ABSTRACT: To confirm the mechanism of miR-29a in liver fibrosis healing, we have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes. CCl4 and TAA liver fibrosis model mouse were used for this experiment. After five weeks liver fibrosis induction period, mouse have been observed for one week (1w) or two weeks (2w) and negative control nucleotide (N.C) or miR-29a were injected every 3 days on this period. We used CCl4 1w N.C (n = 1), 1w miR-29a (n = 1), 2w N.C (n = 1), 2w miR-29a (n = 1), and also used TAA model mouse (total n = 8) liver samples for microarray analysis. We can get only one gene (PDGF-c) as a target of miR-29a which relate to liver fibrosis and down-regulated more than 1.5 times in common miR-29a injected group than N.C group. CCl4 and TAA liver fibrosis model mouse were used for this experiment. After five weeks liver fibrosis induction period, mouse have been obserbed for one week (1w) or two weeks (2w) and negative control nucleotide (N.C) or miR-29a were injected every 3 days on this period. We used CCl4 1w N.C (n = 1), 1w miR-29a (n = 1), 2w N.C (n = 1), 2w miR-29a (n = 1), and also used TAA model mouse (total n = 8) liver samples for microarray analysis.
Project description:Abstract from Knabel et al. PLoS One (2015): Fibrosis refers to the accumulation of excess extracellular matrix (ECM) components and represents a key feature of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Unfortunately, no currently available treatments specifically target this important pathogenic mechanism. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress target gene expression and the development of miRNA-based therapeutics is being actively pursued for a diverse array of diseases. Because a single miRNA can target multiple genes, often within the same pathway, variations in the level of individual miRNAs can potently influence disease phenotypes. Members of the miR-29 family, which include mir29a, miR-29b and miR-29c, are strong inhibitors of ECM synthesis and fibrosis-associated decreases in miR-29 have been reported in multiple organs. We observed downregulation of miR-29a/b/c in fibrotic livers of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated mice as well as in isolated human hepatocytes exposed to the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β. Importantly, we demonstrate that a single systemic injection of a miR-29a expressing adeno-associated virus (AAV) can prevent and even reverse histologic and biochemical evidence of fibrosis despite continued exposure to CCl4. The observed therapeutic benefits were associated with AAV transduction of hepatocytes but not hepatic stellate cells, which are the main ECM producing cells in fibroproliferative liver diseases. Our data therefore demonstrate that delivery of mir-29 to the hepatic parenchyma using a clinically relevant gene delivery platform protects injured livers against fibrosis and, given the consistent fibrosis-associated downregulation of miR-29, suggests AAV-miR-29 based therapies may be effective in treating a variety of fibroproliferative disorders. The Taqman MicroRNA Array (Taqman Array Rodent MicroRNA A Cards v2.0, ABI) was run, using manufacturer's protocols, on 3 groups of mice with varying amounts fibrotic injury. The groups include carbon tetrachloride intraperitinially injected bi-weekly for 1, 4, and 8 weeks with n=4, 3, and 2 respectively for each group. The RNA was isolated from whole liver using the MiRvana miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion) according to manufacturer's protocols. The fold_change.txt contains the following data columns; ID_Ref: mmu-miR being quantified not-treated (FC): Fold Change compared to not-treated group using Geometric mean normalization 1 week (FC): Fold Change compared to not-treated group using Geometric mean normalization 4 weeks (FC): Fold Change compared to not-treated group using Geometric mean normalization 8 weeks (FC): Fold Change compared to not-treated group using Geometric mean normalization
Project description:To investigate the differences in microRNA expression profiles between fibrotic and normal livers, we performed microRNA microarrays for total RNA extracts isolated from mouse livers treated with carbontetrachloride (CCl4) or corn-oil for 10 weeks (n=3/group). MicroRNAs were considered to have significant differences in expression level when the expression difference showed more than two-fold change between the experimental and control groups at p<0.05. We found that 12 miRNAs were differentially expressed in CCl4-induced fibrotic liver. To induce chronic liver fibrosis, seven-week-old mice received 0.6 ml/kg body weight of carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4) dissolved in corn-oil by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, twice a week for 10 weeks (n=3). As a control, same number of mice was injected with equal volume of corn-oil for 10 weeks.
