ABSTRACT: Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) is the first line of defense against viral infection. Mouse models have been pivotal to our understanding of IFN-α/β in immunity, although validation of these findings in humans has not been possible. We investigated a previously healthy child with fatal susceptibility to the live-attenuated measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. By targeted resequencing we identified a homozygous mutation in the high-affinity interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR2), which rendered cells unresponsive to IFN-α/β and led to unrestricted replication of IFN-attenuated viruses. Reconstitution of patient cells with wild-type IFNAR2 restored IFN-α/β responsiveness and viral resistance. Despite the failure to control vaccine viruses, the patient showed no evidence of susceptibility to conventional viral pathogens in vivo and adaptive immunity appeared normal. Human IFNAR2 deficiency therefore reveals an essential role for IFN-α/β in resistance to attenuated viruses, but significant and unexpected redundancy overall in antiviral immunity. Total RNA isolated from IFNAR2-deficient patient (in triplicate) and control (three independent control lines) fibroblasts treated with IFNalpha, IFNbeta or IFNgamma (1000 IU/mL) for 10h
Project description:This dataset details the time-dependent response of human Huh7 hepatoma cells to type I and type III IFN. Despite activating similar signaling cascades, the type I and type III interferons (IFNs) differ in their ability to antagonize viral replication. However, it is not clear whether these cytokines induce unique antiviral states, particularly in the liver, where the clinically important hepatitis B and C viruses cause persistent infection. Here, microarray-based gene expression analysis is combined with mechanistic studies of signaling pathways to dynamically characterize the transcriptional responses induced by these cytokines in Huh7 hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. Type I and III IFNs differed greatly in their level of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) induction with a clearly detectable hierarchy (IFN-β > IFN-α > IFN-λ3 > IFN-λ1 > IFN-λ2). This hierarchy resulted in widely varying numbers of differentially expressed genes when quantified using common statistical thresholds, even though individual IFNs did not appear to regulate unique sets of genes. The kinetic profiles of IFN-induced gene expression were also qualitatively similar with the important exception of IFN-α. While stimulation with either IFN-β or IFN-λs resulted in a similar long-lasting ISG induction, IFN-α signaling peaked early after stimulation then declined due to a negative feedback mechanism. The quantitative expression hierarchy and unique kinetics of IFN-α suggest different roles for individual IFNs in the immune response, and help explain previously observed differences in antiviral activity. Huh7 cells were seeded into 6-well plates at the density of 3x10^5 cells/well and cultured overnight before stimulation with either 500 U/ml of IFN-α or IFN-β, or 10 ng/ml of IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, or IFN-λ3. Total RNA was harvested and isolated at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-incubation using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) following the Affymetrix GeneChip protocol of the Keck Affymetrix Resource facility at Yale University. IFN incubation at each time point was performed in duplicate. All subsequent processing, hybridization to the Illumina HumanHT-12 microarray, and quality control analyses were carried out by the Yale Center for Genome Analysis using standard protocols.
Project description:Compared to primary human monocytes in whole blood cultures, few B cells activated STAT1 in response to stimulation of 2000 IU/ml IFN-beta for 45 minutes. Because activation of STAT1 leads to apoptosis induction, we tested the hypothesis that less pro-apoptotic genes are induced in B cells as compared to monocytes. Manuscript titled: Major differences in the responses of primary human leukocyte subsets to IFN-beta. Abstract: Treatment of cell lines with type I IFNs activates the formation of ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/ IRF9), which induces the expression of many genes. To study this response in primary cells, we treated fresh human blood with IFN-beta and used flow cytometry to analyze phosphorylated STATs1, 3 and 5 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and monocytes. The activation of STAT1 was remarkably different among these leukocyte subsets. In contrast to monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, few B cells activated STAT1 in response to IFN-beta, a finding that could not be explained by decreased levels of IFNAR2 or STAT1 or enhanced levels of SOCS1 or relevant protein tyrosine phosphatases in B cells. Micro-array and real-time PCR analyses revealed the induction of STAT1-dependent pro-apoptotic mRNAs in monocytes but not in B cells. These data show that ISGF3 or STAT1 homodimers are not the main activators of gene expression in primary B cells of healthy humans. Notably, in B cells and especially in CD4+ T cells, IFN-beta activated STAT5 in addition to STAT3, with biological effects often opposite from those driven by activated STAT1. These data help to explain why IFN-beta increases the survival of primary human B cells and CD4+ T cells, but enhances the apoptosis of monocytes, and also to understand how leukocyte subsets are differentially affected by endogenous type I IFNs during viral or bacterial infections, and by type I IFN treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis, hepatitis or cancer. Undiluted whole blood of 2 healthy individuals (HI) was used, and either stimulated with IFN-beta or left untreated (control) for 3 hrs. After 3 hrs, both B cells and monocytes were isolated from whole blood of the first healthy individual, and only B cells were isolated from whole blood of the second healthy individual.
