Age-dependent Response of Isolated Male Germ Cells to Oxidative Stress
ABSTRACT: Male germ cells from young and aged Rats were Isolated and cultured and then treated with pro-oxidant SIN-1 and antioxidant EUK134 Study of the response of isolated male germ cells from young and aged Brown Norway Rats to oxidative stress. Treatment of Isolated and cultured germ cells with pro-oxidant and antioxidant.
Project description:Male fertility and testis function changes with age and so it was sought to determine if these changes are accompanied by changes in gene expression in the spermatogonial cells at the foundation of spermatogenesis A full genome microarray was used to determine if distinct pathways of genes were altered in expression in CD9-positive germ cells with age Testes from young (4 months) and aged (21 months) Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to dissociation to isolate a singel cell suspension of germ cells. These cells were used to isolate CD9 positive spermatogonial cells. RNA was isolated from these cells for hybridization on agilent miroarrays.
Project description:Atherosclerosis can be regarded as chronic inflammatory disease affecting the arterial wall. Despite the recent progress in studying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, some of the pathogenic mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Among these mechanisms is oxidative stress, which is closely linked to foam cells formation and other key events in atherosclerosis development. Two groups of enzymes are involved in the emergence of oxidative stress: Pro-oxidant (including NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidases, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and antioxidant (such as superoxide dismutase, catalases, and thioredoxins). Pro-oxidant enzymes in normal conditions produce moderate concentrations of reactive oxidant species that play an important role in cell functioning and can be fully utilized by antioxidant enzymes. Under pathological conditions, activities of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes can be modified by numerous factors that can be relevant for developing novel therapies. Recent studies have explored potential therapeutic properties of antioxidant molecules that are capable to eliminate oxidative damage. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Other perspective approach is to inhibit the activity of pro-oxidant enzymes and thus to slow down the progression of atherosclerosis. In this review we summarized the current knowledge on oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and potential antioxidant approaches. We discuss several important antioxidant molecules of plant origin that appear to be promising for treatment of atherosclerosis.
Project description:To identify microRNAs which differentially expressed in the BMSCs of aged and young mice and and investigate its influences on BMSCs differentiation with ageing. The microRNAs expressions of BMSCs from 3 aged mice and 3 young mice were measured.
Project description:The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide) together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components) and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN) were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20) and patients (n = 90) by assessing mRNA levels. Activity of some of these antioxidant enzymes was also tested. An increase in OS and pro-oxidant gene mRNA values was observed in patients compared to controls. The hypertensive group showed not only the highest OS values, but also the highest pro-oxidant activation compared to those observed in the other groups. In addition, in HT a significantly reduced antioxidant activity and mRNA induction of antioxidant genes were found when compared to controls and the other groups. In FH and FCH, the activation of pro-oxidant enzymes was also higher and antioxidant ones lower than in the control group, although it did not reach the values obtained in hypertensives. The thioredoxin system was more activated in patients as compared to controls, and the highest levels were in hypertensives. The increased oxidative status in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a consequence of both the activation of pro-oxidant mechanisms and the reduction of the antioxidant ones. The altered response of the main cytoplasmic antioxidant systems largely contributes to OS despite the apparent attempt of the thioredoxin system to control it.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The alkaloid 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) is well-known for various biological activities, including antioxidant effects and especially for the formation of coordination complexes with various transition metals, such as iron, amongst others. Therefore, 8HQ was extensively explored as a promising antineurodegenerative agent. However, other authors noted pro-oxidant effects of 8HQ. Here, we explore the pro- and antioxidant properties of 8HQ, especially in context of coordination complexes with iron (II) and iron (III). METHODS:Nano-electrospray-mass spectrometry, differential pulse voltammetry, deoxyribose degradation, iron (II) autoxidation, and brine shrimp mortality assays were used. RESULTS:8HQ formed a complex mixture of coordination complexes with iron (II) and iron (III). Furthermore, 8HQ showed antioxidant effects but no pro-oxidant ones. In the brine shrimp mortality assay, 8HQ demonstrated toxicity that decreased in the presence of iron (III). CONCLUSIONS:8HQ is a potent antioxidant whose effects depend not only on the formation of the coordination complexes with iron ions, but surely on the scavenging activities due to the redox properties of the 8-hydroxyl group. No pro-oxidant effects were observed in the set of the used assays.
Project description:AIMS: Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). METHODS AND RESULTS: Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O(2)(-)). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O(2)(-) production in young females, while increased O(2)(-) in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ER?/ER?) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ER?/ER? in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O(2)(-). These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5'flanking region of ER? gene.