Project description:To study the ontogeny of pharmacological relevant genes, such as, drug targets, transporters and metabolic enzymes, six wild-type C57BL/6JCrl female mice were sacrified at ten different age points, in order to capture potential transcriptomic switches as the mice progresses from newborn to infant, from infant to teenager, from teenager to adult, and finally from adult to old-adult (P1 - 1 day old; 1W - 1 week old; 2W - 2 weeks old; 3W - 3 weeks old; 1M - 1 month old; 2M - 2 months old; 3M - 3 months old; 6M - 6 months old; 1Y - 1 year old; and 2Y - 2 years old). Liver, heart, kidney, lungs and brain were extracted from all 60 females in the study, and liver samples were processed for RNA extraction. Overall, 8.3% of pharmacological relevant genes changed their expression with age, of which 57% were metabolic enzymes, like Cyp2c29 and Fmo3, and 22% were transporters.
Project description:Pregnant mice were administered anti-miR specific to miR-29a-3p or scrambled control at embryonic day E17 and expression levels of miRNAs were assessed in offspring. Overall design: Impact of anti-miR-29a-3p on miRNA expression was investigated in liver homogenates of mouse pups (postnatal day 7) either directly injected by anti-miR-29a-3p (25mg/kg, via i.p. route) on postnatal day 1, or born to dams previously injected by anti-miR-29a-3p (100mg/kg; via i.v. route) on gestational day 17.
Project description:The interplay between the inflammatory infiltrate and tissue resident cell populations (e.g. epithelial cells, fibroblasts and macrophages) invokes fibrogenesis. However, the temporal and mechanistic contributions of these cell populations to fibrosis remain poorly defined. To address this issue, liver inflammation, ductular reaction (DR) and fibrosis were induced in C57BL/6 mice by thioacetamide (TAA) administration for up to 12 weeks. TAA treatment induced two phases of liver fibrosis. A rapid peri-central inflammatory infiltrate enriched in F4/80+ monocytes co-localized with SMA+ myofibroblasts resulted in early collagen deposition, marking the start of an initial fibrotic phase (1-6 weeks). An expansion of bone marrow derived macrophages proceeded a second phase, characterized by accelerated progression of fibrosis (> 6 weeks) followed the migration of the DR from the portal tracts to the centrilobular site of injury, in association an increase in DR/macrophage interactions. Although CCL2 mRNA was rapidly induced in response to TAA, CCL2 deficiency only partially abrogated fibrosis. In contrast, CSF-1R blockade diminished CCR2neg (Ly6Clo) monocytes, attenuated the DR and significantly reduced fibrosis, illustrating the critical role of CSF-1 dependent monocyte/macrophage differentiation and linking the two phases of injury. We demonstrate that in response to liver injury, CSF-1 drives early monocyte mediated myofibroblast activation and collagen deposition, subsequent macrophage differentiation and their association with the advancing DR, the formation of fibrotic septa and the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis. Overall design: Single colour, Illumina MouseRef-8 v2.0 Beadarrays.
Project description:Background and aims: We aimed to study the pathogenesis of AH in an animal model of acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver disease which combines chronic hepatic fibrosis with intragastric alcohol administration. Methods: Adult male C57BL6/J mice were treated with CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg, 2×weekly by intraperitoneal injections for 6 weeks) to induce chronic liver fibrosis. Then, ethyl alcohol (EtOH) (up to 25 g/kg/day, for 3 weeks) was administered continuously to mice via a gastric feeding tube, with or without one-half dose of CCl4. Liver and serum markers were evaluated to characterize acute-on-chronic-alcoholic liver disease in our model. Results: CCl4 or EtOH treatment alone induced liver fibrosis or steatohepatitis, respectively, findings that were consistent with expected pathology. Combined treatment with CCl4 and EtOH resulted in a marked exacerbation of liver injury, as evident by the development of hepatic inflammation, marked steatosis, and pericellular fibrosis, and by increased serum transaminase levels, compared to mice treated with either treatment alone. Liver transcriptomic changes specific to combined treatment group demonstrated close concordance with pathways perturbed in human severe cases of AH. In addition to gene expression changes, E. coli and Candida species were also significantly more abundant in livers of mice co-treated with CCl4 and EtOH. Conclusions: Mice treated with CCl4 and EtOH displayed several key characteristics of human AH, including pericellular fibrosis, increased hepatic bacterial load, and dysregulation of the same molecular pathways. This model may be useful for developing therapeutics for AH. Overall design: Animal model of acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver injury