Project description:Clinical applications of human interferon (IFN)-alpha have met with varying degrees of success. Nevertheless, key molecules in IFN-alpha-induced cell death have not been clearly identified. Our previous study indicated that IFN (alpha, beta and omega) receptor (IFNAR) 1/2- and IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 9-RNA interference (RNAi) completely inhibited the antiproliferative (AP) activity of IFN-alpha in human ovarian adenocarcinoma OVCAR3 cells sensitive to IFN-alpha., followed by transcription of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Here, IFNAR1/2- and IRF9-RNAi inhibited the gene expression of TRAIL, but not of Fas ligand (FasL), following IFN-alpha treatment. In fact, TRAIL but not FasL inhibited the proliferation of OVCAR3 cells. IFN-alpha notably up-regulated the levels of TRAIL protein in the supernatant and on the membrane of OVCAR3 cells. Following TRAIL signaling, Caspase 8 inhibitor and BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID)-RNAi significantly abrogated both AP activities of IFN-alpha and TRAIL. Furthermore, BID-RNAi prevented both IFN-alpha and TRAIL from collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m). Finally, we provide important new evidence that BID overexpression led to a major enhancement of both AP activities of IFN-alpha and TRAIL in human lung carcinoma A549 cells resistant to IFN-alpha. Thus, this study suggests that BID is crucial in IFN-alpha-induced cell death, indicating a notable potential to be a targeted therapy for IFN-alpha resistant tumors. Biological replicate samples were created by treating OVCAR3 cells with IFN-alpha2c (n=8); IFNAR1-RNAi and IFN-alpha2c (n=4); IFNAR2-RNAi and IFN-alpha2c (n=5); ISGF3gamma-RNAi and IFN-alpha2c (n=3); and Negative RNAi and IFN-alpha2c (n=3). For analysis, the eight IFN-alpha2c treated OVCAR3 samples were paired with an untreated OVCAR3 control sample. The 15 RNAi treated OVCAR3 samples were paired with a Negative RNAi control sample.
Project description:HPIV1 is an important respiratory pathogen in children and the most common cause of viral croup. We performed a microarray-based analysis of gene expression kinetics to examine how wild-type (wt) HPIV1 infection altered gene expression in human respiratory epithelial cells and what role IFN-beta played in this response. We similarly evaluated HPIV1-P(C-), a highly attenuated and apoptosis-inducing virus that does not express any of the four C proteins, and HPIV1-C(F170S), a less attenuated mutant that contains a single point mutation in C and, like wt HPIV1, does not efficiently induce apoptosis, to examine the role of the C proteins in controlling host gene expression. We also used this data to investigate whether the phenotypic differences between the two C mutants could be explained at the transcriptional level. Mutation or deletion of the C proteins of HPIV1 permitted the activation of over 2000 cellular genes that otherwise would be repressed by HPIV1 infection. Thus, the C proteins profoundly suppress the response of human respiratory cells to HPIV1 infection. Cellular pathways targeted by the HPIV1 C proteins were identified and their transcriptional control was analyzed using bioinformatics. Transcription factor binding sites for IRF and NF-kappaB were over-represented in some of the C protein targeted pathways, but other pathways were dominated by less known factors such as forkhead transcription factor FOXD1. Surprisingly, the host response to the C knockout and C(F170S) mutants was very similar, and thus the phenotypic differences between these two viruses could not be explained at the host cell transcriptional level. Keywords: Time course; response to viral infection; response to IFN-beta A549 cells were infected with wt HPIV1, C(F170S), or P(C-) in triplicate, and RNA was isolated at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. A549 cells were also treated with IFN-beta in triplicate, and RNA was isolated at 6 and 24 hours. Mock infection/treatment was performed in triplicate at each corresponding time point. Overall, 42 samples and microarrays were analyzed.
