Transcriptomic landscape of lncRNAs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex multi-factorial inflammatory disease with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) being the two most common forms. A number of transcriptional profiling studies have provided compelling evidence that describe the role of protein-coding genes and microRNAs in modulating the immune responses in IBD. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide transcriptome profiling of lncRNAs and protein-coding genes in inflamed and non-inflamed colon pinch biopsies from the IBD patients using expression microarrays platform. In this study, we identified widespread dysregulation of lncRNAs and protein-coding genes in both inflamed and non-inflamed CD and UC compared to the healthy controls. In case of inflamed CD and UC (iCD and iUC), we identified 438 and 745 differentially expressed lncRNAs, respectively, while in case of the non-inflamed CD and UC (niCD and niUC), we identified 12 and 19 differentially expressed lncRNAs, respectively. We also observed significant enrichment (p-value < 0.001, Pearson’s Chi-squared test) for 96 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 154 protein-coding genes within the IBD susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we found strong positive expression correlations for the intersecting and cis-neighboring differentially expressed IBD loci-associated lncRNA-protein-coding gene pairs. The functional annotation analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that they are involved in immune response, pro-inflammatory cytokine activity and MHC protein complex. The lncRNA expression profiling in both inflamed and non-inflamed CD and UC, successfully stratified IBD patients from the healthy controls. Taken together, the identified lncRNA transcriptional signature along with clinically relevant parameters suggests their potential as biomarkers in IBD. A total of 96 biopsy samples (including 6 samples used as technical replicates) extracted from different colonic locations from 45 patients (CD=13, UC=20, Controls=12) were profiled using Agilent Custom 8x60K format lncRNA expression microarray. In Gencode v15 lncRNA microarray design, each lncRNA transcript is targeted by two probes covering 22,001 lncRNA transcripts corresponding to 12,963 lncRNA genes. In addition, each array contains 17,535 randomly-selected protein-coding targets, of which 15,182 (unique 12,787) correspond to protein-coding genes.
Project description:Background & Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are clinically manifested as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD). Novel high throughput technologies revealed new categories of genes, including the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have been involved in the pathogenesis of different human diseases; however the role and function of lncRNAs in the UC pathogenesis has not been evaluated. Methods: The gene expression patterns for both non-coding (lncRNAs) and coding (mRNA) transcripts were profiled in UC (n=8) and control (n=7) patients by ArrayStar assays. The differentially expressed genes were used to develop lncRNA signatures in UC samples. Ingenuity Software Analysis (IPA) program was used to identify the up-stream regulators of IFNG-AS1. Jurkat T cells were activated by PMA/ionomycin and IFNG and TNF protein levels were assessed by ELISA assay. Two anti-sense molecules were designed and used to block IFNG-AS1 expression levels. Colonic tissues from TNBS-treated and IL10-/- mice were used to extract RNA and examine INFG-AS1 expression by real-time PCR. Results: A unique set of lncRNAs was found to be differentially expressed between UC (n=15) and control samples (n=16). Of these, IFNG-AS1 was among the highest statistically significant lncRNAs (fold change: 5.27, p-value: 7.07E-06). Bioinformatic analyses showed that IFNG-AS1 was associated with the IBD susceptibility loci SNP rs7134599 and its genomic location is adjacent to the inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNG). Using the TNBS and IL10-/- mouse models of colitis, we found increased colonic expression of this lncRNA during active colitis. Utilizing the Jurkat T cell model system, we explored the mechanisms of action and found that IFNG-AS1 can positively regulate IFNG expression. Conclusions: Novel lncRNA signatures were identified to differentiate UC patients with active disease, in remission and control subjects. A subset of these lncRNAs was found to be associated with the clinically validated IBD susceptibility loci. IFNG-AS1 was one of these differentially expressed lncRNAs in UC patients and was found to regulate the key inflammatory cytokine, IFNG, in CD4 T cells. Taken together, our study revealed novel lncRNA signatures deregulated in ulcerative colitis and identified IFNG-AS1 as a novel regulator of IFNG inflammatory responses, suggesting the potential importance of non-coding RNA mechanisms on regulation of IBD-related inflammatory responses. Overall design: 19 overall samples were analyzed. Colonic resection samples from 8 Active Ulcerative colitis, 4 Inactive Ulcerative colitis, 7 control samples
Project description:Studying genes involved in the regulation of inflammation may help to clarify the pathogenesis of IBD. In search of the genes which products are known to be involved in NO signalling and altered in patients with IBD, our present aim was to determine the expression of such genes in CD and UC, respectively. To this end, microarray expression of genes known to be controlled by or which products are involved in NO signalling was studied in biopsies of colonic mucosa from patients and healthy controls. A cohort of inflamed colonic mucosa samples from 20 CD patients and 20 UC patients, as well as 6 control colonic mucosa samples, was used to acquire expression profiles. All of the inflamed samples were analysed individually, while the control samples were pooled and analysed in 4 replicates.