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in various biological processes; however, few have been identified that regulate hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and the progression of liver fibrosis. Through a detailed analysis of the expression of lncRNAs in various tissues, we discovered the existence of a liver enriched lncRNA-LFAR1 (lncRNA-Liver Fibrosis Associated RNA1). To identify the roles of lncRNA-LFAR1 in liver fiboris, we systematically analyzed the regulation of mRNAs in the livers of mice treated with oil in combination with injection of Lenti-NC (NC, n=3), CCl4 in combination with injection of Lenti-NC (NC+CCl4, n=3), oil in combination with injection of Lenti-shLFAR1 (shLFAR1, n=3) and CCl4 in combination with injection of Lenti-shLFAR1 (shLFAR1+CCl4, n=3) by mRNA microarrays, which revealed a panel of mRNAs that were specifically regulated by lncRNA-LFAR1 in livers of mice undergoing hepatic fibrosis. To identify the roles of lncRNAs-LFAR1 in regulating liver fiboris and the potential targets of lncRNA-LFAR1 in liver fiboris,we determined the mRNA expression profiles in the livers of Balb/c mice treated with oil in combination with injection of Lenti-NC (NC, n=3), CCl4 in combination with injection of Lenti-NC (NC+CCl4, n=3), oil in combination with injection of Lenti-shLFAR1 (shLFAR1, n=3) and CCl4 in combination with injection of Lenti-shLFAR1 (shLFAR1+CCl4, n=3) by mRNA microarrays. Overall design: The mRNA expression profile of twelve liver tissues from mice were treated with oil in combination with injection of Lenti-NC (NC, n=3), CCl4 in combination with injection of Lenti-NC (NC+CCl4, n=3), oil in combination with injection of Lenti-shLFAR1 (shLFAR1, n=3) and CCl4 in combination with injection of Lenti-shLFAR1 (shLFAR1+CCl4, n=3) were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip® Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array.
Project description:Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) experience phenotypic transformation, from the quiescent phenotype to the activated one, after different etiologies of liver injury. Liver fibrosis is then occurred upon the activation of HSCs. miR-16 deficiency is identified to be an important characteristic of HSCs activation. We used Affymetrix rat 230 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, U.S.A.) to uncover the global alternations of transcriptome under miR-16 restoration. We isolated quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from adult male SD rats (normal control group) by in situ perfusion and density-gradient centrifugation. Activated HSCs were separated from rats of fibrosis model group, which were treated by 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 8 weeks, by means of liver section, digestion and sequential centrifugation. Quiescent and activated HSCs were then divided into 4 groups at random, namely quiescent HSCs, activated HSCs, pLV-miR-16-treated HSCs and pLV-GFP-treated HSCs. The pLV-miR-16-treated group, pLV-GFP-treated group were infected with pLV-miR-16 and pLV-GFP, respectively.
Project description:Environmental chemicals exposure are one of the primary factors for liver toxicity and hepatocarcinoma. Thioacetamide (TAA) is a well-known hepatotoxicant and could be a liver carcinogen in humans.The discovery of early and sensitive biomarkers in liver injury and tumor progression could improve cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and management. In the present study, we studied the dynamic changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) expression and explored the potential mechanistic role of miRNAs in rat liver treated with TAA at multiple doses and time points. Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with TAA at three doses [low (4.5 mg/kg), middle (15mg/kg) and high (45mg/kg)] and four repeated treatment durations (3-, 7-, 14- and 28-days). Expressions of miRNAs in livers were profiled using next generation sequencing and analyzed. Overall, 330 unique differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified in the entire TAA-treatment course. Of these, 129 DEMs were found significantly enriched for the “liver cancer” annotation. These results were further complemented by pathway analysis in which “Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer”, “p53-”, “TGF-β-”, “MAPK-” and “Wnt-signaling” were significantly enriched in most TAA-treatment conditions. Two miRNAs (rno-miR-34a-5p and rno-miR-455-3p) out of 48 DEMs (common across all the treatment conditions) were identified to be early and sensitive biomarkers for TAA-induced hepatocarcinogenicity. Upregulation of rno-miR-34a-5p was further confirmed by qPCR. These findings reveal the critical role of miRNAs in the mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis and potential application for human risk assessment. Most importantly, rno-miR-34a-5p is the most suitable early and sensitive biomarker for TAA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis due to its consistent elevation during the entire treatment course. Overall design: The animal study was conducted as described previously (Uehara 2011). Briefly, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were consecutively administered with TAA once daily at doses of 4.5 (low dose), 15 (middle dose), or 45 (high dose) mg/kg for 3, 7, 14, and 28 days (referred as 3-d, 7-d, 14-d and 28-d hereafter) with the time-matched control group receiving vehicle alone.