Project description:The identification of molecules for apoptotic cells (AC) uptake by dendritic cells (DCs) and induction of T cell immunity is a major challenge in immunology.<br>DCs generated from monocytes in the presence of IFN-alpha (IFN-alpha-DCs) are competent in taking up ACs and inducing a strong T cell immunity. Capture of allogenetic apoptotic lymphocytes (APO-allo-PBLs) was associated with subcellular rearrangements of MHC class I/II molecules, subsequent cross-priming of auologous CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cell activation. All these events were inhibited by the Scavenger Receptor (SR) LOX-1 protein, whose expression was up-regulated in IFN-alpha DCs. The results unravel a novel natural IFN-alpha-mediated pathway by which a defined SR molecule regulates AC uptake by DCs and subsequent induction of T cell immunity.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes both acute and chronic liver inflammation. Approximately 600,000 CHB patients each year die of HBV-related diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Therefore, CHB remains a global health concern. Although there have been anti-HBV agents for treating CHB, they have some limitations including viral-drug resistance and adverse effects. Type III IFN or IFN-λ is promising to use as anti-HBV agents because of its anti-viral activities like type I IFNs. In addition, the expression of its receptor, IFNLR1, is limited only in epithelial cells including hepatocytes. Thus, treatment with IFN-lambda results in less side effects compared to IFN-alpha treatment. IFN-lambdas have been shown to inhibit the replication of several viruses including IAV, DENV, EMCV, HIV, HCV, and HBV; however, there have been no studies on the effects of IFN-λ3, the highest activity among other subtypes, on HBV replication. Therefore, this study aims to determine antiviral activities of IFN-λ3 against HBV replication and to investigate its molecular mechanism responsible for suppressing HBV propagation. The results showed that HBV transcripts and amount of intracellular HBV DNA were decreased in HepG2.2.15 cells, stable HBV-transfected hepatoblastoma cell line, treated with IFN-λ3 in a dose-dependent manner. This indicated that IFN-λ3 could inhibit HBV replication. Next, we performed quantitative proteomics to investigate the proteome changes in HepG2.2.15 treated with IFN-λ3. The proteins that changed their expressions were involved in several biological processes such as defense to viral infection, immune responses, cell-cell adhesion, transcription, translation, and metabolism. We further confirmed the proteomics results by immunoblotting assay. Consistent with MS data, it found that the expression of OAS3, SAMHD1 and STAT1 were increased as a result of IFN-λ3 stimulation. These results indicated that proteomics results were reproducible and reliable. Finally, we proposed 3 possible mechanisms involved in suppressing HBV replication including i.) IFN-λ3 induced anti-viral proteins affecting many steps in HBV life cycle ii.) IFN-λ3 promoted antigen processing and antigen presentation and iii.) IFN-λ3 rescued RIG-I signaling to promote both type I and type III IFN production.
Project description:Interferon (IFN)-alpha causes high rates of depression and fatigue, and is used to investigate the impact of innate immune cytokines on brain and behavior. However, little is known about transcriptional profiles of circulating immune cells during chronic IFN-alpha administration. Accordingly, genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus either awaiting IFN-alpha therapy (n=10) or after 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment (n=11). Significance analysis of microarray data identified 252 up-regulated gene transcripts, the majority of which were related to IFN-alpha/antiviral or innate-immune/inflammatory signaling. Of these upregulated genes, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2) was the only gene that was differentially expressed in patients that developed IFN-alpha-induced depression/fatigue, and correlated with depression and fatigue scores at 12 weeks of IFN-alpha administration. Promoter-based bioinformatic and cellular origin analyses revealed IFN-alpha-induced increases in genes bearing transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) related to myeloid differentiation, IFN-alpha signaling, API and CREB/ATF family of transcription pathways, with changes derived primarily from monocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Patients with high depression/fatigue scores demonstrated up-regulation of genes bearing TFBMs for myeloid differentiation, IFN-alpha and AP1 signaling, and down regulation of TFBMs for CREB/ATF-related transcription factors. Cellular origin analyses indicated a shift toward genes derived from CD8+T and NK cells in subjects with high depression/fatigue scores. These results reveal an antiviral and inflammatory transcriptional profile after 12 weeks IFN-alpha, accompanied by increased OAS2 expression, decreased CREB/ATF transcriptional control, and a shift from monocyte-derived genes to those of cytotoxic lymphocytes in IFN-alpha-induced depression/fatigue. Total RNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained at 12 weeks from HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin (n=11) and untreated HCV patients awaiting IFN-alpha/ribavirin therapy (control subjects, n=10).