Project description:We sought to identify proteins that enable differentiation between CD and UC in children with new onset IBD. Mucosal biopsies were obtained from children undergoing baseline diagnostic endoscopy prior to therapeutic interventions. Using a super-stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based approach, the proteomes of 99 paediatric control and biopsies of patients with CD and UC were compared. Multivariate analysis of a subset of these (n=50) was applied to identify novel biomarkers, which were validated in a second subset (n=49). In the discovery cohort, a panel of five proteins was sufficient to distinguish control from IBD-affected tissue biopsies with an AUC of 1.0 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.0); a second panel of 12 proteins segregated inflamed CD from UC within an AUC of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.0). Application of the two panels to the validation cohort resulted in accurate classification of 95.9% (IBD from control) and 80% (CD from UC) of patients. 116 proteins were identified to have correlation with the severity of disease, four of which were components of the two panels, including visfatin and metallothionein-2. This study has identified two panels of candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of IBD and the differentiation of IBD subtypes to guide appropriate therapeutic interventions in paediatric patients.
Project description:Studying genes involved in the regulation of inflammation may help to clarify the pathogenesis of IBD. In search of the genes which products are known to be involved in NO signalling and altered in patients with IBD, our present aim was to determine the expression of such genes in CD and UC, respectively. To this end, microarray expression of genes known to be controlled by or which products are involved in NO signalling was studied in biopsies of colonic mucosa from patients and healthy controls. Overall design: A cohort of inflamed colonic mucosa samples from 20 CD patients and 20 UC patients, as well as 6 control colonic mucosa samples, was used to acquire expression profiles. All of the inflamed samples were analysed individually, while the control samples were pooled and analysed in 4 replicates.
Project description:Objective: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) regulate gene transcription and diverse cellular functions. We previously defined a novel core inflammatory and metabolic ileal gene signature in treatment naïve pediatric Crohn Disease (CD), however, genome-wide characterization of lncRNA expression was lacking. We now extend our analyses to define a more comprehensive view that includes lncRNA. Design: Using RNAseq, we performed a systematic profiling of lncRNAs and protein-coding genes expression in 177 ileal biopsies. Co-expression analysis was used to identify functions and tissue-specific expression. RT-PCR was used to test lncRNAs regulation by IL-1β in Caco-2 enterocytes model. Results: We characterize a widespread dysregulation of 459 lncRNA in the ileum of treatment naïve pediatric CD patients. Unsupervised and supervised classifications using the 459 lncRNA showed comparable patients’ grouping as the 2160 dysregulated protein-coding genes, linking lncRNA to CD pathogenesis. Co-expression and functional annotation enrichment analyses across several tissues and cell types showed that the up-regulated LINC01272 is associated with a myeloid pro-inflammatory signature while the down-regulated HNF4A-AS1 exhibits association with an epithelial metabolic signature. We further validated expression and regulation of prioritized lncRNA upon IL-1β exposure in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Finally, we identified significant correlations between LINC01272 and HNF4A-AS1 expression and more severe mucosal injury. Conclusion: We define differentially expressed lncRNA in the ileum of treatment naive pediatric CD. We show lncRNA utility to correctly classify disease or healthy states and demonstrate their regulation in response to an inflammatory signal. These lncRNA, after mechanistic exploration, may serve as potential new targets for RNA-based interventions. Overall design: Using RNAseq, we performed a systematic profiling of lncRNAs and protein-coding genes expression in 21 days differentiated caco-2 cells
Project description:This study focuses on inflammatory bowel disease gene expression profiling. Surgical specimens from 134 patients undergoing bowel resection for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non IBD controls at Mount Sinai Medical Center were collected as the source of tissue. Control samples (CLs) were harvested from normal non inflamed bowel located more than 10 cm away from the tumor from patients undergoing bowel resection for sporadic colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s (CD) patient samples were all isolated from areas containing moderate to severe inflammation. The diagnostic pathology report for each specimen was provided by the Mount Sinai Hospital Pathology Department. Patients with UC and patients with CD shared common medications including