis. However, macrophage-intrinsic pathways driving granuloma initiation and maintenance remain elusive. We found that activation of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 in macrophages by deletion of the gene encoding tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) was sufficient to induce hypertrophy and proliferation, resulting in excessive granuloma formation in vivo. TSC2-deficient macrophages formed mTORC1-dependent granulomatous structures in vitro and showed constitutive proliferation that was mediated by the neo-expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Moreover, mTORC1 promoted metabolic reprogramming via CDK4 toward increased glycolysis while simultaneously inhibiting NF-?B signaling and apoptosis. Inhibition of mTORC1 induced apoptosis and completely resolved granulomas in myeloid TSC2-deficient mice. In human sarcoidosis patients, mTORC1 activation, macrophage proliferation and glycolysis were identified as hallmarks that correlated with clinical disease progression. Collectively, TSC2 maintains macrophage quiescence and prevents mTORC1-dependent granulomatous disease with clinical implications for sarcoidosis.
Project description:Mechanistic or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is an important regulator of effector functions, proliferation, and cellular metabolism in macrophages. The biochemical processes that are controlled by mTORC1 are still being defined. Here, we demonstrate that integrative multiomics in conjunction with a data-driven inverse modeling approach, termed COVRECON, identifies a biochemical node that influences overall metabolic profiles and reactions of mTORC1-dependent macrophage metabolism. Using a combined approach of metabolomics, proteomics, mRNA expression analysis, and enzymatic activity measurements, we demonstrate that Tsc2, a negative regulator of mTORC1 signaling, critically influences the cellular activity of macrophages by regulating the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) in an mTORC1-dependent manner. More generally, while lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages repress Phgdh activity, IL-4-stimulated macrophages increase the activity of the enzyme required for the expression of key anti-inflammatory molecules and macrophage proliferation. Thus, we identify Phgdh as a metabolic checkpoint of M2 macrophages.
Project description:Macrophages are able to polarize to proinflammatory M1 or alternative M2 states with distinct phenotypes and physiological functions. How metabolic status regulates macrophage polarization remains not well understood, and here we examine the role of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), a central metabolic pathway that couples nutrient sensing to regulation of metabolic processes. Using a mouse model in which myeloid lineage-specific deletion of Tsc1 (Tsc1(?/?)) leads to constitutive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, we find that Tsc1(?/?) macrophages are refractory to IL-4-induced M2 polarization, but produce increased inflammatory responses to proinflammatory stimuli. Moreover, mTORC1-mediated downregulation of Akt signalling critically contributes to defective polarization. These findings highlight a key role for the mTOR pathway in regulating macrophage polarization, and suggest how nutrient sensing and metabolic status could be 'hard-wired' to control of macrophage function, with broad implications for regulation of type 2 immunity, inflammation and allergy.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that cellular metabolism plays a critical role in regulating immune activation. Alterations in energy and lipid and amino acid metabolism have been shown to contribute to type I interferon (IFN) responses in macrophages, but the relationship between metabolic reprogramming and the establishment of early antiviral function remains poorly defined. Here, we used transcriptional profiling datasets to develop global metabolic signatures associated with early IFN-? responses in two primary macrophage model systems: mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Short-term stimulation with IFN-? (<4?hours) was associated with significant metabolic rewiring, with >500 metabolic genes altered in mouse and human macrophage models. Pathway and network analysis identified alterations in genes associated with cellular bioenergetics, cellular oxidant status, cAMP/AMP and cGMP/GMP ratios, branched chain amino acid catabolism, cell membrane composition, fatty acid synthesis, and ?-oxidation as key features of early IFN-? responses. These changes may have important implications for initial establishment of antiviral function in these cells.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and 3 (RIPK3) are well known for their capacity to drive necroptosis via mixed-lineage kinase-like domain (MLKL). Recently, RIPK1/3 kinase activity has been shown to drive inflammation via activation of MAPK signaling. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying this kinase-dependent cytokine production remain poorly understood. In the present study, we establish that the kinase activity of RIPK1/3 regulates cytokine translation in mouse and human macrophages. Furthermore, we show that this inflammatory response is downregulated by type I interferon (IFN) signaling, independent of type I IFN-promoted cell death. Specifically, low-level constitutive IFN signaling attenuates RIPK-driven activation of cap-dependent translation initiation pathway components AKT, mTORC1, 4E-BP and eIF4E, while promoting RIPK-dependent cell death. Altogether, these data characterize constitutive IFN signaling as a regulator of RIPK-dependent inflammation and establish cap-dependent translation as a crucial checkpoint in the regulation of cytokine production.
Project description:Severe hepatic inflammation is a common cause of acute liver injury following systemic infection with Ehrlichia, obligate Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that lack lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have previously shown that type I IFN (IFN-I) and inflammasome activation are key host-pathogenic mediators that promote excessive inflammation and liver damage following fatal Ehrlichia infection. However, the underlying signals and mechanisms that regulate protective immunity and immunopathology during Ehrlichia infection are not well understood. To address this issue, we compared susceptibility to lethal Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE) infection between wild type (WT) and MyD88-deficient (MyD88-/-) mice. We show here that MyD88-/- mice exhibited decreased inflammasome activation, attenuated liver injury, and were more resistant to lethal infection than WT mice, despite suppressed protective immunity and increased bacterial burden in the liver. MyD88-dependent inflammasome activation was also dependent on activation of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), inhibition of autophagic flux, and defective mitophagy in macrophages. Blocking mTORC1 signaling in infected WT mice and primary macrophages enhanced bacterial replication and attenuated inflammasome activation, suggesting autophagy promotes bacterial replication while inhibiting inflammasome activation. Finally, our data suggest TLR9 and IFN-I are upstream signaling mechanisms triggering MyD88-mediated mTORC1 and inflammasome activation in macrophages following Ehrlichia infection. This study reveals that Ehrlichia-induced liver injury and toxic shock are mediated by MyD88-dependent inflammasome activation and autophagy inhibition.
Project description:Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages promote wound healing but weaken antimicrobial defenses. The mechanisms that enforce macrophage divergence and dictate the phenotypic and metabolic characteristics of M2 macrophages remain elusive. We show that alternative activation with interleukin (IL)-4 induces expression of metallothionein 3 (MT3) that regulates macrophage polarization and function. MT3 was requisite for metabolic reprograming in IL-4-stimulated macrophages or M(IL-4) macrophages to promote mitochondrial respiration and suppress glycolysis. MT3 fostered an M(IL-4) phenotype, suppressed hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1? activation, and thwarted the emergence of a proinflammatory M1 program in macrophages. MT3 deficiency augmented macrophage plasticity, resulting in enhanced interferon ? (IFN?) responsiveness and a dampened M(IL-4) phenotype. Thus, MT3 programs the phenotype and metabolic fate of M(IL-4) macrophages.