Smyd3 is a transcriptional potentiator of multiple cancer-promoting genes and required for liver or colon cancer development
ABSTRACT: Smyd3 is a histone methyltransferase implicated in tumorigenesis. Here we show that Smyd3 expression in mice is required but not sufficient for chemically induced liver and colon cancer formation. In these organs Smyd3 is functioning in the nucleus as a direct transcriptional activator of several key genes involved in cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, JAK/Stat3 oncogenic pathways, as well as of the c-myc and b-catenin oncogenes. Smyd3 specifically interacts with H3K4Me3-modified histone tails and is recruited to the core promoter regions of many but not all active genes. Smyd3 binding density on target genes positively correlates with increased RNA Pol-II density and transcriptional outputs. The results suggest that Smyd3 is an essential transcriptional potentiator of a multitude of cancer-related genes. Standard Smyd3-deficient (Smyd3-KO) mice were generated using gene-trap ES cell clones (AS0527 from International Gene Trap Consortium), in which a selection cassette, containing the splice acceptor site from mouse EN2 exon 2 followed by the beta-galactosidase and neomycin resistance gene fusion gene and the SV40 polyadenylation sequence was inserted into the 5th intron of the Smyd3 gene. The resulting mice were devoid of Smyd3 mRNA and protein in all tissues, including liver and colon. For the generation of Smyd3-Tg mice the open reading frame of the mouse Smyd3 cDNA, which contained 3 Flag epitopes at the 3’ end was inserted into the StuI site of the pTTR1-ExV3 plasmid (Yan et al, 1990). The 6.8 kb HindIII fragment containing the mouse transthyretin enhancer/promoter, intron 1, Smyd3 cDNA, three Flag epitopes and SV40 poly-A site was used to microinject C57Bl/6 fertilized oocytes. Founder animals were identified by Southern blotting and crossed with F1 mice to generate lines. Specific overexpression in the liver was tested by RT-PCR analysis in different tissues.
Project description:PR-SET7-mediated histone-4 lysine-20 methylation has been implicated in mitotic condensation, DNA damage response and replication licencing. Here we show that PR-SET7 function in the liver is pivotal for maintaining genome integrity. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of PR-SET7 in mouse embryos resulted in G2 arrest followed by massive cell death and defect in liver organogenesis. Inactivation at postnatal stages caused cell duplication-dependent hepatocyte necrosis with unusual features of autophagy, termed "endonucleosis". Necrotic death was accompanied by inflammation, fibrosis and compensatory growth induction of neighboring hepatocytes and resident ductal progenitor cells. Prolonged necrotic-regenerative cycles coupled with oncogenic STAT3 activation replaced pre-existing hepatocytes with hepatocellular carcinoma derived entirely from ductal progenitor cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma in these mice displays a cancer stem cell gene signature specified by the co-expression of ductal progenitor markers and oncofetal genes. Mice carrying hepatocyte specific inactivation of PR-SET7 were generated in order to investigate the function of PR-SET7 histone methyl transferase in liver organogenesis, hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. P15 WT mice were injected intra-peritoneally (ip) with 25ml per kg DEN (diethyl nitrosamine). Mice were examined for RNA expression at 8 months old.