corticosteroids, infliximab, azathioprine, and mesalamine. Overall design: Surgical specimens from 134 patients undergoing bowel resection for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non IBD controls at Mount Sinai Medical Center were collected as the source of tissue. Control samples (CLs) were harvested from normal non inflamed bowel located more than 10 cm away from the tumor from patients undergoing bowel resection for sporadic colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s (CD) patient samples were all isolated from areas containing moderate to severe inflammation. The diagnostic pathology report for each specimen was provided by the Mount Sinai Hospital Pathology Department. Patients with UC and patients with CD shared common medications including corticosteroids, infliximab, azathioprine, and mesalamine. The samples were collected fresh and the tissue was further processed for isolation. A representative 0.5 cm tissue fragment was isolated from the collected surgical specimen samples, flash frozen and stored at -80C. Tissue was homogenized in Trizol following the manufacturer's protocol (Life Technologies) and RNA extraction was performed. RIN scores >7 were used for Poly A RNA-seq.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common and chronic gut disorder, with two subtypes: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which are challenging to diagnose. The molecular pathology IBD is not well understood, and the underlying gene regulatory regions have not been comprehensively investigated. Relatedly, most IBD-associated SNPs are located in non-coding regions, and may effect gene regulation. Here, we profiled genome-wide promoter and enhancer activity in the descending colon of IBD patients. IBD-induced enhancer and promoters are highly enriched for IBD-associated SNPs, and can predict IBD diagnosis with an accuracy of 85% in an external cohort. Overall design: This experiment includes a total of 94 patients: 25 patients with active UC(UCa), 17 patients with UC in remission(UCi), 20 patients with active CD(CDa), 3 patients with CD in remission(CDi) and 29 healthy controls (Ctrl).
Project description:Colon gene expression in human IBD. The three major clinical subsets of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) include colon-only Crohn's Disease (CD), ileo-colonic CD, and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). These experiments tested differential colon gene expression in these three types of IBD, relative to healthy control samples, and the local degree of mucosal inflammation as measured by the CD Histological Index of Severity (CDHIS). Colon biopsy samples were obtained from IBD patients at diagnosis and during therapy, and healthy controls. The global pattern of gene expression was determined using GeneSpring software, with a focus upon candidate genes identified in a recent genome wide association study in pediatric onset IBD. Data suggested that two of these candidate genes are up regulated in pediatric IBD, partially influenced by local mucosal inflammation. These experiments tested differential colon gene expression in healthy, CD, and UC samples for candidate genes identified in a recent pediatric onset IBD genome wide association study. Keywords: Single time point in CD and UC and healthy controls. Colon RNA was isolated from biopsies obtained from CD and UC at diagnosis and during therapy and healthy controls. Samples were obtained from the most proximal affected segment of colon. Microarray experiments were performed as described in the CCHMC microarray core, and data was analyzed as described above in the summary. The '107' internal control CEL files (for batches 1,2,3,4,5) used for normalization of the Sample VALUEs are also contained within this data set.
Project description:Patient-derived intestinal organoids provide an excellent tool to unravel mechanisms underlying ulcerative colitis (UC). Fresh biopsies, to isolate crypts and culture organoids, were obtained from both inflamed and non-inflamed regions from eight patients with active UC (Mayo endoscopic subscore ≥2), and from eight non-IBD controls.To address the inflammatory character of ex vivo organoids, we compared the transcriptome of biopsies, crypts and organoids derived from inflamed, and non-inflamed regions and aimed to (re-)induce inflammation ex vivo.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis plays a primary role in disease manifestation or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. Here, we established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with two types of IBD - Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In order to explore the functional impact of dysbiotic microbiota in IBD patients on host immune responses, we analyzed gene expression profiles in colonic mucosa of hGB mice colonized with healty (HC), CD, and UC microbiota. Overall design: WT-GF and GB mice (HC, CD, UC) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from human microbiota reconstitution and collected colon tissue for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. WT-GF: n=2, HC-Mb GB mice: n=4, CD-Mb GB mice: n=5, UC-Mb GB mice: n=5.