Nur77-deficiency in bone marrow-derived macrophages modulates inflammatory responses, extracellular matrix homeostasis, phagocytosis and tolerance
ABSTRACT: The nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 (NR4A1, TR3, or NGFI-B) has been shown to exhibit an anti-inflammatory function in macrophages. To further elucidate the role of Nur77 in macrophage physiology, we compared the transcriptome of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) from wild-type (WT) and Nur77-knockout (KO) mice both before and after stimulation with IL4 or LPS. Comparison of gene expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages, isolated from 3 wild-type (control) and 3 Nur77-/- mice (case), left untreated or stimulated in triplicate for 8 hours with LPS or IL-4
Project description:Nur77 is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is expressed in various types of cells and mediates diverse biological processes. The knock out Nur77 has a mutation in exon 2. Ligands of the nuclear receptor are unknown. Keywords: Dual colour hybridisation on cDNA microarrays, Nur77, Knock out Overall design: DNA chip technology has been exploited for RNA expression profiling analysis. Close to genome-wide microarrays were used for identification of changes in gene expression levels in lung, heart, spleen, testis, skeleton muscle, brown adipose tissue of Nur77-/- mice. 7 pooled mutant mice were hybridised in repetitions against a pool of 7 reference mice (Nur77+/+). In total 24 chip hybridisations were performed including 50% dye swap experiments.
Project description:The aim was to study the effects of Nur77 on the white adipose tissue transcriptome after fasting. For this purpose we performed gene expression profiling of white adipose tissue from Nur77-/- mice and wildtype (Nur77+/+) littermates submitted to prolonged fasting using microarray analysis on >27k elements cDNA microarrays.
Project description:We isolated total RNA from gastrocnemius muscle of wildtype and muscle-specific Nur77 overexpressing transgenic mice to identify Nur77-mediated changes in gene expression. Findings confirmed changes in genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and muscle development. 2 replicate Illumina Single Color Mouse WG-6_V2_0 chips were used. 6 wildtype and 6 transgenic mice overexpressing Nur77 in skeletal muscle were used. RNA was isolated by Trizol and further purified through RNEasy column. RNA from 2 mice were pooled, for a total of 6 samples -- 3 wildtype and 3 transgenic. The same samples were split into two technical replicate chips. Each chip contains 3 wildtype and 3 transgenic samples.
Project description:These microarrays were performed for use in a genome-wide scan for LPS-regulated genes in mouse macrophages, in order to construct a list of LPS-regulated genes for detailed interrogation on custom microarrays (see GSE19490 for custom array analysis). Mouse macrophages (bone marrow-derived macrophages, BMM) were stimulated with the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide, over a time course (0, 0.5, 2, 6, 24h) and analysed in biological duplicate by commercial Illumina microarray.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to identify novel markers for the type II activated macrophage, which is generated by classical stimulation in the presence if IgG immune complexes. These cells gererally produce high levels of IL-10 and low levels of IL-12, in comparison to classically activated macrophages. We wish to identify gene expression which is enriched in Type II activated macrophages in comparison to classically activated macrophages. Experiment Overall Design: The design of this experiment is to simulateously stimulate two popultions of macrophages and compare their gene expression. In this case, macrophages are primed overnight with IFN-gamma, washed, then stimulated with LPS (Classically) or LPS+Immune complexes (Type II).
Project description:Evolutionary change in gene expression is generally considered to be a major driver of phenotypic differences between species. We investigated innate immune diversification by analyzing inter-species differences in the transcriptional responses of primary human and mouse macrophages to the TLR4 agonist, LPS. Using a custom platform permitting cross-species interrogation coupled with deep sequencing of mRNA 5’ ends, we identified extensive divergence in LPS-regulated orthologous gene expression between humans and mice (24% of orthologs, http://www.macgate.qfab.org). Divergently regulated (DR) orthologs were enriched for genes encoding cellular “inputs” such as cell surface receptors (e.g. TLR6, IL-7Rα), and functional “outputs” such as inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (e.g. CCL20, CXCL13). Conversely, intracellular signaling components linking inputs to outputs were typically concordantly regulated. DR genes were associated with a large dynamic range of gene expression, and specific promoter architectural features (TATA box enrichment, CpG island depletion). Surprisingly, regulatory divergence was also associated with enhanced inter-species promoter conservation. Thus, the genes controlled by complex, highly conserved promoters that facilitate dynamic regulation are also the most susceptible to evolutionary change. Mouse macrophages (bone marrow-derived macrophages, BMM and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, TEPM) were stimulated with the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide, over a time course (0, 2, 6, 24h) and analysed in biological triplicate on a custom-designed, focused microarray.