Project description:Subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), defined by effector function and transcription factor expression, have recently been identified. In the adult, ILC derive from common lymphoid progenitors in bone marrow, although transcriptional regulation of the developmental pathways involved remains poorly defined. TOX is required for development of lymphoid tissue inducer cells, a type of ILC3 required for lymph node organogenesis, and NK cells, a type of ILC1. We show here that production of multiple ILC lineages requires TOX, as a result of TOX-dependent development of common ILC progenitors. Comparative transcriptome analysis demonstrated failure to induce various aspects of the ILC gene program in the absence of TOX, implicating this nuclear factor as a key early determinant of ILC lineage specification. TOX KO vs. wild tyype
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) accomplish a remarkable variety of biological functions. Their expression is tightly controlled, and the final production of a miRNA is dependent on the cooperation of multiple mechanisms and their net effect. Here we show that miR-124-1 is transcriptionally activated during erythroid differentiation by GATA-1, however its post-transcriptional processing is attenuated. We found that QKI5 binds to a distal QKI response element (QRE) embedded in the primary transcript of miR-124-1 (pri-124-1) and modulates Microprocessor function by direct association with DGCR8. Strikingly, Microprocessor recruitment to pri-124-1 is disrupted upon RNAi-mediated depletion of QKI5, consistent with the decrease in mature miR-124. Moreover, addition of QKI5 increases the conversion efficiency of pri-124-1 in cell-free extracts. For erythropoiesis, the decreased QKI5 leads to attenuated Microprocessor-mediated processing of pri-124-1, which confers the exquisite miRNA abundance necessary for development. This regulation also gives rise to a unique miRNA signature required for normal erythropoiesis. Thus, this QKI5-regulated miRNA processing may represent a common paradigm for erythroid development, and specifically, it may serve as a post-transcriptional fault security to prevent misexpression of certain miRNAs, that is essential for the establishment of particular gene expression patterns during development. Two samples are analyzed: K562 cells transduced with GFP lentivirus; and K562 cells transduced with QKI5-overexpressing lentivirus.
Project description:Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is formed by heterogeneous ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. The patho-mechanism of OPLL is still largely unknown. Recently, disorders of metabolism are thought to be the center of many diseases such as OPLL. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) are accumulated in many extracellular matrixes such as ligament fibers, and it can functions as cellular signal through its receptor (RAGE), contributing to various events such as atherosclerosis or oxidative stress. However, its role in OPLL formation is not yet known. Therefore, we performed high-through-put RNA sequencing on primary posterior longitudinal ligament cells treated with different doses of AGEs (1µM, 5µM and negative control), with or without BMP2 (1µM). mRNA profiles of Primary human posterior longitudinal ligament cells stimulated with various stimuli (Control, 1µM AGE-BSA, 5µM AGE-BSA, 1µM AGE-BSA with BMP2, 5µM AGE-BSA with BMP2) were generated by deep sequencing on Ion Proton
Project description:Estrogens receptor a (ERα) is essential for breast tumors,since about seventy percent of breast cancers are detected as ERα positive.Recent studies suggest that ERα is related with the epithelial cell morphology. Recently, it has demonstrated that the suppression of ERα induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the MCF-7 breast cacner cells. Interestingly, the loss of ERa resulted in strong differences on the gene expression profile of a variety of genes. Therefore, the aim of the RNA-seq is to elucidate the effect of the silencing of ERα on the mRNA levels of a larger variety of genes, thus revealing possible target genes which may be implicated on the aggressive phenotype and behavior of the ERα-suppresed MCF-7/SP10+ breast cancer cells. For this reason total RNA from both MCF-7/SP10+ cells and of their internal control MCF-7/C cells was extracted in 3 biological replicates and 3 technical replicates.
Project description:Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is formed by heterogeneous ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. The patho-mechanism of OPLL is still largely unknown. MicroRNAs are small nucleatides that function as regulators of gene expression in almost any biological process. However, few microRNAs are reported to have a role in the pathological process of OPLL. Therefore, we performed high-throughput microRNA sequencing and transcriptome sequencing of primary OPLL and PLL cells in order to decipher the interacting network of microRNAs in OPLL. MRNA and microRNA profiles were done using primary culture cells of human ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) tissue and normal posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) tissue.