Project description:Platinum-based agents, such as cisplatin, form the mainstay of currently used chemotherapeutic regimens for several malignancies; however, the main limitations are chemoresistance and ototoxic side effects. In this study we used two different polyphenols, curcumin and ferulic acid as adjuvant chemotherapeutics evaluating (1) in vivo their antioxidant effects in protecting against cisplatin ototoxicity and (2) in vitro the transcription factors involved in tumor progression and cisplatin resistance. We reported that both polyphenols show antioxidant and oto-protective activity in the cochlea by up-regulating Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway and downregulating p53 phosphorylation. However, only curcumin is able to influence inflammatory pathways counteracting NF-?B activation. In human cancer cells, curcumin converts the anti-oxidant effect into a pro-oxidant and anti-inflammatory one. Curcumin exerts permissive and chemosensitive properties by targeting the cisplatin chemoresistant factors Nrf-2, NF-?B and STAT-3 phosphorylation. Ferulic acid shows a biphasic response: it is pro-oxidant at lower concentrations and anti-oxidant at higher concentrations promoting chemoresistance. Thus, polyphenols, mainly curcumin, targeting ROS-modulated pathways may be a promising tool for cancer therapy. Thanks to their biphasic activity of antioxidant in normal cells undergoing stressful conditions and pro-oxidant in cancer cells, these polyphenols probably engage an interplay among the key factors Nrf-2, NF-?B, STAT-3 and p53.
Project description:Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a highly inducible stress protein that removes haem from cells with the release of biliverdin, carbon monoxide and low-molecular-mass iron (LMrFe). Several antioxidant functions have been ascribed to HO; its induction is considered to be a protective event. However, LMrFe produced during haem catabolism might elicit a pro-oxidant response, with deleterious consequences. We therefore investigated the delicate balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant events with the use of a microsomal lipid peroxidation (LPO) system. By using microsomal-bound HO in an NADPH-dependent LPO system, we assessed the pro-oxidant nature of the released LMrFe and the antioxidant effect of the released bilirubin. Hb, a biologically relevant substrate for HO, was included with the microsomes to supplement the source of haem iron and to promote LPO. We found significant increases in microsomal LPO, by using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test, after incubation with Hb. This Hb-stimulated peroxidation was inhibited by HO inhibitors and by iron chelators, suggesting a HO-driven, iron-dependent mechanism. GLC-MS was employed to measure the specific LPO product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and to confirm our TBA test results. A HO inhibitor attenuated an increase in intracellular LMrFe that occurred after treatment of rat pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells with Hb. Additionally, exogenously added bilirubin at an equimolar concentration to the LMrFe present in both microsomal and liposomal systems was unable to prevent the pro-oxidant effect of the iron. Under certain circumstances HO can act as a pro-oxidant and seems to have a role in stimulating microsomal LPO.
Project description:Levels of inflammatory mediators in circulation are known to increase with age, but the underlying cause of this age-associated inflammation is debated. We find that, when maintained under germ-free conditions, mice do not display an age-related increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. A higher proportion of germ-free mice live to 600 days than their conventional counterparts, and macrophages derived from aged germ-free mice maintain anti-microbial activity. Co-housing germ-free mice with old, but not young, conventionally raised mice increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood. In tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mice, which are protected from age-associated inflammation, age-related microbiota changes are not observed. Furthermore, age-associated microbiota changes can be reversed by reducing TNF using anti-TNF therapy. These data suggest that aging-associated microbiota promote inflammation and that reversing these age-related microbiota changes represents a potential strategy for reducing age-associated inflammation and the accompanying morbidity.
Project description:We observed previously that after long-term suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thus of Leydig cell steroidogenesis, restimulation of the Leydig cells by LH resulted in significantly higher testosterone production than by age-matched cells from control rats. These studies suggest that stimulation over time may elicit harmful effects on the steroidogenic machinery, perhaps through alteration of the intracellular oxidant-to-antioxidant balance. Herein we compared the effects of LH stimulation on stress response genes, formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS-induced damage to ROS-susceptible macromolecules (DNA) in young and in aged cells. Microarray analysis indicated that LH stimulation resulted in significant increases in expression of genes associated with stress response and antiapoptotic pathways. Short-term LH treatment of primary Leydig cells isolated from young rats resulted in transiently increased ROS levels compared to controls. Aged Leydig cells also showed increased ROS soon after LH stimulation. However, in contrast to the young cells, ROS production peaked later and the time to recovery was increased. In both young and aged cells, treatment with LH resulted in increased levels of DNA damage but significantly more so in the aged cells. DNA damage levels in response to LH and the levels of intracellular ROS were highly correlated. Taken together, these results indicate that LH stimulation causes increased ROS production by young and aged Leydig cells and that while DNA damage occurs in cells of both ages, there is greater damage in the aged cells.