Project description:Type I interferon (IFN-I) signals through two receptor subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, to regulate sterile and infectious immunity. IFNAR1 expression is tightly regulated to prevent autoimmunity although the mechanisms governing this are incompletely understood. We investigated the strategies used by two flaviviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, to antagonize IFN-I signaling. Infection with these viruses resulted in depletion of IFNAR1 associated with the function of the viral IFN-I antagonist, NS5. NS5 function was dependent on its ability to associate with prolidase (PEPD), a cellular dipeptidase. PEPD was required for IFNAR1 maturation and accumulation, as well as gene induction following IFNAR1 stimulation. The relevance of PEPD to human biology was confirmed in fibroblasts derived from patients with genetic prolidase deficiency that expressed low IFNAR1 and exhibited reduced responses to IFNAR1. Thus, by understanding flavivirus IFN-I antagonism, PEPD is revealed as a central regulator of IFN-I responses in humans. RNA was isolated from replicates of 4 cultured dermal fibroblast lines derived from patients with genetic prolidase deficiency (PEPD), as well as from 4 cultured dermal fibroblast lines derived from normal healthy donors. These were run on Agilent microarrays to compare differences in gene expression observed in PEPD fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts.
Project description:Robust type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for anti-viral immunity. Here we demonstrated a role for the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in regulating interferon production by pDCs. Inhibition of mTOR or the ‘downstream’ mediators of mTOR p70S6K1,2 kinases during pDC activation via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) blocked the interaction of TLR9 with the adaptor MyD88 and the subsequent activation of interferon response factor 7 (IRF7), resulting in impaired IFN-alpha production. Microarray analysis confirmed that inhibition of mTOR by the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin suppressed anti-viral and anti-inflammatory gene expression. Consistent with this, targeting rapamycin-encapsulated microparticles to antigen-presenting cells in vivo resulted in a diminution of IFN-alpha production in response to CpG DNA or the yellow fever vaccine virus strain 17D. Thus, mTOR signaling plays a critical role in TLR-mediated IFN-alpha responses by pDCs. CpGA is a TLR9 agonist. pDCs were isolated from mouse spleen or human PBMC. The effect of rapamycin on pDCs IFN-alpha production as induced by TLR ligands was studied. The mechanism of rapamycin effect was dissected in RAW cell line.
Project description:Robust type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for anti-viral immunity. Here we demonstrated a role for the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in regulating interferon production by pDCs. Inhibition of mTOR or the ‘downstream’ mediators of mTOR p70S6K1,2 kinases during pDC activation via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) blocked the interaction of TLR9 with the adaptor MyD88 and the subsequent activation of interferon response factor 7 (IRF7), resulting in impaired IFN-alpha production. Microarray analysis confirmed that inhibition of mTOR by the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin suppressed anti-viral and anti-inflammatory gene expression. Consistent with this, targeting rapamycin-encapsulated microparticles to antigen-presenting cells in vivo resulted in a diminution of IFN-alpha production in response to CpG DNA or the yellow fever vaccine virus strain 17D. Thus, mTOR signaling plays a critical role in TLR-mediated IFN-alpha responses by pDCs. CpGA is a TLR9 agonist. Overall design: pDCs were isolated from mouse spleen or human PBMC. The effect of rapamycin on pDCs IFN-alpha production as induced by TLR ligands was studied. The mechanism of rapamycin effect was dissected in RAW cell line.