Project description:TGFB2-AS1 is a long non-coding RNA which is induced by ΤGFβ signaling. In order to assess the importance of TGFB2-AS1 on the regulation of gene expression, we performed an AmpliSeq transcriptomic array in human keratinocytes (HaCaT), which stably over-express TGFB2-AS1 or control pcDNA3 empty vector. In addition, cells were stimulated with TGFβ1 for 24 hours, in order to observe the effects of TGFB2-AS1 on gene expression, downstream of TGFβ signaling. RNA from the following four conditions was used in this experiment: 1) pcDNA3, 2) pcDNA3+TGFβ1, 3) pcDNA3-TGFB2-AS1, 4) pcDNA3-TGFB2-AS1+TGFβ1. Biological triplicates were used per condition.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently characterized players that are involved in the regulatory circuitry of self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, the specific roles of lncRNAs in this circuitry are poorly understood. Here, we determined that growth-arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5), which is a known tumor suppressor and growth arrest gene, is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of hESCs and essential for hESC self-renewal. GAS5 depletion in hESCs significantly impaired their pluripotency and self-renewal ability, whereas GAS5 overexpression in hESCs accelerated the cell cycle, enhanced their colony formation ability and increased pluripotency marker expression. By RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we determined that GAS5 activates NODAL-SMAD2/3 signaling by sustaining the expression of NODAL, which plays a key role in hESC self-renewal but not in somatic cell growth. Further studies indicated that GAS5 functions as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to protect NODAL mRNA against degradation and that GAS5 transcription is directly controlled by the core pluripotency transcriptional factors (TFs). Taken together, we suggest that the core TFs, GAS5 and NODAL-SMAD2/3 form a feed-forward loop to maintain the hESC self-renewal process. These findings are specific to ESCs and did not occur in the somatic cell lines we tested; therefore, our findings also provide evidence that the functions of lncRNAs vary in different biological contexts. We analyzed long non-coding RNAs in two hESC cell lines (X-01 and H1), and found GAS5 is highly expressed and functional in maintaining hESC self-renewal. We generate stable overexpressed or knockdown hESC cell lines using lentiviral approach. We transfected cells initialy after passage, and lentiviruses are added with daily medium change for three days (at a final concentration of 10^5 IU/ml). Puromycin is added for selection and supplied with daily medium change. Stable cell lines are established after two passages and verified under fluorescence scope. Total RNAs and miRNAs are extracted separately of all three cell lines (LV-NC, LV-GAS5 and LV-shGAS5) and put to sequencing.
Project description:In this study, RNA-Seq was used to reveal the differences of molecular pathways in hepatopancreas of O. niloticus adapated to water with salinity of 8 or 16 practical salinity (psu), respectively, with fish at freshwater as the control,. Significantly changed pathways were mainly related to lipid metabolism, glucose utilization, protein consumption, osmotic regulation, signal transduction and immunology. Based on the tendencies from freshwater to 8 or 16 psu, the differentially expressed gene unions were categorized into eight unique models, which were further classified into three categories which were constant-change (either keep increasing or decreasing), change-then-stable and stable-then-change. In constant-change category, steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, fat digestion and absorption, complement and coagulation cascades were extremely significantly affected by ambient salinity (P < 0.01), indicating that these pathways play pivotal roles in molecular response to salinity acclimation from freshwater to saline water in O. niloticus, and should be the main research focus in the future. In change-then-stable category, ribosome, oxidative phosphorylation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway, fat digestion and absorption changed significantly with ambient increasing salinity (P < 0.01), showing these pathways were sensitive to environmental salinity variation, but had a response threshold, and would stop changing once salinity exceeds the threshold. In stable-then-change category, protein export, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, tight junction, thyroid hormone synthesis, antigen processing and presentation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - keratan sulfate were the top changed pathways (P < 0.01), suggesting that these pathways were not sensitive to salinity variation, but these pathways will respond significantly under salinity exceeding a certain level. The pathways and genes reported in this study laid on a solid foundation for future studies in understanding the underlying mechanism for salinity adaptation of freshwater fish. Examination of 3 different salinities treated hepatopancreas in Nile tilapia
Project description:We report the gene expression profiles by NGFR knockdown in H460 and H1299 cell lines and reveal that NGFR ablation activates p53 target gene expression. We examined gene expression in two different non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, one with wild-type p53 and the other without p53.