Project description:NR4A1 (Nur77, TR3) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and tumors and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity. Knockdown of NR4A1 by RNA interference (siNR4A1) in Panc1 cells and analysis of the proteome resulted in induction of several markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress including glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3) and AFT-6. These effects were accompanied by induction of apoptosis and similar results were observed after treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the known inactivator of NR4A1, 1,1-bis(3’-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH). Both siNR4A1 (transfected) and DIM-C-pPhOH also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of ROS and ER stress by these agents was attenuated after cotreatment with antioxidants. Transfection of Panc1 cells with siNR4A1 follow by analysis of gene expression by arrays identified ROS metabolism genes regulated by NR4A1. Knockdown of one of these genes, thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5) also resulted in induction of ROS and ER stress demonstrating that NR4A1 regulates levels of ER stress and ROS in pancreatic cancer cells to facilitate cell proliferation and survival. Inactivation of this receptor by siNR4A1 or DIM-C-pPhOH decreases TXNDC5 resulting in activation of ROS/ER stress and pro-apoptotic pathways and represents a novel pathway for inducing cell death in pancreatic cancer cells. Two groups of samples are included: 1. siControl; 2. siNR4A1 treatment in PAC1 cell. Transfection of Panc1 cells with siNR4A1 follow by analysis of gene expression by arrays identified ROS metabolism genes regulated by NR4A1.
Project description:We report the genome-wide binding patterns of nuclear FGFR1, RXRα and Nur77 in pluripotenet mESC and as mESC differentiate towared a neuronal lineage in response to high levels of Retinoic Acid treatment in vitro. We also report the genome-wide incorporation of histone varant H3.3 into chromatin specifically during Retinoic Acid-induced differentiation. This study presents nuclear FGFR1 as a global factor that controls genomic function by binding within the promoters of thousands of genes, both alone and in cooperation with RXR, Nur77 and histone H3.3, by targeting consensus DNA sequences of diverse transcription factor families. As such, it identifies a previously unknown, multifaceted form of control of major ontogenic pathways and gene networks targeted by the nuclear form of FGFR1. Examination of nuclear FGFR1, RXRα, and Nur77 binding sites in 2 celluar states. Examination of H3.3 incorporation in 1 cellular state.
Project description:Interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin (IL)-4 are central regulators of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses, respectively. Both cytokines have a major impact on macrophage phenotypes: IFNγ–priming and subsequent TLR4 activation induces so called classically activated macrophages that are characterized by pronounced pro-inflammatory responses, whereas IL-4–treated macrophages, commonly called alternatively activated, are known to develop enhanced capacity for endocytosis, antigen presentation, and tissue repair and are generally considered anti-inflammatory. Considering IL-4 as priming rather than activating stimulus, we now compared the TLR4–dependent global gene activation program in IFNγ– versus IL-4–pretreated mouse macrophages, which has rarely been studied so far. Although both cytokines frequently induced opposing effects on gene transcription, the subsequent activation of bone marrow-derived macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced a strong, priming dependent pro-inflammatory response in both macrophage types. For example, the production of key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 was significantly higher in IL-4– versus IFNγ–primed macrophages and several cytokine genes, including Il19, Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl24 and Cxcl5, were preferentially induced in alternatively primed and LPS activated mouse macrophages. In a subset of genes, including IL12a, IFNγ priming was actually found to suppress LPS–induced gene expression in a Stat1–dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-4–priming is not per se anti-inflammatory but generates a macrophage that is “tissue protective” but still capable of mounting a strong inflammatory response after TLR4–dependent activation. Keywords: Gene expression profiling Gene expression was investigated in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM). On day 7, BMM were stimulated with either IL-4 or IFNγ overnight (18h in total). LPS treatment was performed in primed and unprimed macrophages 4 h prior to harvesting. At least three independent experiments were performed for each condition.
Project description:Expression profiles of GRdim mutant macrophages (mouse, bone-marrow derived) treated with LPS for 6 hrs or with LPS (6hrs) + Dex (O/N 1uM). Identification of GR-regulated genes in response to LPS. 3 Grdim mutant macrophages samples treated with LPS (6hrs) and 3 Grdim mutant macrophage samples treated with LPS (6hrs) and Dex (overnight).